Beginning Year:       Ending Year:      
1918
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
In the U.S. Congressional elections, Republicans win a majority of 43 seats.
Politics
T.G. Masaryk (1850-1937) is elected president of Czechoslovakia .
Politics
Eugene V. Debs (1855-1926), American socialist and presidential candidate, is sentenced to 10 years in prison for violating espionage and sedition laws (sentence is commuted in 1921).
Government
Iceland becomes sovereign state.
Government
Serbo-Croatian-Slovene Kingdom of Yugoslavia proclaimed.
Government
Stamps: U.S. Airmail stamps go on sale for 24 cents. The United States began airmail service on May 15, 1918. Special stamps were issued to indicate prepayment of mail carried on the first flights. The first route, flown by Army pilots in Army planes, linked Washington, DC and New York City via Philadelphia, PA. The rate was 24 cents an ounce. This rate included special delivery to the addressee.
War
Russian Revolution: Ex-Czar Nicholas II (1868-1918) and family executed.
War
World War I: mobilized forces: 63 million; casualties: approx. 8.5 million killed, 21 million wounded, 7.5 million prisoners and missing.
War
World War I: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) propounds Fourteen Points for world peace; Germany offensive on Western front; Czechoslovakia proclaimed independent republic; Allies sign armistice with Austria-Hungary on November 3; Allied conference at Versailles agrees on peace terms for Germany; Armistice signed between Allies and Germany.
Science
Nobel Prize for Physics: Max Planck (1858-1947), German physicist, for introducing quantum theory.
Science
Herbert M. Evans (1882-1971) determines that human beings have 48 chromosomes.
Medicine
Epidemics: An influenza epidemic, traveling west from Europe, begins in the eastern U.S. and spreads to 46 states. Before it ends in 1919, about 500,000 people die in the U.S. Throughout the world, 20 million people die and one billion are ill.
Inventions
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) invents a hydrofoil boat that goes 60 mph during a test run.
Technology
The Mount Wilson telescope is completed near Pasadena, California.
Education
Higher Educaton: A second Moscow University is founded (first university founded 1755).
Education
Mississippi passes school attendance laws for children between the ages of six and seventeen.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Willa Cather (1873-1947) writes “My Antonia”.
Arts and Letters
Essay: H.L. Mencken (1880-1956): “In Defense of Women”.
Arts and Letters
Painting: Joan Miro (1893-1983) first exhibits his works.
Arts and Letters
The New York Philharmonic Society bans composition by living German composers.
Arts and Letters
Opera: Paris Opera, despite daily bombardment, opens with Gounod’s (1818-1893) “Faust”.
Arts and Letters
Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague Coolidge (1864-1953) gives the first of her music festivals in Pittsfield, Massachusetts (Tanglewood).
Arts and Letters
Henry Adams (1851-1921) writes “The Education of Henry Adams,” which later wins the Pulitzer Prize.
Ideas
Charles Horton Cooley (1864-1929), pioneer in the development of American sociology, publishes “Social Process.”
Ideas
Oswald Spengler (1880-1936) writes “Untergang des Abendlandes” (“Decline of the West”) (-1922).
Ideas
There is major controversy over the new psychology of Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and C.G. Jung (1875-1961).
Economics
The Pittman Act is passed, permitting the government to sell silver to Britain as a wartime measure.
Economics
Railroad History: The first Diesel-electric locomotive to be built and sold commercially was Jay Street Connecting RR #4. G.E. slightly revised its standard steeple cab straight electric locomotive car body and installed a single GM50.
Discovery
Harlow Shapley (1885-1972), American astronomer, discovers the true dimensions of the Milky Way.
Discovery
Archaeologists Hall and Leonard Woolley (1880-1960) begin excavations in ancient sites in Babylonia (present-day Iraq).
Daily Life
Regular airmail established between New York City and Washington; first airmail postage.
Daily Life
Daylight saving time introduced in America.
Daily Life
Census: Total population in the U.S.: 103.5 million.
Daily Life
First Chicago-New York airmail delivered: flying time 10 hrs. 5 min.
Sports
Football: Knute Rockne (1888-1931) is named head football coach at the University of Notre Dame.
Sports
Boxing: Jack Dempsey (1895-1983), American heavy-weight boxing champion, knocks out Carl Morris in 14 seconds.
Sports
Women in Sports: Eleanora Sears (a great-great-granddaughter of Thomas Jefferson, born in 1881) takes up squash, after excelling at polo (which she rode astride, shocking conventions of the day), baseball, golf, field hockey, auto racing, swimming, tennis, yachting and speedboat racing. She accumulated 240 trophies during her athletic career. She demonstrated that women could play men's games and was a prime liberator of women in sports.
Popular Culture
Composer George Gershwin (1898-1937) writes the song “Swanee” for the Broadway show Sinbad.
Religion
United Lutheran Church established (U.S.).
Social Issues
Censorship: U.S. Post Office burns installments of James Joyce’s (1882-1941) “Ulysses,” published in the “Little Review”.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Women over 30 get the right to vote in Britain.
Reform
Birth Control Movement: New York v. Sanger; Margaret Sanger wins her suit in New York to allow doctors to advise their married patients about birth control for health purposes.
1919
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Women's Suffrage Movement: The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, giving women the right to vote, is passed by Congress.
Law
The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors, is ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Politics
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) founds the political party, Fasci del Combattimento.
Politics
In Paris, the League of Nations comes into being. The Hague is selected for the International Court of Justice.
Politics
The Republican convention nominates Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) for the presidency with Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) as his running mate.
Politics
The Democratic convention nominates James M. Cox (1870-1957) for the presidency with Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) as his running mate.
Government
Women's Firsts: Lady Astor (1879-1964) becomes the first woman to be elected as a Member of Parliament in Britain.
Government
Capital Punishment: Austria abolishes the death penalty.
Government
President Woodrow Wilson presents his Fourteen Points for world peace to the American Congress; these Conditions of Peace are intended to guarantee future cooperation among the nations of the world and contain the foundations for a world organization called the League of Nations.
Government
League of Nations: The plenary session of the Peace Conference accepts the proposals for the creation of a League of Nations; the U.S. Senate, however, votes against joining the League.
War
World War I: The Treaty of Versailles is signed, officially ending World War I. Part 1, Articles 1 to 26 of this and other Peace Treaties contain the Covenant of the League of Nations.
Science
English scientist F.W. Aston (1877-1945) builds mass-spectrograph and establishes the phenomena of isotopy.
Science
Observation of the total eclipse of the sun bear out Albert Einstein’s (1879-1955) theory of relativity.
Science
Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945), “Father of American Rocketry” writes “A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes”.
Science
Rutherford (1871-1937) demonstrates that the atom is not the final building-block of the universe.
Science
First experiments with shortwave radio (under 100 meters).
Science
In collaboration with Massolle and Engl, Hans Vogt (1903-1986) experiments on a new sound film system.
Inventions
Glenn L. Martin (1886-1955) invents the Martin Bomber, a warplane.
Education
Higher Education: New universities are founded in Hamburg, Posen, Bratislava, and Cologne.
Education
Children's Books; Hugh Lofting (1886-1947): the first of the “Dr. Doolittle” stories.
Education
Higher Education: A.D. Juilliard ( -1919)dies leaving 20 million dollars to endow Juilliard School of Music.
Arts and Letters
The Los Angeles Symphony Orchestra gives its first concert.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) writes “Main Street”.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Eugene O’Neill (1888-1953) writes “The Emperor Jones” and “Beyond the Horizon."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Carl Sandburg (1878-1967) writes “Corn Huskers,” which wins the Pulitzer Prize.
Arts and Letters
Bauhaus, founded and built by Walter Gropius (1883-1969) in Weimar, Germany, revolutionizes the teaching of painting, sculpture, architecture, and industrial arts.
Arts and Letters
Jazz arrives in Europe.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941) writes “Winesburg, Ohio,” a volume of interrelated short stories.
Ideas
Johan Huizinga (1872-1945) writes “The Waning of the Middle Ages.”
Ideas
C.G. Jung (1875-1961) writes “Psychological Types.”
Roosevelt, Edith
Former President Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) dies in Oyster Bay, New York.
Hoover, Lou
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) is named Director-General of International Organization for European Relief.
Economics
Ford Motor Company: A conflict with stockholders over the millions to be spent building the giant Rouge manufacturing complex in Dearborn, Michigan leads to the company becoming wholly owned by Henry Ford and his son, Edsel, who then succeeds his father as president.
Economics
J.M. Keynes (1883-1946) writes “The Economic Consequence of the Peace.”
Economics
The Radio Corporation of America (RCA) is established.
Daily Life
Transportation: J.W. Alcock and A. Whitten Brown (1886-1948) make first nonstop flight across the Atlantic from Newfoundland to Ireland in 16 hours 27 minutes.
Daily Life
Railroad lines operated in America total 265,000 miles.
Daily Life
The American Legion is formed.
Sports
Boxing: Jack Dempsey (1895-1983), U.S. heavyweight boxer, takes the world championship from Jess Willard.
Sports
Baseball: Babe Ruth (1895-1948) hits a 587 ft. home run in a Boston Red Sox versus. New York Giants game in Tampa, Florida.
Sports
Jim Thorpe (1888-1953), the great American all around athlete, finishes his 6-year major league baseball career with the Boston Braves; plays in 60 game; hits .327.
Sports
Horse Racing: Sir Barton is first horse to win triple crown: Kentucky Derby, Preakness, and Belmont Stakes; J. Loftus jockey in all three.
Sports
The development of a mechanical rabbit by Oliver Smith (1893-1977), of California, marks origin of modern greyhound racing.
Sports
Baseball: Black Sox Scandal: Eight players on the Chicago White Sox conspire with gamblers to throw the World Series. They are acquitted in a court of law—but they are banned from baseball forever.
Religion
Karl Barth (1886-1968): “Der Romerbrief” (“The Epistle to the Romans”), beginning of Protestant dialectical theology.
Religion
Church and State separated in Germany.
Religion
Joan of Arc (1412-1431) canonized by Pope Benedict XV.
Reform
Labor Movement: Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), governor of Massachusetts, calls out the National Guard to end Boston Police Strike.
Reform
Labor Movement: The great American steel strike occurs, lasting until January 1920.
Reform
Labor Movement: An International Labor Conference in Washington endorses eight-hour workday.
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1920
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, giving women the right to vote, is ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Law
A year after ratification, the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages, goes into effect.
Politics
The German Worker’s Party is renamed the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ or Nazi Party.
Politics
Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) is elected as the 29th President of the U.S., and Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) is elected as the nation's 29th Vice President.
Government
The Senate rejects the Treaty of Versailles and the Covenant of the League of Nations for the second time.
Government
The League of Nations comes into existence with its headquarters in Geneva; the Versailles Peace Treaty and the Covenant of the League of Nations enter into force.
Government
The Water Power Act establishes the Federal Power Commission to regulate the generation of electricity from waterways on public lands and from navigational streams.
Government
The “Red Scare’ results in nationwide raids by federal agents, with mass arrests of “anarchists, Communists, and labor agitators.
Science
William D. Harkins (1873-1951) proposes the existence of an uncharged subatomic particle, which he calls the “neutron.”
Medicine
Harvey Cushing (1869-1939) pioneers new techniques in brain surgery.
Medicine
Insulin is isolated for the first time by Canadian Sir Frederick Banting (1891-1941) and Charles Best (1899-1978).
Inventions
Nobel Prize for Physics goes to Charles Guillaume (1861-1938), a Swiss physicist, for the invention of Invar, an alloy of iron containing nickel.
Arts and Letters
Literature: F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940), an important novelist of the period, publishes his first novel entitled "This Side of Paradise."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) publishes "Main Street," a novel that exposes the cultural vacuum of a small Midwestern town.
Ideas
In "Easy Lessons in Einstein," Edwin E. Slosson explains the theory of relativity in a simple and clear manner.
Economics
The Jones Act prohibits shipping merchandise between U.S. ports "in any other vessel than a vessel built in and documented under the laws of the United States and owned by persons who are citizens of the United States.''''
Economics
Ford Motor Company: The Detroit-Toledo-Ironton (DTI) railroad proves to be a smart purchase for the Ford Motor Company (FMC). After purchasing the railway, FMC uses it for the next 8 years to control transport of materials and supplies to the massive Rouge plant in Dearborn, Michigan.
Sports
Women in Sports: The skimpy fashions of the '20's put a new emphasis on athletic bodies and narrow the gap between health and glamour. Advertisers, like Grape-Nuts, say, "Grandmother went bathing - girls like Molly go in to swim."
Sports
Baseball: The Negro National League, the first financially successful all-black league, is founded by Hall-of-Famer Rube Foster.
Sports
Baseball: The Boston Red Sox sell Babe Ruth (1895-1948) to the New York Yankees.
Sports
William T. Tilden (1893-1953) wins Wimbledon Lawn Tennis; after this victory, he dominates world tennis until 1925.
Popular Culture
KDKA, America’s first commercial radio station, begins operation in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania by broadcasting the results of the presidential election.
Religion
Use of religion in Turkey for political ends is made punishable by death.
Reform
Women''s Suffrage Movement: Women get the right to vote when the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution is ratified. By this time, 15 states have women suffrage laws.
1921
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) nominates William Howard Taft (1857-1930) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and the Senate confirms his appointment on the same day. Taft is the only person in history to have been both President and Chief Justice.
Law
League of Nations: The Permanent Court of International Justice comes into being.
Government
Warren G. Harding (1865-1923) is inaugurated as the 29th President of the U.S., and Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) is inaugurated as the nation's 29th Vice President.
Government
Immigration: Congress passes the Quota Act, which limits immigration in the United States.
Government
The Department of Agriculture enforces regulations of the Packers and Stockyards Act to stop manipulation of prices in meat-packing industries.
War
The joint resolution of Congress declares that World War I has ended. Separate U.S. treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary are signed and ratified.
Science
Langmuir (1881-1957) and Lewis (1875-1946) independently propose atomic theories.
Medicine
James B. Collip (1892-1965) isolates pure insulin.
Medicine
Edward Mellanby (1884 - 1955) discovers vitamin D and shows that its absence causes rickets.
Inventions
Physician Alvan L. Barach designs a vented oxygen tent.
Technology
John Couch Adams (1819-1892) uses a spectroscope to study and determine the distance of 2000 stars.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: William Butler Yeats (1865-1939) publishes "Michael Robartes and the Dancer," a collection that includes his famous poem, Easter 1916.
Arts and Letters
Women’s Firsts: Literature: American novelist Edith Wharton(1862-1937) becomes the first woman to win a Pulitzer Prize for fiction. She wins the award for her novel "The Age of Innocence."
Ideas
Ernst Kretschmer (1888-1964) publishes "Physique and Character," in which he suggests that body build is closely related to mental state.
Eisenhower, Mamie
Doud Dwight (Ikky) Eisenhower (1917-1921), son of Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower dies January 2 from scarlet fever.
Economics
The end of the wartime boom causes business depression and high unemployment. The National Conference proposes a job program.
Economics
Unemployment throughout the U.S. is 5.7 million. Widespread wage cuts in many industries include those of New York Central railroad employees (by 22.5%) and clothing workers (by 15%).
Daily Life
Iowa imposes the first state tax on cigarettes.
Daily Life
Magazines: Publisher DeWitt Wallace (1889-1981) founds the Reader’s Digest.
Daily Life
Knee-length skirts for women become the fashion, causing much comment in the press.
Sports
Baseball: Station KDKA in Pittsburgh broadcasts radio’s first live major league game. (Fewer than 10 percent of Americans own a radio.)
Sports
Women in Sports: The National Women's Athletic Association is organized.
Social Issues
Immigration: California’s Supreme Court declares the state’s Alien Poll Tax unconstitutional and a violation of the treaty between the U.S. and Japan.
Social Issues
Hate Groups: The Ku Klux Klan promotes “white supremacy” and seeks to control politics in many southern communities.
Reform
Birth Control Movement: National Birth Control League and Voluntary Parenthood League are combined to form the American Birth Control League in New York City; Margaret Sanger heads the league.
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1922
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Supreme Court declares that the Federal Child Labor Law is unconstitutional.
Politics
Women's Firsts: Soledad Chacon is elected Secretary State of New Mexico, the first woman elected to that position.
Government
Women’s Firsts: Rebecca Felton (1835 – 1930), of Georgia, is appointed to the U.S. Senate to fill a temporary vacancy. The first woman senator, she serves for only two days.
Government
League of Nations: The first meeting of the Permanent Court of International Justice occurs.
Government
U.S. and Japan sign Yap Treaty, permitting U.S. cable and radio stations in the Yap Islands.
Government
Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) is arrested by the British in India for inciting his countrymen to violence in their fight for independence.
War
U.S. Open Doors Policy is implemented in China. Nine major powers also sign treaties limiting warships, restricting the use of submarines, and outlawing poisonous gas.
Science
Alfred C. Lane begins experiments to determine the age of the earth.
Medicine
Elmer McCollum (1879-1967) discovers vitamin D in cod liver oil. He uses the oil in the successful treatment of rickets.
Inventions
British watchmaker John Howard invents the self-winding watch.
Technology
Ship to shore radio communication begins.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: James Joyce (1882-1941) publishes "Ulysses."
Arts and Letters
Literature: F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) publishes "The Beautiful and the Damned."
Ideas
Herman Julius Oberth (1894-1989) writes "The Rocket into Interdisciplinary Space," in which the concept of escape velocity is introduced.
Eisenhower, Mamie
John Sheldon Doud Eisenhower (1922-), son of Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower, is born August 3.
Daily Life
Lt. Harold Harris becomes the first member of the Caterpillar Club by parachuting from a defective plane during a flight test in Dayton, Ohio. The club is made up of individuals who have escaped death by using a parachute.
Daily Life
Marriages in the U.S. total 1,126,000 and divorces total 148,000.
Sports
Golf: The oldest American international team golf match takes place between the U.S. and Great Britain. It is established at the National Golf Links of America, Southampton, NY.
Sports
Women in Sports: The National Amateur and Athletic Federation (NAAF) is founded, committed to boys and girls being on an "equal footing with the same standards, the same program and the same regulations."
Social Issues
Racism: Oklahoma is placed under marshal law to control violence and curb Ku Klux Klan activity.
Reform
Birth Control Movement: Dr. Marie Stopes (1880-1958) holds a series of meetings in Queen’s Hall, London to advocate birth control.
1923
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Intermediate Credits Act expands credit to farmers and encourages farm cooperatives in an effort to ease agricultural depression.
Government
Vice President Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933)becomes the nation's 30th President on the death of President Warren G. Harding (1865-1923). No new Vice President is selected.
War
Payment of British war debt to the U.S. begins.
War
U.S. troops on the Rhine River in Germany are ordered to return by President Haring (1865-1923).
Science
Louis A. Bauer analyzes the Earth’s magnetic field.
Medicine
Insulin becomes generally available to people with diabetes.
Medicine
Vaccines: First vaccine for Diphtheria is used.
Inventions
The bulldozer is invented.
Arts and Letters
Drummer Buddy Rich tours the U.S. and Australia as a child prodigy on the drums.
Ideas
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) publishes his theories on the human mind in "The Ego and the Id."
Harding, Florence
President Harding (1865-1923) dies suddenly in San Francisco on his return trip from Alaska. His father in Vermont swears in Coolidge (1872-1933) as President.
Economics
The DuPont Company acquires the rights to manufacture Cellophane; the first U.S. made Cellophane is produced in 1924.
Economics
In order to build a Model T automobile, Ford required approximately 250 feet of lumber for each car that it built. As a result, Henry Ford authorized the purchase of several hundred thousand acres of forestland in northern Michigan.
Discovery
Native Americans: Oil is discovered on the Navajo Reservation.
Daily Life
Magazines: Time Magazine hits the newsstands for the first time, at $.15 a copy.
Daily Life
Disasters: An earthquake in Japan destroys Yokohama and half of Tokyo; about 100,000 people die.
Sports
Finnish Paavo Nurmi runs the mile in 4 minutes and 10.4 seconds.
Sports
Women in Sports: 22% of U.S. colleges have varsity sports teams for women.
Popular Culture
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959), film director and producer, releases the Biblical spectacle The Ten Commandments.
Popular Culture
"e Covered Wagon," voted as one of the 10 best movies of the year by Film Daily, sets the style and popularity for Westerns.
Social Issues
Racism: The African-American town of Rosewood, Florida is burned by a white mob.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: National Woman’s Party proposes Constitutional amendment stating that “Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the United States and in every place subject to its jurisdiction. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.”
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1924
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The Progressive Party, backed by the American Federation of Labor, Farm-Labor Party and the Socialist Party, nominates senator La Follette of Wisconsin for President.
Politics
Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) is elected President of the U.S. in his own right, and Charles Dawes (1865-1951) is elected the nation's 30th Vice President.
Government
Native Americans: Congress passes the Indian Citizenship Act, granting U.S. citizenship to Native Americans.
Government
Immigration: Immigration Act of 1924 establishes fixed quotas of national origin and eliminates Far East immigration.
Government
Greece is proclaimed a republic.
Government
The diplomatic and consular services of the U.S. government are consolidated.
War
The U.S. Marines land at Shanghai, China to help suppress the civil war.
Science
Scientist Harry Steenbock discovers that sunlight increases the amount of vitamin D in certain foods. After tests prove that it is the ultraviolet part of sunlight, which has this effect, Steenbock patents a process of using artificial ultraviolet light to increase the vitamin D content in food.
Medicine
The portable electrocardiograph is introduced. It uses vacuum tubes to amplify the weak electrical signals produced by the heart.
Technology
RCA demonstrates wireless telegraph transmission of photographs from New York City to London; the process takes about 25 minutes per photograph.
Education
Children's Books: A.A. Milne (1882-1956), English humorist, publishes When We Were Very Young, a collection of stories for his son, Christopher.
Arts and Letters
Paul Whiteman (1890-1967) commissions George Gershwin (1898-1937) to write the symphonic jazz-style “Rhapsody in Blue.”
Truman, Bess
(Mary) Margaret Truman Daniel (1924-), daughter of Harry and Bess Truman, is born February 17.
Coolidge, Grace
Calvin Coolidge Jr. (1908-1924), son of Calvin and Grace Coolidge, dies July 7.
Economics
Harry Cohn founds Columbia pictures.
Discovery
Hubble determines that Cepheid variables (stars) in the Andromeda nebula are hundreds of thousands of light years beyond the Milky Way. This is conclusive proof that there are other galaxies besides our own.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: The gas chamber is used for the first time as a method of execution in the United States when gangster Gee Jon is put to death in Nevada.
Daily Life
The publisher Simon and Schuster market the first crossword puzzle book.
Daily Life
There are 2.5 million radios in the U.S.; in 1920 there were only 5000, mostly used by professionals.
Sports
The first Winter Olympic games open at Chamonix, France.
Sports
Football: Notre Dame''s “Four Horseman” – Layden, Stuhldreher, Miller, and Crowley – star as Notre Dame upsets Army.
Sports
Black Athletes: Olympic gold medalist (summer games; individual): DeHart Hubbard (1903-1976) is the gold medalist for the long jump.
Social Issues
Immigration: The Johnson-Reed Act is passed, severely limiting immigration.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Radice v. New York, a New York state case, upholds a law that forbade waitresses from working the night shift but made an exception for entertainers and ladies' room attendants.
1925
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Nellie Taylor Ross (1876-1977) becomes the Governor of Wyoming, being the first woman to be elected as governor of a state.
Government
The Senate ratifies 20-year-old treaty, which recognizes the right of Cuba to the Isle of Pines.
Government
The U.S. and Canada agree to improve the St. Lawrence River between Montreal and Lake Ontario.
Government
The boundary between Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State (now the Republic of Ireland) is established.
Government
Women’s Firsts: Nellie Tayloe Ross (1876-1997) becomes the first woman to serve as governor of a state, in Wyoming.
Government
Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933) is inaugurated as President of the U.S., and Charles Dawes (1865-1951) is inaugurated as the nation's 30th Vice President.
Science
Millikan (1868-1953) discovers that cosmic rays are absorbed (not produced) by the atmosphere.
Science
The meter is standardized.
Medicine
George H. Whipple (1878-1976) demonstrates that iron is a major factor in the formation of red blood cells.
Inventions
Berliner (1851-1929) invents acoustic tiles for soundproofing.
Inventions
Railroad History: The American Locomotive Company (ALCO), along with G.E. and IR, builds its first Diesel electric loco.
Education
Higher Education: Trinity College in North Carolina agrees to change its name to Duke University to meet the terms of a $40 million trust fund established by James B. Duke, a tobacco millionaire.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) publishes "In Our Time."
Arts and Letters
Literature: F. Scott Fitzgerald (1896-1940) publishes "The Great Gatsby."
Arts and Letters
Writer DuBose Heyward (1885-1940) publishes "Porgy," on which the musical "Porgy and Bess" is later based.
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: Since Harvard was not supportive of the theatre movement on their campus, the efforts were relocated to Yale in 1925. As a result, Yale established the Drama School as a graduate program that was committed to providing American theatre with gifted artists of superior training.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Theodore Dreiser’s (1871-1945) first commercial success was "An American Tragedy" (1925), which was made into a film in 1931 and again in 1951.
Ideas
John Watson publishes "Behaviorism," a book that sparks popular interest in psychology.
Nixon, Pat
At the age of 13, “Pat” Ryan (Nixon) assumes the role of housewife for her family when her mother, Kate Halberstadt Bender Ryan, a native of Germany, dies of cancer.
Economics
The Ford Motor Company acquires the Lincoln Motor Company, thus branching out into luxury cars.
Daily Life
Disasters: The most violent tornado is U.S. history, the “Tri-State Tornado,” hits Missouri, Indiana, and Illinois, killing 689 people and injuring 13,000 others.
Daily Life
Magazines: The New Yorker magazine is founded.
Popular Culture
Alexander Alekhine (1892-1946), blindfolded, plays 28 simultaneous games of chess.
Religion
A copy of the Bible costs the equivalent of about $2000 in the 14th century, $500 in 1455, $100 by the 17th century, and $3 in 1925.
Religion
Public Education: Tennessee teacher John T. Scopes is arrested for teaching the Theory of Evolution, which is forbidden by state law. This dispute known as the “Monkey Trial” attracts enormous attention; Scopes is convicted and fined $100.
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1926
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Third Parties: The Progressive Party wins seats in Congress in the fall election.
Government
The U.S. fails to join the Permanent Court of International Justice and Arbitration at The Hague.
Government
Senate ratifies World War debt funding agreements with European countries.
Government
Congress passes the Revenue Act which reduces income and inheritance taxes and abolishes many nuisance taxes.
Government
League of Nations: The first meeting of the Preparatory Disarmament Commission occurs in Geneva.
War
Congress establishes the Army Air Corps.
Science
German physicist, Max Born (1882-1970), formulates the mathematical basis of the quantum theory.
Medicine
George Minot (1885-1950), William Murphy (1892-1987), and George Whipple (1878-1976) use a diet rich in raw liver to cure patients who are suffering from pernicious anemia, a usually fatal disease. Later, Minot and Edwin Cohn prepare liver extract that remains the basic treatment for this disease until 1948.
Medicine
Vaccines: First vaccine for Pertussis is used.
Technology
The first liquid fuel rocket is successfully launched by Professor Robert Goddard at Auburn, Massachusetts; the rocket traveled 184 feet in 2.5 seconds.
Technology
The Radio Corporation of America, American Telephone and Telegraph Company, and the British General Post office hold the first successful transatlantic radiotelephone conversation between New York City and London.
Education
Carter G. Woodson (1875-1950) founds Negro History Week, which later evolves into Black History Month.
Education
Children's Books: A.A. Milne (1882-1956) publishes "Winnie the Pooh," one of the most popular children’s books ever written.
Education
Libraries: Los Angeles Public Library is dedicated.
Arts and Letters
Literature: William Faulkner (1897-1962) publishes his first novel, "Soldier’s Pay."
Arts and Letters
Painting: Georgia O’Keeffe (1887-1986) paints “Black Iris,” and abstract work in which the flowers assume human anatomical shapes.
Ideas
T.H. Morgan (1866-1945) publishes "Theory of the Gene."
Ideas
Edward L. Thorndike (1874-1949) publishes "Measurement of Intelligence."
Daily Life
Explorers Richard E. Byrd (1888-1957) and Floyd Bennett (1890-1928) fly over the North Pole.
Daily Life
Airmail service starts between New York City and Boston.
Sports
H. Bierkottes swims the English Channel in 12 hours and 4 minutes.
Sports
Women’s Firsts: American Gertrude Ederle (1906-2003) becomes the first woman to swim across the English Channel.
Popular Culture
English filmmaker, Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980), known for his gripping thrillers, directs The Lodger.
Popular Culture
Writer Edna Ferber (1887-1968) publishes "Show Boat."
1927
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Supreme Court rules that a Texas law forbidding Negroes from voting in Democratic primary elections is unconstitutional.
Politics
A Socialist uprising and a general strike occurs in Vienna, Austria, after acquittal of Nazis for political murder.
Government
League of Nations: The Spanish Government announces that it will continue to collaborate in the work of the League.
War
U.S. Marines land in Nicaragua to protect U.S. lives and property during civil war.
Science
Jan Hendrik Oort (1900-1992), Dutch astronomer, further clarifies Lindblad’s theory about the rotation of the Milky Way galaxy.
Science
Clinton Davisson (1881-1958) and Lester Germer (1896-1971) discover that electrons are diffracted when they pass through crystal. This discovery supports the wave theory of electric behavior.
Medicine
Frank A. Hartman isolates “cortin” from the adrenal glands and suggests that absence of this hormone may cause Addison’s disease.
Medicine
Vaccines: First vaccine for Tuberculosis is used.
Inventions
The pentode (a 5-element vacuum tube) is developed. It permits distortion free amplification of sound.
Inventions
The History of Toys: A tough, durable kind of plastic, polystyrene, is invented. Although the first plastic, celluloid, was invented in the 1860s, polystyrene is the first type strong enough to really suit toy making.
Technology
Ernst Alexanderson (1878-1975) receives the first American television broadcast at his home.
Education
Libraries: The Central library of the Free Library of Philadelphia is dedicated.
Ideas
Pavlov (1849-1936) publishes "Conditioned Reflexes," based on his experiments in which dogs, fed at the sound of a bell, salivated at the sound of the bell alone.
Ideas
Cosmologist Georges Lemaitre (1894-1966) proposes the Big Bang Theory to explain the origin of the universe.
Tyler, Julia
David Gardiner "Gardie" Tyler (1846-1927), the first son born to John Tyler and his second wife Julia, dies September 5.
Economics
The Federal Reserve reduces the discount rate by half a point and purchases $230 million of government securities.
Daily Life
Transatlantic commercial telephone service begins between New York City and London.
Daily Life
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964), then U.S. Secretary of Commerce, gives a speech in Washington, D.C. that is seen and heard in New York via the first long-distance television transmission.
Daily Life
Charles Lindbergh (1902-1974) makes the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic in the Spirit of Saint Louis, from Long Island to Paris.
Daily Life
The Holland Tunnel, designed by Clifford M. Holland, opens to vehicular traffic. More than 1.5 miles long, the tunnel travels under the Hudson River and connects New York with New Jersey.
Sports
Baseball: Babe Ruth (1895-1948) sets home run record when he hits 60 for the season.
Sports
Boxing: The first Golden Gloves amateur boxing matches, sponsored by the New York Daily News, are held.
Sports
Women in Sports: The International Federation of Women's Field Hockey Associations (IFWHA) is formed to provide competition for teams from the US, England, Scotland and Ireland.
Popular Culture
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences is founded.
Popular Culture
Bandleader and composer, Duke Ellington (1899-1974), organizes a band that begins a five-year stand at Harlem’s Cotton Club.
Religion
Cecil B. DeMille (1881-1959) produces his second Biblical epic called "The King of Kings."
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1928
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) is elected the 31st President of the U.S., and Charles Curtis (1860-1936) is elected as the nation's 31st Vice President.
Government
McNary-Haugen Bill for relief of farmers is vetoed on the grounds that it would fix prices and stimulate overproduction.
Government
Flood Control Bill provides $325 million to curb flooding in the Mississippi River Valley.
Government
Prohibition: Congress appropriates $32 million to enforce Prohibition during the next year.
Government
Britain recognizes the Chinese National government at Nanking.
War
U.S. signs Briand-Kellogg Act Pact, outlawing war. Eventually, 63 nations sign it also.
Science
Karl Ziegler (1898-1973) explains the chemical procedure for making artificial rubber.
Medicine
Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) discovers penicillin, founding the field of antibiotic therapy.
Inventions
Railroad History: The first Diesel-electric passenger locomotive built in North America was a two-unit 2-D-1-1-D-2.
Technology
Mount Palomar Observatory installs a 200-inch reflecting telescope designed by George Hale (1868-1938).
Education
Libraries: The West Virginia Supreme Court rules that Charleston libraries cannot exclude black patrons since, as taxpayers, they are equally entitled to library service.
Ideas
John Von Neumann (1903-1957) develops as part of his theory games, the minimax theorem, a strategy for minimizing a player’s maximum loss.
Daily Life
The first seeing eye dog was presented to Morris S. Frank.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: The Mickey Mouse character is created by Walt Disney.
Popular Culture
The first annual Calaveras County “Frog Jumping Jubilee” is held in Angel’s Camp, CA.
Popular Culture
Jerome Kern (1885-1945) and Hammerstein (1895-1960) write the score for Show Boat, which includes the song “Ol’ Man River.”
1929
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The National Revolutionary Party is organized in Mexico; it becomes the chief political party.
Government
The Lateran Treaty, in which Italy agrees to recognize the independence and sovereignty of Vatican City, is signed.
Government
Immigration: The National origins plan goes into effect. U.S. consuls are told to reject any immigrant who might become a “public charge.”
Government
The Agriculture Marketing Act establishes the Federal Farm Board to stabilize farm prices.
Government
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) is inaugurated as the 31st President of the U.S., and Charles Curtis (1860-1936) is inaugurated as the nation's 31st Vice President.
Science
Hubble measures the red shift and discovers that the galaxies are moving away from each other. This universal recession of galaxies indicates that the universe is expanding.
Science
Nobel Prize for Physics goes to Broglie (1892-1987) for his electron wave theory.
Medicine
Hans Berger (1873- 1941) discovers human electroencephalography.
Technology
Ernst Alaxanderson (1878-1975) measures the altitude of an airplane by using reflected radio waves. This is an early use of radar.
Technology
Kodak introduces 16mm movie film.
Technology
In the first instrument flight, Lt. James Doolittle (1896-1993) flies entirely by radio signals received in his airplane.
Education
Higher Education: University of Pennsylvania establishes a department of Medical Physics (biophysics).
Education
Libraries: Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932), a merchant and philanthropist, helps fund libraries in 13 southern states to be used in both urban and rural areas, regardless of race.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Ernest Hemingway (1899-1961) publishes the novel "A Farewell to Arms."
Ideas
Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) publishes “A Room of One’s Own.”
Ideas
Robert M. Yerkes (1876-1956), psychologist, publishes "The Great Apes" and establishes the Yale Laboratories of Primate Biology (Florida) to study animal behavior and intelligence.
Hoover, Lou
Herbert Hoover (1874-1964) was the first president to have a telephone installed on his desk on March 27. White House phones came next.
Economics
American Money: Currency is reduced in size by 25 percent and standardizes with uniform portraits on the faces and emblems and monuments on the backs.
Economics
President Hoover (1874-1964) meets with important businessmen at the White House in order to stabilize the nation’s business.
Economics
The stock market crash brings depression, with widespread unemployment and many business failures.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Gang members working for Al Capone (1899-1947) kill rival gang members in the St. Valentine’s Day massacre in Chicago.
Daily Life
The first reindeer are born in the United States, in North Beverly, MA.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: The yo-yo is popularized in the United States.
Sports
Women in Sports: Tuskegee Institute in Alabama forms one of the first women's college track teams, offering scholarships to promising women athletes, and adding women's event to their Tuskegee relays track meets.
Popular Culture
The first Academy Awards are bestowed; the statues that served as symbols of the award are not called Oscars until 1931.
Popular Culture
The first all-color talking picture, "On With the Show," opens.
Popular Culture
“Amos ‘n’ Andy,” a popular radio show heard each weekday through the 1930’s, makes its national premier.
Religion
Presbyterian churches in Scotland unite to form the Church of Scotland.
Social Issues
Immigration: Congress makes annual immigration quotas permanent.
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1930
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President Herbert Hoover nominates Charles Evans Hughes (1862-1948) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; he is confirmed by the Senate ten days later and serves in the position for eleven years.
Law
The Supreme Court rules that buying bootleg liquor is not a violation of the 18th amendment.
Politics
In the German elections, Nazis gain 107 seats from the center parties.
Government
The Passfield White Paper on Palistine suggests that Jewish immigration be halted.
Government
The names of the cities of Constantinople and Angora in Turkey change to Istanbul and Ankara.
Government
Ras Tafari (1892-1975) becomes Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia.
Government
League of Nations: First session of the Commission of Enquiry for European Union.
War
France begins building the Maginot Line.
War
Last Allied troops leave Rhineland.
War
The War Department amends Army regulations to make any violation of the federal prohibition law a military offense.
Medicine
Nobel Prize for Medicine awarded to Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943) (U.S.) for the grouping of human blood.
Inventions
Vannevar Bush, electrical engineer, develops a differential analyzer, the first analog computer.
Inventions
Quartz-crystal clocks are introduced.
Technology
Bell Laboratories develops a two-way television communication system.
Technology
The photoflash bulb comes into use.
Education
Public Education: Civil Rights Movement: The NAACP brings a series of suits over unequal teachers' pay for Blacks and whites in southern states. At the same time, southern states realize they are losing African American labor to the northern cities. These two sources of pressure resulted in some increase of spending on Black schools in the South.
Education
Civil Rights Movment: Brown v. Board: The NAACP began to challenge segregation in graduate and secondary schools in the mid-1930s. Early successes in the Supreme Court barred law schools from denying applicants on the basis of race alone.
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: The Group Theatre is formed by the Theatre Guild for the purpose of producing social protest works. Members were generally committed to largely communal projects.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Maxwell Anderson (1888-1959)writes “Elizabeth the Queen."
Arts and Letters
Drama: Noel Coward (1899-1973) writes “Private Lives."
Ideas
Technocracy, the absolute domination of technology, becomes talked-of phenomenon.
Ideas
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)writes “About Zionism.”
Ideas
Compton suggests that cosmic rays are made of particles.
Ideas
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)publishes “Civilization and Its Discontent."
Taft, Helen
William Howard Taft (1857-1930), 27th President of the United States dies; he is the first U.S. president to be buried in the National Cemetery in Arlington, VA.
Economics
New York City’s Bank of the United States closes because of the stock market crash. The bank has 60 branches and almost half a million depositors. During this year more than 1300 banks are forced to close.
Economics
Ford creates the Mercury division to establish a division centered on mid-priced cars. Ford Motor Company continues to grow.
Discovery
Pluto, the ninth planet in the solar system, is discovered by American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh (1906-1997).
Daily Life
Prepackaged frozen food is sold for the first time by Clarence Birdseye (1886-1956) in Springfield, MA.
Daily Life
Contract bridge gains in popularity as a card game.
Daily Life
Comic strips grow in popularity in the U.S. (“Blondie” series).
Popular Culture
Bestseller “Cimarron,” is written by Edna Ferber (1885-1968).
Popular Culture
Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961) writes “The Maltese Falcon."
Popular Culture
The films “Blue Angel,” (Marlene Dietrich (1901-1992))and “All Quiet on the Western Front,” both win Academy Awards (Milestone).
1931
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
German millionaire Alfred Hugenberg (1865-1951) undertakes to support the 800,000-strong Nazi Party; Emil Kirdorf (1847-1938), Fritz Thyssen (1873-1951), and Schroder (1841-1902) follow his example.
Government
League of Nations: The Council decides to convene the Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments.
Government
League of Nations: European Conference for Limiting the Manufacture and Regulating the Distribution of Narcotic Drugs.
Science
Swiss chemist Paul Karrer (1889-1971) isolates vitamin A.
Science
American physicist E.O. Lawrence (1901-1958) invents the cyclotron.
Inventions
Julius A. Nieuwland (1878-1936) devises a process for producing neoprene, a synthetic rubber.
Technology
The Empire State Building opens.
Technology
The George Washington Bridge, extending from New Jersey to New York, is completed.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Pearl S. Buck (1892-1973) writes “The Good Earth."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Robert Frost (1874-1963) publishes his “Collected Poems,” which wins the Pulitzer Prize.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Eugene O’Neill (1888-1953) writes “Morning Becomes Electra.”
Ideas
John Dewey (1859-1952 ) publishes “Philosophy and Civilization.”
Discovery
Australian explorer G.H. Wilkins (1888-1958) captains “Nautilus” submarine, navigating it under the Arctic Ocean to latitude 82 degrees, 15 minutes.
Daily Life
The U.S. officially adopts “The Star-Spangled Banner” as its national anthem on March 3.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Alphonse (“Scarface”) Capone (1899-1947), gangster with reputed $20 million annual income, is jailed for income tax evasion.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: Alfred M. Butts, an unemployed architect from Poughkeepsie, New York, invents a word game called the Criss Cross Game. In 1948, Butts sells rights to the game to entrepreneur James Brunot who trademarks the game under the name Scrabble.
Daily Life
Population (in millions): China 410, India 338, U.S.S.R. 168, U.S. 122, Japan 75, Germany 64, Great Britain 46.
Daily Life
Women’s Firsts: Maxine Dunlap becomes first American woman to earn a glider pilot license.
Sports
The northern face of the Matterhorn is climbed for the first time by Franz and Toni Schmid.
Sports
Women in Sports: Women begin competing in skiing events at the world championships sponsored by the International Ski Federation.
Popular Culture
Popular songs of the year include “Minnie the Moocher”; “Mood Indigo”; Goodnight Sweetheart”; and “When the Moon Comes Over the Mountain.”
Popular Culture
Charlie Chaplin (1889-1977) stars in the film, “City Lights."
Popular Culture
Walt Disney (1901-1996) produces his first color film, "Flowers and Trees."
Popular Culture
The musical comedy, "Of Thee I Sing," composed and written by George Gershwin (1898-1937), Ira Gershwin (1896-1983) George S. Kaufman (1889-1961), and Morrie Ryskind (1895-1985), becomes the first musical to win the Pulitzer Prize for drama.
Religion
Jehovah’s Witnesses formed from International Bible Students Association.
Religion
Pope Pius XI (1857-1939): “Quadrigesimo Anno," encyclical noting dangers of unrestrained capitalism and totalitarian communism, and calling for a new social order.
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1932
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Twentieth Amendment to the Constitution, setting January 20 as the day the President is inaugurated, is passed by Congress.
Politics
Women's Firsts: Hattie W. Caraway (1878-1932), a democrat from Arkansas, becomes the first woman to be elected to the U.S. Senate.
Politics
Running on the idea of a "New Deal" for the American people, Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) is elected as the 32nd President of the U.S. in a Democratic landslide; John Garner (1868-1967) is elected as the nation's 32nd Vice President.
Government
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is created to conserve area resources.
Government
Congress changes the name "Porto Rico" to "Puerto Rico".
Government
Women’s Firsts: Hattie Wyatt Caraway (1878-1950), of Arkansas, becomes the first woman elected to the U.S. Senate.
Government
League of Nations: A two-year Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments opens in Geneva; Germany withdraws from the Conference.
Government
The Revenue Act of 1932 is passed; it is the largest peacetime tax increase in the nation''s history to that date.
Science
W.H. Carothers (U.S.) (1896-1937) synthesizes polyamide (nylon by 1936).
Science
James Chadwick (1891-1974) discovers the neutron.
Science
Nobel Prize for Physics: Werner Heisenberg (Germany) for the creation of the matrix theory of quantum mechanics.
Science
Fritz Mietzch (1896-1958) and Josef Klarer (1898-1953): sulfonamide.
Inventions
Sperry Gyroscope Co. develops an automatic pilot.
Technology
A balloon tire is produced for farm tractors.
Technology
RCA demonstrates electric TV using a cathode-ray picture tube receiver.
Education
Libraries: The Folger Library opens in Washington.
Education
Higher Education: Bennington College opens in Vermont.
Education
Basic English is proposed as a prospective international language.
Education
Libraries: Howard University School of Divinity Library is founded.
Education
Public Education: A survey of 150 school districts reveals that three quarters of them are using so-called intelligence testing to place students in different academic tracks.
Economics
In May and June, 17,000 ex-servicemen arrive in Washington D.C., to urge the passage of a law that will permit them to cash their bonus certificates; this bill is defeated by the Senate; government offers expenses for return home, but troops led by General Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) finally drive out last 2,000.
Economics
13.7 million people are unemployed in the United States.
Economics
The first unemployment insurance law is enacted in Wisconsin.
Daily Life
Crime and punishment: The infant son of Charles (1902-1974) and Anne Lindbergh (1906-2001) is kidnapped.
Daily Life
Women''s Firsts: Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) becomes the first woman to complete a solo nonstop transatlantic flight, from Newfoundland to Ireland in about 15 hours.
Daily Life
Women''s Firsts: Amelia Earhart, 34, becomes the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic in a red Lockheed Vega in 15 hours and 39 minutes.
Sports
Black Athletes: Louise Stokes (1905-1974) and Tydia Pickett are the first African-American women to be included on a U.S. Olympic team.
Sports
The first Winter Olympic Games held in the U.S., opens at Lake Placid, N.Y.
Sports
The Summer Olympic Games at Los Angeles include 23 sports, 124 events, and 1,408 participants from 37 nations.
Popular Culture
Johnny Weissmuller (1904-1984) appears in his first “Tarzan” film; Dashiell Hammett (1894-1961) writes “The Thin Man;" and Aldous Huxley (1894-1963) writes “Brave New World.”
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: The National Recovery Act forbids more than one family member from holding a government job, resulting in many women losing their jobs.
1933
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Prohibition: The Twenty-First Amendment to the Constitution, repealing prohibition, is passed by Congress, ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Law
The 20th Amendment to the Constitution, setting January 20 as the day the President is inaugurated, is ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Government
U.S. Congress votes independence for Philippines.
Government
The Federal Securities Act requires sworn statements about all securities for sale to be filed with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
Government
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) is inaugurated as the 32nd President of the U.S., and John Garner (1868-1967) is inaugurated as the nation's 32nd Vice President.
Government
Women’s Firsts: Frances Perkins (1882-1965) is appointed secretary of labor by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945), making her the first woman member of a presidential cabinet.
Government
Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) is named Chancellor of Germany.
Government
League of Nations: Both Germany and Japan give notice of withdrawal from the League of Nations.
Science
Tadeusz Reichstein (1897-1996) synthesizes pure vitamin C.
Science
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) recognized by R. Kuhn, Szent-Gyorgyi, and Wagner von Jauregg.
Medicine
Manfred Sakel (1900-1957) discovers insulin shock therapy.
Technology
Edwin H. Armstrong (1890-1954) develops frequency modulation (FM) radio broadcasting.
Technology
Philo T. Farnsworth (1906-1971) develops an electronic TV receiver.
Arts and Letters
“Ulysses,” by James Joyce (1882-1941), is allowed in the U.S. after court ruling.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Erskine Caldwell (1903-1987)writes “God’s Little Acre.”
Arts and Letters
George Balanchine (1904-1983) and Lincoln Kirstein (1907-1996) found the School of American Ballet.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) writes “The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas.”
Ideas
C.G. Jung (1875-1961) writes “Modern Man in Search of Soul.”
Economics
American banks are closed March 6 - March 9 by presidential order.
Economics
The U.S. goes off gold standard on April 19.
Economics
Unlike his father, Edsel Ford was more interested in vehicle design than mechanics. He helped bring the company''s products to new heights of elegance and style by creating the company’s first dedicated, in-house design (or “styling”) department. The department’s creations become some of the most influential automotive designs in the industry.
Discovery
The theory that Neanderthal Man is in the line of decent of homo sapiens is rejected following the discovery of the Steinheim skull.
Discovery
R.E. Byrd, begins his second South Pole expedition.
Daily Life
The board game Monopoly is invented.
Daily Life
All books by non-Nazi and Jewish authors are burned in Germany.
Daily Life
Chicago World’s Fair (A Century of Progress International Exposition) opens.
Daily Life
President Roosevelt delivers the first radio “fireside chat” to restore the public’s confidence in the American currency and banking system.
Sports
Baseball: The first baseball all-star game is played.
Sports
Boxing: Italian Primo Carnera (1906-1967) knocks out Jack Sharkey (1902-1994) to win heavyweight-boxing crown.
Popular Culture
Some popular films of the year are “Little Women,” starring Katherine Hepburn (1907-2003), and “She Done Him Wrong,” starring Mae West (1892-1980).
Popular Culture
Some popular songs are “Smoke Gets in Your Eyes”; “StormyWeather”; “Easter Parade”; “Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?”; and “Boulevard of Broken Dreams.”
Social Issues
Holocaust: The Germans at Dachau open the first concentration camp; by 1945 8 to 10 million prisoners have been interned and at least half of them killed. Boycott of Jews begins in Germany.
Social Issues
Immigration: Approximately 60,000 artists (authors, actors, painters, and musicians) emigrate from Germany.
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1934
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
League of Nations: Meeting of the General Commission of the Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments.
Government
Congress passes the Gold Reserve Act, empowering the President to regulate the value of the U.S. dollar.
Government
President Roosevelt signs Securities Exchange Act, establishing Securities and Exchange Commission. The first chairman of the SEC is Joseph Kennedy.
Science
Adolph Butenandt (1903-1995) isolates the first crystalline male hormone, androsterone.
Science
Enrico Fermi (1901-1954 ) suggests that neutrons and protons are the same fundamental particles in two different quantum states.
Technology
Osoviakhim, U.S.S.R. balloon, ascends 13 miles into stratosphere.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Robert Graves (1895-1985) writes “I, Claudius” and “Claudius the God.”
Arts and Letters
Painting: Salvador Dali (1904-1989) paints “William Tell,” in surrealistic style.
Arts and Letters
Drama: William Saroyan (1908-1981) writes “The Daring Young Man on the Flying Trapeze.”
Ideas
Arnold Toynbee (1889-1975) writes “A Study of History.”
Ideas
Ruth Benedict (1887-1948) publishes “Patterns of Culture.
Economics
Women’s Firsts: Lettie Pate Whitehead (1872-1953) becomes the first American woman to serve as a director of a major corporation, The Coca-Cola Company.
Discovery
Women’s Firsts: On October 23, 1934, American adventurer Jeanette Piccard (1895 – 1985) sets an altitude record for female balloonists when she ascends 57,579 feet.
Daily Life
Transportation: The S.S. “Normandie” (France) launched; the largest ship afloat until “Queen Elizabeth.”
Daily Life
The Dionne quintuplets are born in Callendar, Ontario.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: The F.B.I. shoots John Dillinger (1903-1934), “Public Enemy No. 1.”
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: The infamous pair of Bonnie (Parker) (1910-1934) and Clyde (Barrow) (1909-1934), die in a police shootout.
Sports
Golf: The first Masters golf tournament at Augusta National in Georgia is won by Horton Smith (1908-1963).
Sports
Boxing: Max Baer (1909-1959) wins world heavyweight boxing title.
Sports
Boxing: Joe Louis (1914-1981) wins his first fight against Jack Kracken (Chicago).
Popular Culture
Shirley Temple (1928- ) stars in her first film, Stand Up and Cheer.
Social Issues
Poverty: Evangeline Booth (1865-1950), daughter of the Salvation Army’s founder, elected General of the Salvation Army.
1935
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Huey Long (1893-1935) is assassinated by Dr. Carl Weiss in Louisiana Capitol Building.
Government
The Social Security Act establishes a federal payroll tax to finance a cooperative federal-state system of unemployment insurance.
Government
President Roosevelt (1882-1945) signs U.S. Social Security Act.
Government
Chiang Kai-shek is named President of China.
Government
T.G. Masaryk (1850-1937) resigns as President of Czechoslovakiaand is succeeded by Eduard Benes (1884-1948).
Government
Persia changes its name to Iran.
Government
League of Nations: The American Senate refuses to ratify the accession of the United States to the Permanent Court of International justice.
War
World War II: The Saarland is incorporated into Germany following a plebiscite; Nazis repudiate Versailles Treaty and reintroduce compulsory military.
Medicine
Ladislas J. Meduna (1896-1964)discovers metrazol shock therapy.
Medicine
German chemist Gerhard Domagk (1895-1964) announces the discovery of Prontosil, the first sulfa drug for treating streptococcal infections.
Technology
RADAR (Radio Detection and Ranging) is first demonstrated by Robert Watson-Watt (1892-1973).
Technology
The first round-the-world telephone conversation covers more than 23,000 miles. It is routed from New York to San Francisco, Indonesia, Holland, England, and back to NY-to an office less than 50 feet from the phone where the call originated.
Technology
Railroad History: EMC builds #511 and #512, the first self-contained Diesel passenger locomotives in the US.
Education
Libraries: The Works Progress Administration library service program gives support in labor and funds to all types of libraries.
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: The Federal Theatre Project is established by Works Progress Administration (WPA) under the leadership of Hallie Flanagan (1890-1969). It lasted 4 years and employed over 30,000 theatrical artists and workers. Eventually Congress challenged the content of the productions as being subversive propaganda and dangerous.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Clarence Day (1874-1935) writes “Life with Father.”
Arts and Letters
Drama: T.S. Eliot (1888-1965) writes “Murder in the Cathedral.”
Arts and Letters
Literature: Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) writes “It Can’t Happen Here.”
Arts and Letters
Literature: John Steinbeck (1902-1968) writes “Tortilla Flat.”
Economics
Electrification: The first generator at Hoover Dam along the Nevada-Arizona border begins commercial operation.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Bruno R. Hauptmann (1899-1936) goes on trial for the kidnap and murder of the Lindburgh baby.
Daily Life
Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) becomes the first person to fly solo from Hawaii to California.
Daily Life
Transportation: The S.S. “Normandie” crosses the Atlantic in 107 hours and 33 minutes.
Daily Life
Dancing: The rumba becomes a fashionable dance.
Daily Life
Alcoholics Anonymous is organized in New York.
Sports
Baseball: The Cincinnati Reds and the Philadelphia Phillies play the first major league night baseball game at Crosley Field I Cincinnati.
Reform
Labor Movement: The Committee for Industrial Organizations is founded by the leaders of eight unions in the American Federation of Labor (AFL). Its goal is to develop industry-wide unions that include clerical and unskilled workers, as well as skilled-workers who are eligible for the AFL.
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1936
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Supreme Court upholds constitutionality of TVA in Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority.
Politics
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) is reelected President of the U.S. by a landslide, as is John Garner (1868-1967) as Vice President.
Government
League of Nations: The Secretariat moves into the new League of Nations buildings, Geneva.
War
The U.S. Army adopts the semi-automatic rifle.
War
World War II: German troops occupy Rhineland; elections in Germany give Hitler (1889-1945) 99% of the vote; Four-Year Plan inaugurated.
War
Spanish Civil War begins in July; Franco appointed Chief of State by the insurgents in October; siege of Madrid begins; Spanish government moves to Valencia.
War
World War II: Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) declares war on Japan.
Medicine
Dr. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) develops an artificial heart.
Medicine
Egas Moniz (1874-1955) discovers prefrontal lobotomy for treating mental diseases.
Technology
The dirigible “Hindenburg” lands at Lakehurst, N.J., after transatlantic flight.
Technology
Mrs. Amy (Johnson) Mollison (1903-1941) flies from England to Cape Town in 3 days, 6 hours, and 25 minutes.
Technology
Boulder (Hoover) Dam on Colorado River in Nevada and Arizona is completed; this creates Lake Mead, the largest reservoir in the world.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Beatrice Kaufman and Moss Hart collaborate on the play, “You Can’t Take it With You.”
Economics
The Ford Foundation is established.
Daily Life
Magazines: Henry Luce (1898-1967) begins publication of “Life” magazine.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Bruno Richard Hauptman (1899-1936) is convicted of kidnapping and killing the Lindbergh baby.
Daily Life
Disasters: Floods sweep Johnstown, Pennsylvania.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: Parker Brothers introduce Monopoly.
Sports
Baseball: Ty Cobb (1886-1961), Babe Ruth (1895-1948), Honus Wagner (1874-1955), Christy Mathewson (1880-1925) and Walter Johnson (1887-1946) are the first players elected to the newly founded Baseball Hall of Fame in Cooperstown, New York.
Sports
Boxing: Max Schmeling (1905-2005) (German) defeats Joe Louis (1914-1981) (U.S.) to win world heavyweight boxing championship.
Popular Culture
Dale Carnegie (1888-1955) writes “How to Win Friends and Influence People.”
Popular Culture
Walter D. Edmunds (1903-1998) writes “Drums Along the Mohawk.”
Popular Culture
Margaret Mitchell (1900-1949) writes “Gone with the Wind,” a Pulitzer Prize Novel.
1937
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Women's Rights Movement: The U.S. Supreme Court rules in favor of a minimum wage law for women.
Government
President Roosevelt (1882-1945) signs U.S. Neutrality Act.
Government
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) is inaugurated President of the U.S., as is John Garner as Vice President.
War
World War II: Riots in Sudeten area of Czechoslovakia; Sudetan Germans leave Czech Parliament.
War
Spanish Civil War: The German Luftwaffe (air force) destroys the Spanish town of Guernica.
Medicine
The nation’s first blood bank is established at Cook County Hospital in Chicago.
Medicine
Crystalline vitamin A and vitamin K concentrates are first obtained.
Medicine
The National Cancer institute is established.
Inventions
Wallace H. Carothers (1896-1937) patents Nylon for the Du Pont Company.
Inventions
The first jet engine is built by Frank Whittle (1907-1996).
Technology
George VI (1895-1952) is crowned King of Great Britain; the broadcast of ceremonies is first worldwide program heard in the U.S.
Technology
The Lincoln Tunnel provides a second major vehicular tunnel between New York and New Jersey.
Technology
San Francisco’s Gold Gate Bridge opens; the main section is 4200 ft. long; it is the longest bridge up to this time.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Ernest Hemmingway (1899-1961) writes “To Have and to Have Not.”
Arts and Letters
Literature: John P. Marquand (1893-1960) writes “The Late George Apley,” which wins a Pulitzer Prize.
Arts and Letters
Painting: Picasso (1881-1973) paints “Guernica,” a mural for the Paris World Exhibition.
Arts and Letters
Paul Mellon (1907-1999) endows the National Gallery in Washington, D.C.
Economics
Wall Street stock market decline signals serious economic recession in the U.S.
Daily Life
In Connecticut, automobile license places are issued for the first time.
Daily Life
Disasters: The German airship Hindenberg bursts into flames as it is trying to land at Lakehurst, NJ. News of its occurrence is described in the first transcontinental radio broadcast.
Daily Life
Amelia Earhart (1897-1937) is lost on a Pacific flight.
Sports
Boxing: Joe Louis (1914-1981) regains world heavyweight boxing title by defeating James J. Braddock (1905-1974).
Sports
U.S. Tennis Team wins Davis Cup Tournament in England.
Sports
Women in Sports: The US becomes the first country to win the men's (Swaythling Cup) and women's (Marcel Corbillon Cup) team table tennis championships in the same year.
Popular Culture
John Steinbeck (1902-1968) writes “Of Mice and Men.”
Popular Culture
Walt Disney (1901-1996) produces “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs."
Social Issues
Poverty: Public Housing: One of the first public housing projects in New York City, the Harlem River Houses, is built. They were 4 and 5-story walk-ups that were connected.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: Minimum wage law for women is upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.
Reform
Labor Movement: A major strike against Republic Steel takes place: 4 killed and 84 injured in Chicago.
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1938
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Supreme Court rules that the University of Missouri Law School must admit Negroes because of a lack of other facilities in the area.
Government
Martin Dies (1900-1972) (Texas Democrat), becomes chairman of the newly formed House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) of U.S. House of Representatives.
War
World War II: Hitler (1889-1945) appoints himself War Minister, Ribbentrop Foreign Minister; meets Schuschnigg at Berchtesgaden and marches into Austria; Mussolini (1883-1945) and Hitler meet in Rome; programs in Germany.
War
World War II: Eden resigns in protest against Chamberlain’s (1869-1940) policy; Winston Churchill (1874-1965) leads country’s outcry; Duff Cooper (1890-1954) resigns as First Lord of the Admiralty; President Benes (1884-1948) resigns; Slovakia and Ruthenia granted autonomy; Hungary annexes southern Slovakia; Emil Hacha (1872-1945) installed as puppet President of Czechoslovakia.
Science
Karter, Salomon, and Fritzsche chemically identify vitamin E.
Science
Isolation of pyridoxine (vitamin B6).
Medicine
Robert E. Gross, physician, surgically repairs a congenital heart defect.
Medicine
Ugo Cerletti (1877- 1963) and Lucio Bini (1908-1964) discover electroconvulsive therapy.
Education
The Cloisters, endowed by Rockefeller (1839-1937), is built in upper Manhattan as a branch of the Metropolitan Museum to house medieval art.
Education
Higher Education: Education of Women: African American Education: Harvard University grants and honorary doctorate to Negro singer Marian Anderson (1897-1993).
Education
Civil Rights Movement: Higher Education: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the University of Missouri Law School must admit Negroes because of a lack of other facilities in the area.
Arts and Letters
Drama: "Our Town," by Thornton Wilder (1897-1975), is performed publicly for the first time in Princeton, NJ.
Arts and Letters
Daphne du Maurier (1907-1989) writes “Rebecca.”
Arts and Letters
Drama: Robert Sherwood (1896-1955): “Abe Lincoln in Illinois."
Arts and Letters
Architecture: Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) builds Taliesin West in Phoenix, Arizona.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings (1896-1953) writes “The Yearling,” a Pulitzer Prize novel.
Ideas
Johan Huizinga (1872-1945) writes “Homo Ludens.”
Ideas
Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947) writes “Modes of Thought.”
Economics
Dupont markets the first nylon product-a toothbrush.
Economics
The Fair Labor Standards Act passed, enacting first national minimum wage law.
Daily Life
The 40 hour work week is established in the United States.
Daily Life
20,000 TV sets are in service in New York City.
Daily Life
The S.S. “Queen Elizabeth” is launched.
Daily Life
32,000 people die in auto accidents in the U.S.
Sports
Horse Racing: Eddie Arcado rides his first Kentucky Derby winner, “Lawrin.”
Popular Culture
The New Orleans jazz classic, "When the Saints Go Marching In," is recorded by Louis Armstrong (1901-1971).
Popular Culture
The popular radio quiz show Information Please is broadcast by NBC.
Popular Culture
Orson Welles’s (1915- 1985) radio production of H.G. Well’s (1866-1946) “War of the Worlds” causes considerable panic.
Popular Culture
Benny Goodman’s (1909-1986) band brings new style to jazz music.
Popular Culture
Kurt Weill (1900-1950): “Knickerbocker Holiday,” musical comedy, New York.
Social Issues
Anti-semitism: Anti-Jewish legislation enacted in July.
Reform
Labor Movement: Women''s Rights Movement: The Fair Labor Standards Act establishes minimum wage without regard to sex.
1939
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
President Roosevelt appoints the first Jewish Associate Justice to the Supreme Court, Felix Frankfurter (1882-1965); at the same time, he appoints William O. Douglas (1898-1980), who hold the record for longest service on the Court -- 36 years, 7 months.
War
The Spanish Civil War ends.Rooseveltasks Congress for $552 million for defense and demands assurance from Hitler and Mussolini that they will not attack 31 named states.
War
World War II: Germany occupies Bohemia and Moravia, places Slovakia under “protection,” annexes Memel, renounces nonaggression pact with Poland and naval agreement with England, and concludes both the 10-year alliance with Italy and the nonaggression pact with U.S.S.R.
War
World War II: Japanese occupy Hainan and blockade British concession at Tientsin; U.S. renounces Japanese trade agreement of 1911.
War
World War II: Britain and France recognize Franco’s government; U.S. recognition follows; Spanish Civil War ends; Spain joins Anti-Comintern Pact and leaves League of Nations.
War
World War II: Germany invades Poland and annexes Danzig on September 1; Britain and France declare war on Germany on September 3; Roosevelt declares that the U.S. is neutral; Germans overrun western Poland and reach Brest-Litovsk and Warsaw; U.S.S.R. invades Poland from the east; the British Expeditionary Force (158,000 men) are sent to France.
Science
Joliot-Curie demonstrates the possibility of splitting apart the atom.
Science
Polyethylene is invented.
Science
Nobel Prize for Physics awarded to Ernest O. Lawrence (U.S.) for the development of cyclotron.
Technology
Igor Sikorsky (1889-1972) constructs the first helicopter.
Technology
Radar stations are used in Britain to give early warning of approaching enemy aircrafts.
Arts and Letters
“Grandma Moses” (Anna M. Robertson) becomes famous in the U.S.
Arts and Letters
Dance: Aaron Copland’s “Billy the Kid” ballet opens in New York.
Arts and Letters
Literature: C.S. Forester writes “Captain Horatio Hornblower.”
Arts and Letters
Literature: James Joyce writes “Finnegan’s Wake.”
Arts and Letters
Literature: Richard Llewellyn writes “How Green was My Valley.”
Arts and Letters
Literature: John Steinbeck writes “The Grapes of Wrath.”
Arts and Letters
Drama: George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart write “The Man Who Came to Dinner.”
Ideas
John Dewey (1859-1952) publishes “Freedom and Culture.”
Ideas
Adolf Hitler’s “Mein Kampf” is made available in a complete English translation.
Economics
After the 1938 recession, the U.S. economy begins to recover and, by autumn, is booming from orders of European countries for arms and war equipment.
Daily Life
Transportation: Pan-American Airways begins regularly scheduled commercial flights between the U.S. and Europe on the “Dixie Clipper.”
Daily Life
Fashion: Nylon stockings appear for the first time.
Daily Life
Holidays: President Roosevelt moves the national Thanksgiving Celebration to the third Thursday of November in order to extend the Christmas shopping season and boost the economy.
Sports
Baseball: The first televised major league game is broadcast from Ebbets Field in Brooklyn.
Sports
Baseball: Little League Baseball is founded.
Sports
Baseball: Baseball great Lou Gehrig sets of major-league record when he plays his 2,130th game.A baseball game is first televised in the U.S.
Popular Culture
The first public television broadcast is made from the Empire State Building.
Popular Culture
War songs in England are “Roll out the Barrel’ and “The Last Time I Saw Paris.”
Popular Culture
Popular Films include “Gone With the Wind”, “The Wizard of Oz” (Judy Garland), and “Stagecoach” (John Ford).
Popular Culture
Popular Songs in America are “God Bless America”, “Over the Rainbow”, and “I’ll Never Smile Again.”
Religion
Pope Pius XI dies; Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli is elected to be Pope Pius XII (-1958).
Religion
The Methodist Church, rent by schisms of 1830 and 1844, is reunited.
Reform
Labor Movement: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that sit-down strikes are illegal.
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1940
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) is re-elected to a third term as President of the U.S., and Henry A. Wallace (1888-1965) is elected as the nation's 33rd Vice President.
Government
Stamps: Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) is the first African-American honored on a stamp.
Government
Immigration: The Smith Act (Alien Registration Act) requires the registration of all aliens and makes it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the U.S. government by force.
Government
Conservation: Congress establishes the Fish and Wildlife Service to develop and administer a wildlife conservation program.
Government
Neville Chamberlain (1869-1940) is succeeded by Winston Churchill (1874-1965) as Prime Minister of England.
Government
The U.S. does not renew its commercial treaty with Japan.
Government
The Transportation Act passes, giving ICC authority to regulate common carriers operating in interstate commerce in the coastal, inter-coastal, and inland waters of the U.S.
War
National Defense Advisory Commission coordinates U.S. civilian defense protection.
War
Congress creates the Selective Service System, the first U.S. peacetime program of compulsory military service. It requires all men between ages 21 and 36 to register.
Science
Fritz A. Lipmann (1899-1986), biochemist, proposes that ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) is a common form of energy in many cells.
Medicine
N.M. Gregg discovers that German measles during pregnancy may cause birth defects in the unborn child.
Medicine
Linus Pauling (1901-1994) and Max Delbruck (1906-1981) determine that antigens cause the body to produce antibodies.
Inventions
V. Zworykin (1889-1982) and James Hillier (1915-) invent the electronic microscope.
Inventions
Hellmuth Walter (1900-1980), a German engineer, invents a propulsion system for submarines.
Education
The first large-scale urban college building of modern design, Hunter College, is built in New York City.
Arts and Letters
The Museum of Modern Art sets up a separate department of photography.
Arts and Letters
Painting: Picasso’s (1882-1973) lithograph, “Dove” is selected as the symbol of the World Peace Congress.
Discovery
Prehistoric drawings that are at least 20,000 years old are found in the Lascaux Caves in France.
Daily Life
The first social security check is issued to Ida Fuller for $22.54.
Daily Life
Fashion: Nylon stockings go on sale for the first time in the U.S.
Daily Life
The suspension bridge over the Narrows at Tacoma, Washington called “Galloping Gertie,” collapses because of wind vibration; the Bridge tumbles into Puget Sound.
Sports
Cornelius Warmerdam (1915-2001) is the first to pole-vault 15 feet. Two years later he sets the new record of 15 ft. 7.75 inches.
Popular Culture
Oglethorpe University (Georgia) deposits a bottle of beer, an encyclopedia, and a movie fan magazine along with 1000 of other items in its “Crypt of Civilization,” a time capsule scheduled to be opened in the year 8113.
Popular Culture
John Ford (1894-1973) wins an Oscar for directing "The Grapes of Wrath."
Reform
Labor Movement: The 40-hour workweek, part of Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, goes into effect.
1941
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: After sixteen years of service as an Associate Justice, Harlan Fiske Stone (1872-1946) is nominated Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945); he is confirmed by the Senate and serves for five years until his death in 1946.
Government
The Lend-Lease Act passes, giving the president the authority to aid any nation whose defense he believed vital to the United States and to accept repayment "in kind or property, or any other direct or indirect benefit which the President deems satisfactory."
Government
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) is inaugurated for a third term as President of the U.S., and Henry A. Wallace (1888-1965) is inaugurated as the nation's 33rd Vice President.
Government
The Lend-Lease Act lends war materials to friendly nations.
Government
The Office of Price Administration and Civilian Supply is organized. It immediately freezes steel prices and later announces the need for tire rationing to conserve rubber.
War
Puerto Rico: US Congress establishes two thirds of the island of Vieques as a military training ground. Residents are given 24 hours to leave their homes.
War
The Selective Service System repeals the 900,000-man limitation of the Army and extends the length of service of draftees to 18 months.
War
U.S. lends the U.S.S.R. $1 billion worth of war material.
War
World War II: Japan attacks the U.S. Naval Base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, destroying many war ships; the U.S. declares war on Japan.
War
World War II: U.S. forces land in Iceland to defend it against possible attack.
Science
The Manhattan Project, under the direction of Leslie Groves, begins top-secret research to develop an atomic bomb.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Eleanor J. Macdonald (1906-?1995), the first cancer epidemiologist, establishes the world’s first cancer registry in Connecticut.
Medicine
Radioactive iodine is used to treat cancer of the thyroid.
Inventions
Aerosol spray cans are introduced.
Technology
RCA develops the “alert receiver,” a radio that is turned on or off by a special radio wave signal.
Technology
LORAN (long range aid to navigation) uses fixed radio signals to determine positions at sea.
Technology
An electron microscope is used to obtain the first photograph of a virus. The virus, only 4 ten-millionths of an inch in diameter, is magnified 65,000 times.
Reagan, Nancy
Maureen Reagan Revell (1941-2001), daughter of Ronald and Nancy Reagan, is born January 4.
Economics
The FCC authorizes TV broadcasting. By the end of the year, 1 million sets are sold.
Daily Life
Gasoline curfew begins in 17 eastern states; gasoline stations are closed from 7am-7pm.
Daily Life
A National Nutrition Program begins; vitamins and minerals are added to milk, bread, and other common foods.
Daily Life
“Utility” clothing and furniture are encouraged in Britain; clothes rationing starts.
Daily Life
Holidays: After much protest, President Roosevelt returns the official Thansgiving to the fourth Thursday of November.
Sports
Baseball: New York Yankee center-fielder Joe DiMaggio (1914-1999) hits in 56 major league games and sets a major league record.
Popular Culture
The classic movie, "Citizen Kane," starring Orson Welles (1915-1985), premiers in New York City.
Popular Culture
The famous wartime phrase “Praise the Lord and pass the ammunition” is said by Howell M. Forgy, chaplain on the U.S. cruiser New Orleans, which is attacked at Pearl Harbor.
Popular Culture
Billy Strayhorn (1915-1967), arranger-composer for Duke Ellington, composes the band’s theme song, “Take the A-Train.”
Popular Culture
The USO is founded in New York City to raise the morale of American troops by supplying recreation, education, and entertainment.
Social Issues
Immigration: Japan’s surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii galvanizes America’s war effort. More than 1,000 Japanese-American community leaders are incarcerated because of national security.
Social Issues
Immigration: President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 8802, forbidding discrimination in federal hiring, job-training programs, and defense industries. The newly created Fair Employment Practices Commission investigates discrimination against black employees.
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1942
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945) signs an executive order resulting in the internment of thousands of Japanese Americans living on the West Coast.
Government
Immigration: Congress allows for importation of agricultural workers from within North, Central, and South America. The Bracero Program allows Mexican laborers to work in the U.S.
War
World War II: Congress enacts measures to form the Women’s auxiliary corps of the Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force, and Coast Guard.
War
World War II: The Nazis formulate their “Final Solution” regarding the Jews at the Wannsee Conference.
War
World War II: Government wartime agencies take control of housing, alien property, shipping and transportation, foreign relief, censorship, and scientific research.
War
World War II: U.S. begins strict rationing of food and materials needed for the war effort.
Science
Russian Academy of Sciences awards honorary memberships to Americans for the first time: W. Cannon, E.O. Lawrence, and G. Lewis.
Medicine
French chemists prepare the first usable antihistamines.
Inventions
Henry Ford (1863-1947) patents the plastic automobile body.
Inventions
Magnetic recording tape is introduced.
Inventions
Bell Aircraft builds and tests the first U.S. jet, the XP-59.
Technology
Henry Kaiser (1882-1967) and Howard Hughes (1905-1976) design the Spruce Goose, an 8-engine airplane with room for 700 people.
Technology
Sonobuoys are used to detect submarines.
Technology
Radio signals (interference) are received from the Sun.
Technology
The first V-mail is sent overseas from New York City to London.
Arts and Letters
Dance: Copland (1900-1990) composes the ballet Rodeo, staged and choreographed by Agnes DeMille (1881-1959).
Ideas
Sister Elizabeth Kenny (1880-1952) publishes "Kenny Concept of Infantile Paralysis and Its Treatment."
Economics
The Grand Coulee Dam on the Columbia River in Washington State is completed.
Discovery
Mildenhall Treasure, a hoard of Roman silverware, is discovered in Suffolk, England.
Daily Life
Disasters: Mine explosions in Honkeiko, Manchuria kill 1549 people.
Daily Life
Disasters: The ocean liner Queen Mary collides with a British cruiser; 388 people on board the cruiser are killed.
Sports
Football: The Army-Navy football game that is usually seen by 100,000 fans in Philadelphia is played in Annapolis, Maryland for fewer than 12,000. By Presidential order, tickets are sold only to resident within a 10-mile radius of the stadium.
Sports
Baseball: Just weeks after the attack on Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt declares, “it would be best for the country to keep baseball going.”
Popular Culture
Band leader Glenn Miller (1904-1944) receives the first ever gold record for selling a million copies of “Chattanooga Choo Choo.”
Religion
C.S. Lewis (1898-1963) publishes "The Screwtape Letters," an extremely popular Christian novel.
Religion
Lloyd Douglas, a Lutheran clergyman, publishes "The Robe," a novel based on the New Testament.
1943
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Immigration: The Magnuson Act of 1943 repeals the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, establishes quotas for Chinese immigrants, and makes them eligible for U.S. citizenship.
War
U.S. Army engineers complete the Pentagon building. This 5-sided building, headquarters of the Department of Defense, remains the largest office building in the world.
War
World War II: President Roosevelt (1882-1945) and Prime Minister Churchill (1874-1965) meet at the Casablanca Conference.
War
World War II: The Nazi siege of Leningrad is broken.U.S. bombers sink Japanese convoy of 22 ships at the Battle of Bismarck Sea.
War
World War II: U.S. naval and amphibious forces begin island-hopping operations in the Pacific, capturing key bases.
Science
The hallucinogenic drug LSD is first produced by Albert Hoffman (1906-?) at Sandoz Laboratory in Basil, Switzerland.
Science
50,000 scientists and aides, all conducting secret atomic research suddenly populate the tiny town of Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
Medicine
Large-scale production of penicillin begins to meet the demand as the drug is being used to treat a variety of infectious diseases.
Medicine
Epidemics: An infantile paralysis (polio) epidemic kills 1151 people and cripples thousands more.
Inventions
Alvarez develops a radar-controlled bombsight.
Inventions
Polyethylene plastic is introduced.
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: Richard Rogers and Oscar Hammerstein II (1895-1960) begin their successful partnership when they produce the musical Oklahoma.
Arts and Letters
Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990), conductor and composer, becomes the assistant composer of the N.Y. Philharmonic.
Economics
The “Big Inch,” world’s longest oil pipeline, is dedicated. It is 1300 miles long and stretches from Texas to Pennsylvania.
Daily Life
Women in England are no longer required to wear hats in law courts.
Daily Life
Dancing: The jitterbug is the most popular dance.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: While searching for a suspension device to ease rough sailing on battleships, navy engineer Richard James discovers that a torsion spring will "walk" end over end when knocked over. James brought the discovery home to his wife, who named the new toy "Slinky."
Sports
The Detroit Red Wings win the last 4 games in the Stanley Cup finals, defeating the Boston Bruins 2-0 to become the National League Hockey Champions.
Sports
Women in Sports: In its June 14th issue, Time estimates there are 40,000 semi-pro women's softball teams in the US.
Sports
Women in Sports: Baseball: Philip K. Wrigley starts what will become the All-American Girls Professional Baseball League, the country’s only professional female league.
Religion
Public Education: U.S. Supreme Court reverses 1940 decision and holds that children cannot be required to salute the flag in school if their religion prohibits it; case brought to court by the Jehovah’s Witnesses.
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1944
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) is reelected President for a fourth term; Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) is elected the nation's 34th Vice President on the same Democratic ticket.
Government
The Declaration of Independence and other historical documents, sent from Washington D.C., for safekeeping in December 1941, are again displayed at the Library of Congress.
War
World War II: U.S. planes bomb Berlin for the first time.
War
World War II: U.S. troops establish beachheads at Utah Beach and Omaha Beach during the Allied invasion of Western Europe (D-Day).
Science
Uranium pile is built in Oak Ridge Tennessee.
Medicine
Alfred Blalock (1899-1964) and Marie Taussig introduce a surgical technique for saving “blue babies.”
Medicine
Oswald Avery (1877-1955) proves that DNA is the genetic material responsible for heredity.
Medicine
Clarence C. Little proposes that cancer is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
Medicine
DDT is used to control a typhus outbreak in Naples, Italy.
Medicine
Daniel Bovet (1907-1992) discovers the antihistamine pyrilamine.
Inventions
Silicone resins are introduced as insulation capable of withstanding very high temperatures.
Education
Higher Education: President Roosevelt (1882-1945) signs The Serviceman Readjustment Act (G.I. Bill of Rights), establishing benefits for veterans after the war. One of the chief benefits of the law is the provision of funds for college for returning servicemen and women, thus providing access to higher education for many who would not have been able to afford it otherwise, and, in fact, making the idea of a college education a "normal" one for the next generation of young people.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Jean Anouilh (1910-1987) completes the play Antigone.
Ideas
Von Neumann (1903-1957) publishes "Theory of Games and Economic Behavior."
Johnson, Lady Bird
Lynda Bird Robb (1944- ), daughter of Lyndon and Claudia Johnson, is born March 19.
Daily Life
Meat rationing ends, except for steak and choice cuts of beef.
Daily Life
Transportation: The first non-stop flight from London to Canada takes place.
Popular Culture
Bing Crosby (1903-1977) stars in the film, "Going My Way."
Popular Culture
The popular radio show, "The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet," debuts.
Popular Culture
Jimmy “Trump” Davidson’s Big Band introduces Dixieland Jazz to Canada.
1945
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The Arab League is founded in Cairo by Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria.
Government
United Nations: The United Nations opens in San Francisco. Senate ratifies UN Charter by a vote of 89 to 2.
Government
The Medal of Freedom is established. It is awarded to civilians for meritorious acts or service.
Government
Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) is inaugurated as President for a fourth term; Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) is inaugurated as the nation's 34th Vice President.
Government
Vice President Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) becomes the nation's 33rd President upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945). No new Vice President is selected.
War
World War II: The Russians liberate the Auschwitz concentration camp, where the Nazis killed over 1.5 million people, including over 1 million Jews.
War
World War II: U. S. Marines raise the American flag on Iwo Jima.
War
World War II. The United States drops an atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan; the rationale is that it will shorten the war and save thousands of American and Japanese lives. Several days after the bombing, Japan surrenders, bringing World War II to an end.
War
World War II: The Yalta Agreement is signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945), British Prime Minister Winston Churchill (1874-1965), and Soviet leader Josef Stalin (1879-1953).
War
World War II: World War II ends; cold war begins; Soviet Union becomes prime adversary of U.S; President Truman (1884-1972) pressured to take a hard-line on Communists, foreign and domestic.
Medicine
Woodward determines the chemical structure of penicillin by using a spectroscope.
Medicine
Spies proves that folic acid (a B-vitamin) is necessary for proper development of red blood cells.
Technology
Railroad History: The Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, uses the first railroad car with an observation dome. The dome is 19.5 feet long and extends the full width of the railroad car.
Technology
Weather radar is developed.
Education
Children's Books: E.B. White (1899-1985) publishes the children’s classic Stuart Little.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Sartre (1905-1980) writes the play "No Exit."
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945), 32nd president of the United States, dies of a massive cerebral hemorrhage at his home in Warm Springs, Georgia.
Economics
FCC sets aside 13 channels for commercial broadcasting.
Daily Life
Rationing of shoes, butter, and tires ends.
Daily Life
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945), Italian dictator and ally of Nazi Germany, is executed.
Daily Life
German dictator Adolph Hitler (1889-1945), and his newly married mistress, Eva Braun (1912-1945), commit suicide in his Berlin bunker.
Daily Life
Anne Frank (1929-1945), the Dutch Jewish teenager who kept a diary of her wartime experiences, dies at 15 in the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany.
Popular Culture
Dizzy Gillespie (1917-1993) organizes an orchestra featuring the “bop” style of jazz.
Popular Culture
Popular radio shows include: "The Red Skeleton Show," "The Green Hornet," "Superman," "Inner Sanctum," "The Fred Allen Show," "One Man’s Family," and "Queen for a Day."
Religion
Italian writer Carlo Levi (1902-1975) causes a sensation with his novel "Christ Stopped at Eboli."
Social Issues
Immigration: The War Bride Act and the G.I. Fiancées Act allows immigration of foreign-born wives, fiancé(e)s, husbands, and children of U.S. armed forces personnel.
Reform
Women''s Suffrage Movement: Women win the vote in France.
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1946
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President Harry S. Truman nominates Fred M. Vinson as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; the Senate confirms his nomination and he serves for seven years until his death in 1953.
Politics
McCarthy Era: November 1946 -- Joseph R. McCarthy (1908-1957)is first elected Senator from Wisconsin, defeating progressive titan Robert Lafollette (1855-1925). Richard Nixon (1913-1994) is elected Congressmen from Whittier, CA. The Democrats lose 12 Senate seats and 55 House seats.
Government
League of Nations: (April 18) The League transfers all its assets to the United Nations. Contract signed by W. Moderow, representative of the League, and Sean Lester, the last Secretary-General of the League of Nations.
Government
United Nations: The first General Assembly of the United Nations convenes in London.
Government
Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) is elected president of North Viet Nam.
Government
The United Nations accepts an $8.5 million donation from John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) to purchases the site for the new UN headquarters in New York City.
War
The Army and Navy are permitted to manufacture atomic weapons.
War
Chinese Communists tell the U.S. to stop supplying arms to the Nationalist Chinese Party. The U.S. gives up trying to mediate the civil war in China.
War
Cold War: Churchill (1874-1965) delivers a speech in Fulton, Missouri, warning about Soviet expansion and coining the phrase the “Iron Curtain.” This marks the beginning of the “Cold War.”
Science
Carbon-12, and isotope is discovered.
Science
The Atomic Energy Commission is established.
Inventions
Printed circuits are developed.
Technology
Computer Technology: A computer begins working at the University of Pennsylvania, taking seconds to do calculations that normally take hours. It is named ENIAC, or Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Taylor Caldwell (1900-1985) publishes "This Side of Innocence."
Arts and Letters
Architecture: The “ranch-type” home becomes popular; many find the low-slung, single story homes very appealing.
Ideas
Lemaitre (1894-1966) publishes "Hypothesis of the Primeval Atom."
Nixon, Pat
Tricia Nixon Cox (1946- ), daughter of Richard and Patricia Nixon, is born February 21.
Bush, Barbara
George Walker Bush (1946- ), son of George and Barbara Bush, is born July 6.
Discovery
Byrd (1888-1957) leads an expedition to the North Pole.
Daily Life
Mikhail Botvinnik (1911-1995) of the U.S.S.R. is considered the world’s finest chess player.
Daily Life
The government lifts most price and wage controls. U.S.
Daily Life
Disasters: An Army plane crashes into the Manhattan Company in New York City; 5 people are killed.
Sports
Women’s Firsts: Women in Sports: Edith Houghton becomes the first woman hired as a major-league baseball scout.
Popular Culture
Alfred Hitchcock (1899-1980) directs the film Notorious.
Popular Culture
Irving Berlin (1888-1989) writes the score for the Broadway musical, "Annie Get Your Gun."
Religion
Mother Frances X. Cabrini (1850-1917) is canonized; she is the first U.S. citizen to become a saint in the Catholic Church.
Religion
Women’s Firsts: Mother Maria Frances Cabrini (1850-1917) is canonized by Pope Pius XII. She is the first U.S. citizen (she was born in Italy) to become a saint.
Reform
Women''s Suffrage Movement: Women win the vote in Italy.
Reform
The strike by the United Mine Workers begins. President Truman seizes the mines after employers reject the government’s negotiated contract.