PoliticsMahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) returns to India after 21 years in South Africa and begins a non-violent campaign against British rule.
GovernmentPresident Wilson (1856-1924) signs an order establishing a permanent civil government in the Panama Canal Zone.
GovernmentLabor Movement: The Clayton Antitrust Act strengthens the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890. It seeks to restrict the use of court injunctions in labor disputes and exempts labor and farm organizations from antitrust laws.
GovernmentThe U.S. Federal Trade Commission is established to police business practices in interstate commerce.
WarThe city of Vera Cruz in Mexico is seized by the U.S. Marines.
WarAfter the assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand (1863-1914 ), heir to the Austrian throne, and his wife, World War I breaks out in Europe.
ScienceAmerican, Robert H. Goddard (1882-1945), begins his rocketry experiments.
MedicineAmerican, E.C. Kendall (1886-1972) prepares pure thyroxin for treatment of thyroid deficiencies.
MedicineDr. Alexis Carrel (1873-1944) performs first successful heart surgery on a dog.
InventionsEdwin H. Armstrong (1890-1954), N.Y. electrical engineer, patents the regenerative (feedback) circuit.
InventionsCharles Lawrence, aeronautical engineer, develops the first successful air-cooled airplane engine. This makes long distance flights possible.
TechnologyThe 35 mm camera is developed.
EducationA document called "Infant Care" is published by the U.S. Government; it is intended to provide mothers with practical information on child health and nutrition, and emphasizes the importance of strict routines and rules.
Arts and LettersLiterature: James Joyce ( 1882-1941) writes “Dubliners”.
Arts and LettersPoetry: Joyce Kilmer (1886-1918) writes “Trees”.
Arts and LettersDrama: Elmer Rice ( 1892-1967) writes “On Trial,” the first drama to use the device of a flashback.
Arts and LettersNational Capital: Henry Bacon ( 1839-1912) designs the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C.
Arts and LettersWomen’s Firsts: Mary Davenport-Engberg (1881-1951) is the first woman to conduct a symphony orchestra, in Bellingham, Washington.
IdeasJohn B. Watson (1878-1958) publishes "Behavior; an Introduction to Comparative Psychology.”
Wilson, EllenEllen Axson Wilson (1860-1914), first wife of President Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) dies on august 6th of Bright''s disease in the White House.
Roosevelt, EleanorFranklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (1914-1988), son of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, is born August 17.
EconomicsThe Panama Canal is completed. It is 40 miles long from Atlantic to Pacific coasts and cost an estimated $365 million to complete.
EconomicsThe world’s first airline, St. Petersburg Tampa Airboat Line, starts operation in St. Petersburg, Florida.
DiscoveryErnest Shackleton (1874-1922) begins a trans-Anarctic expedition with his ship, "Endurance."
Daily LifeThe History of Toys: Charles Pajeau develops a toy similar to the Erector Set, but designed for younger children, called Tinker Toys.
Daily LifeThe last known passenger pigeon dies in the Cincinnati Zoo.
Daily LifeDancing: The Cotillion, once the most fashionable dance of society, takes second place to the waltz and the two-step.
Sports Boxing: Jack Dempsey (1895- 1983) starts fighting under the name “Kid Blackey.”
Sports Golf: Walter Hagen (1892-1969) wins the U.S. Golf Association Open.
Sports Women in Sports: The American Olympic Committee formally opposes women's athletic competition in the Olympics. The only exception is the floor exercise, where women are allowed to only wear long skirts.
Sports Women in Sports: Basketball: Basketball rules change to allow half-court play, expanded from the original one-third court rules. Full court play for women doesn''t come in until the 1970''s.
Popular CultureE.R. Burroughs ( 1875-1950) writes “Tarzan of the Apes”.
Popular CultureWilliam Christopher Handy (1873-1958) composes “St. Louis Blues.”
ReligionThe Assembly of God denomination is founded during an 11-day convention in Hot Springs, Arkansas.
Social IssuesImmigration: World War I in Europe breeds strong anti-immigration feelings in the United States.
Social IssuesImmigration: Almost 10.5 million immigrants enter the U.S. from southern and eastern Europe from 1905 until 1914.
ReformLabor Movement: The Ford Motor Company begins paying its workers a basic wage of $5.00 for an 8-hour day, up from $2.40 for a 9-hour day.
ReformLabor Movement: The American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP) founded.