Beginning Year:       Ending Year:      
1754
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
French and Indian: The French and Indian War begins as Britain declares war on France in the American colonies.
Science
Scottish chemist Joseph Black (1728-1799) discovers carbonic acid gas.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Dorothea Erxleben (1715-1762) graduates from the University of Halle, the first woman to obtain a medical degree from a German university.
Medicine
James Lind (1716-1794) publishes a paper that proves that citrus juice can be an effective way to combat scurvy.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Benjamin Bannecker (1731-1806) makes the first clock built entirely in America.
Education
Higher Education: King’s College in New York City is founded; it becomes Columbia University in 1784.
Arts and Letters
Architecture: The Winter Palace in St. Petersburg is completed by Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-1771).
Washington, Martha
Daniel Parke Custis, Jr. (1751-1754), son of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, dies.
Washington, Martha
John "Jacky" Parke Custis (1754-1781), second son of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, is born.
Sports
Golf: St. Andrew’s Royal and Ancient Golf Club is founded in Scotland.
1755
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
French and Indian: British General Edward Braddock (c.1695-1755) takes command of all English forces in America during the French and Indian War. He is mortally wounded in an ambush near Fort Duquesne in western Pennsylvania.
War
French and Indian: Twenty-three year-old George Washington (1732-1799) assumes command of the retreating army of British and colonial troops
Technology
The first steam engine in America is installed to pump water from a mine.
Education
Higher Education: The first Russian institution of higher education, Moscow State University, is founded
Arts and Letters
Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) begins his work on "The Dictionary of the English Language."
Ideas
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), publishes his "Discourse upon the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Mankind" (Second Discourse).
Daily Life
Maps of Virginia and the Middle British Colonies are printed.
Daily Life
Sir Harry Frankland (1716-1768) marries his mistress, Agnes Surriage (1726-1783), according to legend, after she saves him from being buried alive following an earthquake.
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1756
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
120 British soldiers are imprisoned and die in India (“Black Hole of Calcutta”).
War
French and Indian: The French and Indian War is formally declared; the French under General Louis Montcalm (1712-1759) capture and destroy British colonial Fort Oswego in New York and drive Britain from the Great Lakes in North America.
Ideas
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) writes "Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful."
Washington, Martha
Martha "Patsy" Parke Custis (1756-1773), second daughter of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, is born.
Economics
Transportation: A stagecoach line is established between Philadelphia and New York City
Economics
The first chocolate factory is opened in Germany.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "New Hampshire Gazette," one of the longest running newspapers in America, is established.
Daily Life
Louis François du Plessis, the Duc de Richelieu (1696-1788) invents mayonnaise.
Daily Life
Fashion: Cotton velvets are first made in England.
1757
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
William Pitt (1708-1778) becomes England's Secretary of State.
Government
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) is sent to London as a representative of the Pennsylvania legislature to negotiate for the heirs of William Penn.
War
French and Indian: William Pitt (1708-1778) escalates the War in the colonies by establishing a policy of unlimited warfare.
Ideas
David Hume (1711-1776) publishes "The Natural History of Religion."
Washington, Martha
Frances Parke Custis (1753-1757), first daughter of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, dies.
Washington, Martha
Daniel Parke Custis (1711-1757) dies, leaving Martha a 26-year-old widow with two young children.
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799) acquires Mount Vernon.
Daily Life
The first street lights—whale-oil lamps designed by Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)—are used on a few streets in Philadelphia.
Popular Culture
The first public concert is held in Philadelphia.
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1758
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Presidents: James Monroe (1758-1831) 5th President of the U.S., is born on April 28, in Westmoreland County, Virginia.
War
French and Indian: English forces at Lake George, New York, lose nearly two thousand men during a frontal attach against well-entrenched French forces at Fort Ticonderoga; French losses are 377.
War
French and Indian: George Washington (1732-1799) and General John Forbes (1710-1759) take Fort Duquesne, later renamed Pittsburgh.
Inventions
A hose-knitting machine is invented.
Inventions
John Dolland (1706-1761) reinvents the achromatic lens.
Education
African American Education: A school for Negroes is established in Philadelphia by the Anglican missionary group.
Arts and Letters
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) writes his first symphony.
Washington, Martha
Martha Dandridge Custis (1731-1802) becomes engaged to George Washington (1732-1799).
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: An Act of Parliament establishes the Middleton Railway in Leeds.
Daily Life
Native Americans: Molly (Mary) Brant (c.1736-1796), a Mohawk woman, becomes the partner of Sir William Johnson. She is largely responsible for the alliance between the Iroquois and the British.
Daily Life
Native Americans: A raiding party consisting of French and Shawnee warriors takes Mary Jemison (1743-1833) captive. She adopts Native American customs, which she retains all her adult life.
Popular Culture
The first English manual on playing the guitar is published.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The first North American Indian reservation is established on 3,000 acres in New Jersey.
1759
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
French and Indian: The French surrender to the British at Quebec.
Medicine
Epidemic: A measles epidemic breaks out all over North America, wherever white people live.
Education
Museums: The British Museum is opened at Montegu House.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Voltaire (1694-1778) writes "Candide."
Washington, Martha
Martha Dandridge Custis (1731-1802) marries George Washington (1732-1799). The family moves first to Williamsburg, and then to Mount Vernon.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Smith (1744-1818) is received into her father’s Congregational Church in Weymouth on June 24. Later that summer, she meets John Adams (1735-1826) in her father’s parsonage.
Economics
Irish brewer Arthur Guinness (1725-1803) establishes a brewery in Dublin that will become the world’s largest
Economics
Colonial shipbuilders are producing nearly 400 vessels each year.
Economics
Thomas Penn (1702-1775) and Richard Penn establish the first recorded life insurance company, the Presbyterian Ministers fund, in Philadelphia.
Religion
Judaism: Architecture: Peter Harrison (1716-1775) designs the first U.S. synagugue, the Touro synagogue in Newport, RI.
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1760
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
George III (1738-1820) becomes King of Great Britain, Ireland, and the 1.6 million colonists living in America.
War
French and Indian: British General Lord Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797) captures Montreal and ends French resistance in Canada; France cedes Quebec to England.
Medicine
New York requires that all physicians and surgeons pass a test and be licensed to practice medicine.
Inventions
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) invents the first bifocal lenses for eye glasses.
Education
Special Education: The first British school for the deaf is opened by Thomas Braidwood (1715-1806), in Edinburgh.
Education
African American Education: The Bray School for African-American children is established in Williamsburg.
Education
Higher Education: College of William and Mary students petition for better food; they ask for salt and fresh meat for dinner, and desserts 3 times a week.
Arts and Letters
The Royal Society of the Arts is founded in London.
Jefferson, Martha
Thomas Jefferson (1723-1826) enters the College of William and Mary in Virginia.
Economics
Josiah Wedgewood (1730-1795) founds a pottery works at Etruria, Staffordshire, England.
Economics
U.S. Population: The population in the American colonies is estimated at 1.6 million.
Economics
Watermarks are used in woven paper.
Daily Life
Fashion: The first silk hats appear in Florence Italy.
Sports
The first roller skates are introduced in London by musical instrument maker Joseph Merlin (1735-1803).
Popular Culture
The rules of Whist (later to be bridge) are laid down by Edmund Hoyle (1672-1769).
1761
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
James Otis (1725-1783) opposes British writs of assistance, claiming they violate the natural rights of the British colonials.
War
French and Indian: General Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797) forbids presents of food and arms to Indians in the French and Indian War.
War
French and Indian: The Iroquois present a war belt to the Detroit Indians, but it is rejected.
Science
Russian scientist and poet Mikhail V. Lomonosov (1711-1765) discovers the atmosphere of Venus.
Science
Josef Kobreuter, German botanist, recognizes the role of the wind and insects in the pollination of plants.
Science
Chemist Joseph Black (1728-1799) discovers that ice absorbs heat without changing temperature when melting.
Medicine
Epidemic: An epidemic of influenza breaks out in North America and the West Indies.
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799) begins experimenting with crop rotation, soil fertilization, and livestock management and breeding at Mount Vernon.
Daily Life
The earliest recorded American folk ballad, “Springfield Mountain” is sung in New England.
Social Issues
Slavery: Women''''s Firsts: Slavery: The first black American poet, Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753-1784) is bought as a young child off a Boston slave ship.
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1762
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Catherine the Great (1729-1796) begins her 34-year reign as Empress of Russia.
Inventions
John Harrison (1693-1776), English inventor, builds a marine chronometer.
Education
Libraries: Higher Education: The library of the Sorbonne is opened in Paris.
Education
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) publishes "The Emile," his major treatise on education.
Ideas
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) publishes "The Social Contract."
Economics
Cast iron is converted into malleable iron for the first time in Scotland.
Economics
Ethan Allen (1738-1789) establishes an ironworks and blast furnace in Connecticut which will make many of the cannons used in the Revolutionary War.
Daily Life
Holidays: The first St. Patrick’s Day parade is held in New York City.
Religion
The Moravians publish a collection of hymns in the language of the Delaware Indians.
1763
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The British Proclamation of 1763 forbids the American colonists to settle the land beyond the Appalachian Mountains, and requires those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans.
War
French and Indian: General Thomas Gage (1721-1787) succeeds Lord Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797) as head of British forces in America.
War
French and Indian: The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War; France cedes Canada and all its North American territories east of the Mississippi to Great Britain.
Science
Nicole-Reine Lepaute’s (1723-1768) maps and tables showing the precise times and extent of an annular eclipse of the sun across Europe is published by the Academy of Sciences for astronomers and navigators.
Medicine
America’s first medical society is formed in New London, Connecticut.
Medicine
Epidemic: A smallpox epidemic breaks out in Massachusetts.
Medicine
Claudius Aymand (1660-1740) performs the first successful appendectomy.
Technology
The technology of printing is established in all 13 colonies.
Education
Frederick the Great (1712-1786) establishes village schools in Prussia.
Ideas
Voltaire (1694-1778) writes his "Treatise on Tolerance."
Adams, Abigail
A smallpox epidemic interferes with the wedding plans of John Adams and Abigail Smith; John has himself inoculated—a risky procedure—but has only mild effects from the inoculation.
Economics
The first Chambers of Commerce are established in New York and New Jersey.
Discovery
Charles Mason (1730-1787) and Jeremiah Dixon(1733-1779) begin surveying the Mason-Dixon line.
Social Issues
Slavery: The beginning of the free Negro tradition is seen in New England; there are 5214 Negroes in Massachusetts (out of a total population of 235,810).
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1764
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
At a town meeting in Boston, James Otis (1725-1783) raises the issue of taxation without representation and urges a united response to the recent acts imposed by England.
Government
Great Britain passes the Sugar Act to raise money to pay for the French and Indian War by taxing the colonies on lumber, food, molasses, and rum.
Medicine
Epidemic: A smallpox epidemic sparks the opening of two inoculation hospitals in the Boston area.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) invents the condenser, the first step toward the steam engine.
Inventions
The spinning jenny is invented in England.
Technology
Pierre-Simon Fournier (1712-1768), French engraver and typographer, publishes a work on typefaces and printing.
Education
Higher Education: Brown University is founded in Providence, RI.
Ideas
American James Otis (1725-1783) publishes "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved."
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Smith (1744-1818) marries John Adams (1735-1826) on October 25, at her father’s parsonage in Weymouth, Massachusetts; she is nineteen and he is twenty-nine.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison’s (1768-1849) father, John Payne, and her mother, Mary Coles Payne, apply to and are accepted into the Society of Friends (Quakers).
Economics
Boston merchants begin a boycott of British luxury goods.
Economics
The first permanent settlement (as a fur-trading post) is established by the French in St. Louis.
Daily Life
The practice of numbering houses is begun in London.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "Connecticut Courant," perhaps the American newspaper in longest continuing publication, is established in Hartford, CT.
Religion
Dancing: The first minister of the Dutch Reformed Church preaches in New York City; he tries to have dancing banned in the colony.
1765
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780) publishes "Commentaries on the Laws of England."
Politics
Delegates from nine colonies meet to draw up a declaration of rights and liberties.
Politics
Patrick Henry (1736-1799) presents seven Resolutions to the Virginia House of Burgesses, asserting that only the Virginia Assembly can legally tax Virginia residents; he says, “If this be treason, make the most of it.”
Politics
The Sons of Liberty is formed in many colonial towns; using violence and intimidation, its members eventually force all of the British stamp agents to resign and also stop many American merchants from ordering British goods.
Government
Parliament passes the Stamp Act, taxing all colonists on every paper purchase. In addition, the Quartering Act requires colonists to house and feed British troops.
Medicine
Higher Education: John Morgan (1736-1789) establishes the first medical school in America at the College of Philadelphia.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) designs a steam engine that produces power much more efficiently than the Newcomen engine of 1712.
Technology
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) suggests preserving food by means of hermetic sealing.
Education
Higher Education: A College of New Jersey (later, Princeton) student, William Patterson, founds the first college society of arts and letters in America.
Education
Public Education: Latin schools exist in at least 40 of 140 Massachusetts communities with more than 100 families.
Education
Curriculum for well-to-do young Southerners includes Latin, Greek, Hebrew, reading, writing, arithmetic-vulgar, plane geometry, surveying, Italian bookkeeping, and navigation.
Adams, Abigail
A daughter, Abigail – Nabby (1765-1813) – is born to Abigail and John Adams on July 14.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison‘s (1768-1849) parents, John Payne and Mary Coles Payne, move to North Carolina from Virginia.
Economics
Chocolate is first made at Dorchester, Massachusetts.
Economics
Philadelphia, with its agricultural exports, shipbuilding and iron forging, is the leading economic center of the American colonies.
Daily Life
The potato is the most popular foodstuff in Europe.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) begins "The Providence Gazette" in Rhode Island.
Sports
Horse Racing: Horse racing becomes popular in Maryland; the course at Annapolis is one of the best in the country.
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1766
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
New York residents continue to refuse to obey the Quartering Act.
Government
Great Britain repeals the Stamp Act but declares its right to tax the colonies.
Government
The New York legislature is suspended by the British crown.
Science
Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) discovers that hydrogen is less dense than air.
Medicine
The 8-volume "Physiological Elements of the Human Body," a milestone in medicine, is published by Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777).
Inventions
Johann Zumpe (1735-1800) builds the first pianoforte in England.
Education
Higher Education: Queen's College, later Rutgers University, is founded in New Jersey as a Dutch Reformed institution.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) writes "The Vicar of Wakefield," a novel.
Economics
Transportation: A stagecoach line between New York City and Philadelphia advertises itself as a “flying-machine;” in good weather, trips take two days.
Discovery
Charles Mason (1730-1787) and Jeremiah Dixon (1733-1779) finish surveying the Mason-Dixon Line.
Daily Life
The first paved sidewalk is laid in Westminster, London.
Sports
The first regular fox-hunting group, The Gloucester Fox Hunting Club, is established in New Jersey.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: The first play on an American subject, "Ponteach," or "The Savages of America" is written by Major Robert Rogers (1731-1795).
Popular Culture
American Theatre: An early, permanent playhouse, the Southwark Theatre, is built in Philadelphia.
Religion
Catherine the Great (1729-1796) establishes freedom of worship in Russia.
Religion
The oldest surviving church in Manhattan, St. Paul’s Chapel, is constructed.
1767
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Boston residents agree not to import those items taxed by the Townshend Acts.
Government
With the Townshend Acts, Britain imposes taxes on imports of tea, glass, paper, and dyestuffs.
Government
Presidents: Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), seventh President of the United States, is born in Waxhaw, South Carolina on March 15.
Government
Presidents: John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), sixth President of the United States, is born on July 11, in Massachusetts.
Science
Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) proposes an electrical inverse-square law.
Inventions
The astronomer David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) invents a planetarium.
Education
The first of the weekly numbers of the "Encyclopedia Britannica" is published; 100 are planned.
Education
Higher Education: King’s College in New York City opens the second of America’s medical schools.
Education
Austrian emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) and his mother, Maria Theresa (1717-1780), introduce educational reforms.
Arts and Letters
Essay: Adam Ferguson (1723-1816) publishes "An Essay on the History of Civil Society."
Adams, Abigail
A son, John Quincy (1767-1848), is born to John and Abigail Adams on July 11th.
Jackson, Rachel
Rachel Donelson (1767-1828), is born in Virginia on June 15.
Economics
Women''s Firsts: Anne Catherine Hoof Green (c.1720-1775) takes over her late husband''s printing and newspaper business, becoming the first American woman to run a print shop.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) sails on the first circumnavigation of the world; he returns in June 1771.
Discovery
Starting in North Carolina, Daniel Boone (1734-1820) makes his first exploration west of the Appalachian Mountains, traveling along the present-day Kentucky-West Virginia border.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: The first professional production of a native play, 'The Prince of Parthia,' by Thomas Godfrey (1736-1763) is mounted in Philadelphia.
Religion
The Jesuits are expelled from Spain and France.
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1768
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Samuel Adams (1722-1803) of Massachusetts writes a Circular Letter opposing taxation without representation.
Politics
Boston citizens refuse to quarter British troops.
Government
The Massachusetts Assembly is dissolved for refusing to assist in the collection of taxes.
Government
Native Americans: treaties are negotiated between Great Britain and the six nations of the Iroquois.
War
Revolutionary War: British troops sail to Boston, and two regiments come ashore to take up quarters in the city.
Medicine
Smallpox inoculations in Norfolk, VA cause riots.
Education
Higher Education: The medical school at Philadelphia College graduates its first physicians.
Arts and Letters
The Royal Academy is founded in London, with painter Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) as president.
Adams, Abigail
A second daughter, Susanna (1768-1770), is born December 28 to Abigail and John Adams. The Adams family moves to Boston.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne (1768-1849) is born on May 20 in Guilford County, North Carolina.
Monroe, Elizabeth
Elizabeth Kortright (1768-1830) is born on June 30 in New York City.
Economics
Sheet music is published and sold in Boston.
Economics
Anne Catherine Green (c.1720-1775) is formally appointed provincial printer for the province of Maryland.
Discovery
Explorer James Cook (1728-1779) investigates islands in the south Pacific, and observes a transit of Venus in order to determine the size of the solar system.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "Boston Gazette" publishes “The Liberty Song,” possibly America''s first patriotic song.
Religion
The first Methodist Church is established in New York City.
1769
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Privy Council in London decides to retain the duty on tea in the American colonies.
Government
The Virginia Assembly is dissolved.
Government
San Diego is founded by Franciscan Friar Juniper Serra (1713-1784).
Science
David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) plots the orbits of Venus and Mercury.
Science
Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) suggests an evolutionary theory.
Science
New mathematical symbols, such as pi are introduced by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783).
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) patents his steam engine.
Inventions
Frenchman Nicholas Cugnot (1725-1804) builds a steam carriage.
Education
The Academie de Coiffure is established in France by Legros de Rumigny, who teaches hairdressing and wig-making skills.
Education
The first day nursery opens at Steintal, Alsace.
Education
Higher Education: Native American Education: Dartmouth College is established to educate Native Americans.
Jefferson, Martha
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) begins building Monticello in Albemarle County, Virginia.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne’s (1768-1849) father, John Payne, moves his wife and family back to his wife's family plantation at Cole's Hill, Virginia.
Economics
The first American-made printing fonts are produced by silversmith Abel Buell (1742-1822).
Economics
Henry William Stiegel (1729-1785) opens his glass works in Manheim, Pennsylvania.
Discovery
Daniel Boone (1734-1820) explores the Cumberland Gap.
Daily Life
The first lightning rod conductors are installed on high buildings.
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1770
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The British Parliament repeals the Townshend Acts, but retains the duty on tea. The Quartering Act is not renewed.
War
Revolutionary War: The “Boston Massacre” occurs.
Medicine
John Warren and several other Harvard students form a society for the secret dissection of animals; this society later becomes the Massachusetts Medical Society.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Benjamin Bannecker (1731-1806) builds a wooden clock that keeps accurate time for more than 50 years.
Education
Higher Education: The College of Charleston is established in South Carolina as the first municipal college.
Education
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) publishes a mathematics textbook, "Introduction to Algebra."
Arts and Letters
Painting: Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) paints “The Blue Boy.”
Ideas
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) writes "Thoughts on the Causes of the Present Discontent."
Adams, Abigail
Susanna Adams (1767-1770), second daughter of Abigail and John Adams, dies at 13 months of age on February 4. It is widely reported that she was "sickly" from birth (usually a way of saying either that the cause was an unknown infection or that no one really knew what was wrong).
Adams, Abigail
A second son, Charles (1770-1800), is born to Abigail and John Adams on November 30. John Adams is asked to defend the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre; he does, and they are acquitted.
Economics
U.S. Population: The American colonies’ population is estimated at 2.2 million.
Economics
"The New England Psalm Singer," by William Billings (1746-1800), marks the beginning of publishing of American compositions.
Discovery
James Bruce (1730-1794) discovers the source of the Blue Nile.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) discovers Botany Bay in Australia.
1771
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) discovers the electrical nature of the nervous impulse.
Science
Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) discovers that plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.
Medicine
New York Hospital is founded.
Education
The Encyclopedia Britannica publishes its first edition.
Education
An edict in Spain requires the modernization of textbooks.
Ideas
The first issue of "Transactions," the journal of the American Philosophical Society, is published.
Economics
Sir Richard Arkwright (1732-1792) produces the first spinning mill in England.
Daily Life
Quaker Susanna Wright (1697-1784) acts as a legal counselor, unofficial magistrate, and physician for her neighbors in Pennsylvania.
Religion
The first separate Baptist Association was formed at a meeting in Orange County, Virginia.
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1772
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Slavery: An English court rules that a slave is free on landing in England.
Politics
Samuel Adams (1722-1803) forms the Committees of Correspondence in Massachusetts for action against Great Britain.
Politics
The Boston Assembly demands rights of colonies, threatens secession.
Science
Daniel Rutherford (1749-1819) and Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) discover nitrogen.
Science
Caroline Herschel (1750-1848), with her brother, William Herschel (1738-1822) assists in the first sightings of eight comets and 14 nebulae.
Science
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) clarifies the basic principles of optics, acoustics, mechanics, and astronomy.
Inventions
John Hobday of Virginia, invents the threshing machine.
Education
The first schoolhouse west of the Allegheny Mountains is built in Schoenbrunn, Ohio, by Moravian missionaries.
Education
Higher Education: Education of Women: Women’s Colleges: Salem Academy is founded in North Carolina and is chartered as a college in 1866.
Arts and Letters
Painting: Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827) completes a life-sized portrait of George Washington.
Adams, Abigail
A third son, Thomas Boylston (1772-1832), is born to Abigail and John Adams on September 15.
Jefferson, Martha
Martha Wayles Skelton (1748-1782) marries Thomas Jefferson on New Year's Day, when she is 23.
Jefferson, Martha
Martha "Patsy" Washington Jefferson Randolph (1772-1836), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born September 27.
Discovery
James Bruce (1730-1794) traces the Blue Nile to its confluence with the White Nile.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) leaves England on his second voyage; this time he approaches the Antarctic Circle.
Sports
The first military ski competitions are held in Norway.
Religion
The Inquisition is abolished in France.
1773
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The Virginia House of Burgesses appoints a Provincial Committee of Correspondence.
Politics
The Boston Tea Party takes place, dumping 340 chests of tea into Boston harbor in a protest against the duty on tea.
Government
Presidents: William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), 9th Presdident of the United States, is born on February 9 in Berkeley, Virginia.
Medicine
Mental Health Movement: An early mental hospital, the Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds, opens in Williamsburg, VA.
Education
Museums: The Charleston (VA) Library Society opens the first American museum of natural history.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) writes the play, "She Stoops to Conquer."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Women''s Firsts: Women''s Firsts: Black poet Phillis Wheatley (c.1753-1784) publishes "Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral," the first published works by an African American poet.
Arts and Letters
Dance: A dance class begun in Moscow later becomes the Bolshoi Ballet Company.
Washington, Martha
Martha "Patsy" Parke Custis (1754-1773), second daughter of Martha Washington and John Parke Custis, and stepdaughter of George Washington, dies suddenly of epilepsy on June 19.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818) establishes a friendship with Mercy Warren (1728-1814), sister of James Otis (1725-1783).
Economics
Transportation: Oliver Evans (1755-1819) proposes steam-powered “horseless carriage.”
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779), captains the first ship to cross the Antarctic Circle.
Daily Life
Dancing: The waltz becomes fashionable in Vienna.
Daily Life
310 street lamps are installed and kept lighted in Boston from October to May.
Religion
Pope Clement XIV (1705-1774) dissolves the Jesuit Order.
Religion
The first annual conference of American Methodists meets in Philadelphia.
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1774
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The Virginia House of Burgesses calls a Continental Congress to meet at Philadelphia.
Government
General Thomas Gage (1721-1787) arrives from England to be Royal Governor of Massachusetts.
Government
Parliament passes the Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts); the port of Boston is closed.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington (1732-1799) orders a military campaign against the Iroquois.
Science
Johann G. Gahn (1745-1818) isolates manganese.
Science
Karl W. Scheele (1742-1786) discovers chorine and barium.
Medicine
Austrian physician Franz Mesmer (1734-1815) uses hypnosis for health purposes.
Medicine
Native Americans: Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) describes Indian medical practices.
Inventions
Scotsman James Watt (1736-1819) builds first "modern" stationary steam engine
Education
Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) founds a school for orphaned and neglected children in Zurich (Switzerland).
Education
Education of Women: Leonhard Usteri founds the first school for girls in Zurich, Switzerland.
Ideas
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) writes his first important work, "A Summary View of the Rights of British America."
Washington, Martha
Jacky Custis (1755-1781) leaves King's College to marry Eleanor Calvert of Maryland and settle at Abingdon, his estate up the river from Mount Vernon.
Adams, Abigail
John Adams (1735-1826) goes to the first Continental Congress.
Jefferson, Martha
Jane Randolph Jefferson (1774-1775), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on April 3.
Economics
English silversmith Hester Bateman (c. 1709-1794) registers her hallmark in London’s guildhall.
Daily Life
Magazines: The Royal American Magazine is the first to use illustrations regularly, some engravings contributed by Paul Revere (1735-1818).
Sports
Cricket: The rules for cricket are first drawn up.
Religion
The Quebec Act, to secure Canada’s loyalty to Great Britain, establishes Roman Catholicism in Canada.
Religion
Anne Lee (1736-1784) of Massachusetts settles in New York to begin a spiritualist revival (the Shakers).
1775
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Native Americans: The Continental Congress establishes a Committee on Indian Affairs, appointing commissioners to create peace treaties with the Indians.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington becomes Commander-in-Chief, a navy is authorized.
War
Revolutionary War: The American Revolution begins on April 19, with the battles at Lexington and Concord; the Battle of Bunker Hill follows shortly.
War
Revolutionary War: England hires 29,000 German mercenaries for war in North America.
War
Revolutionary War: Fort Ticonderoga is captured from the British.
Science
Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.
Medicine
Digitalis is used for the first time as a diuretic in dropsy (water retention in the body).
Medicine
Epidemics: A world-wide epidemic of influenza occurs.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) perfects his invention of the steam engine.
Inventions
David Bushnell (1742-1824) invents a one-man, hand-operated submarine, the “American Turtle.”
Ideas
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) writes his “Speech on Conciliation with America.”
Ideas
Patrick Henry (1736-1799) gives his famous “Give me liberty or give me death” speech.
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799) attends the Second Continental Congress, where he accepts command of the Continental Army. In December, Martha (1731-1802) joins him at his headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Jefferson, Martha
Jane Randolph Jefferson (1774-1775), second daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies at seventeen months in September.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne (1768-1849) attends school with her brothers at the Cedar Creek Friends meetinghouse in Virginia.
Adams, Louisa
Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775-1852) is born in London on February 12. She is the first First Lady to be born outside of the United States.
Harrison, Anna
Anna Tuthill Symmes (1775-1864) is born in Flatbrook, New Jersey on July 25.
Economics
American Money: American colonists issue paper currency for the Continental Congress to finance the Revolutionary War.
Economics
The colonies supply nearly 15% of the world’s iron.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) returns from his second voyage.
Daily Life
The song “Yankee Doodle” becomes popular as a rallying song to taunt the British.
Daily Life
Women’s Firsts: Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) became the first woman postmaster in the country (in Baltimore).
Sports
Native Americans: Indians in Florida are described as playing lacrosse, using a deerskin ball and deerskin nets on sticks.
Popular Culture
Sarah Siddons (1755-1831) appears for the first time at the Drury Lane Theatre in London.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: Colonial government regulations curb sport and entertainment during the Revolution; theatres close.
Social Issues
Slavery: Thomas Paine (1737-1806) writes "African Slavery in America."
Reform
Abolition Movement: The first abolition society in the U.S. is organized in Philadelphia by Anthony Benezet (1713-1784); Benjamin Franklin becomes its president in 1787.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: American political philosopher Thomas Paine (1737-1806) proposes women’s rights in an article in the Pennsylvania Magazine.
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1776
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Declaration of Independence, drafted by The Continental Congress, is signed on July 4.
Government
The Second Continental Congress names the new nation the United States of America.
War
Revolutionary War: The British army occupies New York City.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington (1732-1799) crosses the Delaware River, defeating the Hessian troops at Trenton, NJ.
Education
Higher Education: Phi Beta Kappa is founded at the College of William and Mary.
Arts and Letters
Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) writes "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."
Ideas
Adam Smith (1723-1790) writes "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations."
Ideas
Thomas Paine’s (1737-1806) "Common Sense" is published.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818) writes a letter to John in which she tells him to “remember the ladies” when writing the Declaration of Independence.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: English tram road is laid down with cast iron angle bars on timber ties.
Discovery
James Cook’s (1728-1779) third voyage to the Pacific begins.
Discovery
Franciscan friars Dominguez and Escalante (1769–1779) explore route from New Mexico to California.
Daily Life
Disasters: Fire destroys most of the old parts of New York City.
Religion
San Francisco is established by Spanish missionaries.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Cherokee leader Nancy (or Nanye’hi) Ward (c. 1738-1824) heads the Woman’s Council and sits as a member of the Council of Chiefs.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: New Jersey grants women the right to vote (revoked in 1807).
1777
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
Government
American Flag: On June 14, 1777, the Continental Congress passes the first Flag Act which states: "That the flag of the United States be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation."
War
Revolutionary War: The Marquis de Lafayette’s (1757-1834) French volunteers arrive in America.
War
Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne (1722-1792) is defeated and surrenders to the Americans at Saratoga, NY.
Science
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) proves that air consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen, and coins the term oxygen.
Medicine
George Washington (1732-1799) orders his soldiers to be inoculated against smallpox.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816) writes the comedy "The School for Scandal."
Jefferson, Martha
The only Jefferson son was born May 28 and died a short while later on June 14. Over the course of time, this child's name has been lost.
Economics
Women''s Firsts: Baltimore postmaster Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) is the first person to print the Declaration of Independence.
Daily Life
Women’s Firsts: Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) became the first printer to offer copies of the Declaration of Independence that included the signers' names.
Religion
The New Testament of the Bible is published in English for the first time in America.
Religion
The chapel of the San Juan Capistrano mission, the oldest building still in existence in California, is built.
Social Issues
Slavery: Vermont abolishes slavery, becoming the first colony to do so.
Social Issues
Civil Rights Movement: New York enfranchises all free propertied men regardless of color or prior servitude.
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1778
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Congress ratifies a treaty with France and rejects a British peace offer.
Government
Slavery: An Act of Congress prohibits the import of slaves into the U.S.
War
Revolutionary War: British Tories and Indians massacre inhabitants of Wyoming Valley, PA and Cherry Valley, NY.
War
Revolutionary War: Mary McCauley (1754-1832) (Molly Pitcher), carries water to American soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth; she then mans her husband’s cannon when he is killed.
Medicine
William Brown (1748-1792), Virginia physician, publishes "Pharmacopoeia," a guide to medicines and drugs.
Inventions
Joseph Bramah (1748-1814) from Yorkshire constructs an improved water closet (toilet).
Education
Phillips Andover Academy is founded in Massachusetts, with a broader curriculum than the Latin Grammar School.
Adams, Abigail
A sixth child is stillborn to Abigail (1744-1818) and John Adams (1735-1826).
Jefferson, Martha
Mary "Polly" "Maria" Jefferson (1778-1804), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on August 1.
Economics
American Money: The dollar sign ($) is created by Oliver Pollack.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) discovers Hawaii (then called the Sandwich Islands).
Social Issues
Native Americans: Frances Slocum (1773-1847) is captured by Delaware Indians; she is discovered in 1835 but refuses to return to her family, preferring to die where “the Great Spirit will find me.”
Social Issues
Slavery: Rhode Island forbids the removal of slaves from the state.
Social Issues
Slavery: Virginia prohibits the importation of slaves.
1779
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
Revolutionary War: John Paul Jones (1747-1792) makes his famous statement, “I have not yet begun to fight!” aboard the American warship Bonhomme Richard.
War
Revolutionary War: The British surrender to Americans at Vincennes.
Medicine
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) studies the role of semen in fertilization.
Education
Higher Education: Under Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), William and Mary College creates schools of medicine, law and modern languages, and pioneers in a system allowing students to choose courses.
Education
Public Education: Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) proposes a two-track educational system, with different tracks in his words for "the laboring and the learned." Scholarship would allow a very few of the laboring class to advance, Jefferson says, by "raking a few geniuses from the rubbish."
Daily Life
The first “velocipedes” (bicycles) appear in Paris.
Daily Life
Political cartooning blossoms in England with satires of King George III (1738-1820) drawn by James Gillray (1756-1815).
Sports
Horse Racing: The Derby is established at Epsom racetrack in England.
Sports
Horse Racing: Quarter-mile horse races become popular around Charlottesville, VA.
Religion
John Murray (1741-1815) establishes the First Universalist congregation at Gloucester, Massachusetts.
Religion
The Great Awakening: Olney Hymns are published; it includes the original form of “Amazing Grace,” written by John Newton (1725-1807), a converted slave trader.
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1780
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The capital of Virginia is moved to Richmond.
Science
The American Academy of Sciences is founded in Boston.
Medicine
The Philadelphia Humane Society is established to teach first aid (reviving drowning victims). Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) proposes mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Inventions
The circular saw is invented by Gervinus.
Inventions
Scheller invents the first fountain pen.
Technology
Battery Technology: The modern battery development dates as far back as the late 18th century. The cause was championed by the work carried out by Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) from 1780 to 1786.
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth I (1780-1781), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on November 3.
Economics
Population: U.S. population is estimated at 2.7 million.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first Sunday newspapers appear in London.
Daily Life
Dancing: The bolero, a lively Spanish dance, is introduced by Sebastian Cerezo.
Sports
Cricket: The first six-seamed cricket ball is manufactured in England.
Social Issues
Slavery: Women''s Firsts: Elizabeth Freeman (1742-1829), great-grandmother of W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) and the first slave to be emancipated in the American colonies is given her freedom in Massachusetts.
Social Issues
Slavery: Delaware makes it illegal to enslave imported Africans.
Social Issues
Slavery: Pennsylvania begins gradual emancipation of slaves.
1781
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Thomas Barclay (1728-1793) is appointed as the first diplomat of the Continental Government, representing the new nation in France.
War
Revolutionary War: The American Revolution ends when British General Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805) surrenders to General George Washington (1732-1799) at Yorktown, Virginia.
Science
Astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers the planet Uranus.
Education
Johann Pestalozzi (1747-1827) writes his educational aims in the novel, "Leonard and Gertrude."
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth I (1780-1781), fourth daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies 5 months after birth on April 15, perhaps as a result of exposure to wintry cold as she fled with her family from the British.
Washington, Martha
John "Jacky" Parke Custis (1754-1781), second son of Martha Washington and stepson of George Washington, dies of dysentery while serving under Washington during the Revolutionary War. The Washingtons take his two younger children, George Washington Parke Custis and Eleanor (Nelly) Custis, to raise.
Economics
American Money: Also to support the Revolutionary War, the continental Congress charters the Bank of North America in Philadelphia as the nation's first "real" bank.
Economics
Blue laws get their name in New Haven, CT, when a town ordinance printed on blue paper prohibits work on Sunday.
Economics
Construction begins on the Siberian highway.
Economics
The Bank of North America is chartered.
Religion
Franciscan monks settle at Los Angeles.
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1782
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Great Seal of the United States is adopted.
Government
Presidents: Martin Van Buren (1782-1862), 8th President of the United States, is born on December 5 in Kinderhook, New York.
War
Preliminary peace negotiations between England and the United States occur in Paris.
War
Congress passes a national conscription act to require “each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the republic” to serve in the U.S. militia.
Medicine
Higher Education: Harvard Medical school opens.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) invents a double-acting rotary steam engine.
Technology
Hot Air Balloons: The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph (1740-1810) and Jacques (1745-1799), build an hot air balloon.
Education
Catholic Education: The first Catholic parochial school is founded by St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Philadelphia.
Arts and Letters
The Royal Irish Academy is founded in Dublin.
Jefferson, Martha
Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson (1748-1782), wife of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), dies on September 6 at Monticello. She is the first First Lady to die before her husband was elected to office.
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth II (1782-1784), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on May 8.
Economics
The Bank of North America is established in Philadelphia.
Reform
Temperance Movement: A Town Meeting in Worcester, Massachusetts opposes a state liquor tax because it is felt that liquor is necessary for the morale of farm workers.
1783
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
Revolutionary War: Great Britain recognizes the independence of the U.S. and the war is officially over with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington (1732-1799) resigns as Commander-in-Chief and the Continental Army is disbanded.
Science
Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) suggests that water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.
Inventions
John Broadwood (1732-1812) patents his piano pedals.
Inventions
D. Domenico Salsano invents the seismograph for measuring the strength of earthquakes.
Education
Higher Education: Enrollment at Yale College is 270.
Education
Education of Women: Choderlos de Laclos (1741-1803) publishes "De l’éducation des femmes" (On the Education of Women).
Education
Noah Webster (1758-1843) publishes "The American Spelling Book," called the “Blue-Backed Speller,” which helps standardize spelling of American English.
Arts and Letters
The first works of Ludwig van Beethoven’s (1770-1827) are published.
Washington, Martha
As the Revolutionary War ends, Martha (1731-1892) and George Washington (1732-1799) return to Mount Vernon.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison’s (1764-1849) father, John Payne, influenced by his Quaker tenets and desiring a better education for his children, frees his slaves, sells his plantation, and moves his family to Philadelphia.
Van Buren, Hannah
Hannah Hoes (1783-1819) is born on March 8th in Kinderhook, New York. She is the first First Lady to be born an American citizen. All First Ladies before her were British subjects.
Economics
Population: Population of the U.S. is estimated at 2.4 million.
Daily Life
Newspapers: At the war's end, there are forty-three newspapers in print. The press plays a vital role in the affairs of the new nation; many more newspapers are started, representing all shades of political opinion.
Daily Life
Society of the Cincinnati, an elite American Revolutionary group, is established.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first daily newspaper in the U.S., "The Pennsylvania Evening Post," begins publication.
Daily Life
Transportation: It takes Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) five days to travel from Philadelphia to Baltimore, about 90 miles.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: The first recorded manned flight in a hot air balloon takes place in Paris; the Montgolfier brothers pilot their paper and silk balloon for 22 minutes.
Social Issues
Slavery: Virginia emancipates those slaves who served in the colonial forces against Britain, provided that the slave's master gives permission.
Social Issues
Slavery: Affluent free blacks in New Orleans, Louisiana, organize the Perseverance, Benevolence and Mutual Aid Association to support their own interests and assist the poor.
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1784
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Slavery: Congress narrowly defeats Thomas Jefferson’s (1743-1826) proposal to ban slavery in new territories after 1800.
Government
Presidents: Zachary Taylor (1784-1950), 12th President of the U.S., is born November 24, near Barboursville, Virginia.
Government
North Carolina cedes its western lands to the U.S. The state of Franklin (present-day east Tennessee) exists until 1888, when settlers accept renewed jurisdiction of North Carolina.
War
Revolutionary War: The U.S. ratifies the treaty with England ending the Revolutionary War.
Medicine
Johann von Goethe (1749-1837) discovers the human intermaxillary bone.
Inventions
Swiss inventor Aimé Argand (1755-1803) designs an oil burner.
Inventions
Joseph Bramah (1748-1814), English engineer, invents a pick-proof lock.
Education
Special Education: The first school for the blind is established in Paris.
Education
Higher Education: King’s College in New York City becomes Columbia University.
Ideas
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) publishes "Notes on Virginia."
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818) joins husband, John (1735-1826), in Paris, where he is an ambassador.
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth II (1782-1784), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies October 13 from the "complicated evils of teething, worms and hooping cough."
Economics
The "Empress of China" sails from Salem, Massachusetts to Canton, China, establishing a route for the New England-China trade.
Daily Life
The first political cartoons by Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) are published.
Daily Life
Magazines: "Gentlemen and Ladies’ Town and Country Magazine" begins publication as does "The American Mercury."
Sports
Deer hunting at night in the Carolinas is made a misdemeanor because of the accidental slaughter of many cows and horses.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: Vincent Lunardi (1759-1806) first ascends in a hot air balloon in England.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: Elisabeth Thible becomes the first woman to go aloft as a passenger in a hot air balloon over Lyons, France.
Religion
The first American bishop for the colonies is appointed.
Religion
The Great Awakening: John Wesley (1702-1791) publishes his Deed of Declaration, and Weslayan Methodism is chartered.
Religion
Women''s Firsts: Hannah Adams (1755-1832), the first American woman to support herself as a writer, publishes "An Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects."
1785
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) becomes Minister to France and John Adams (1735-1826) becomes Minister to Great Britain.
Government
Congress passes the Land Ordinance of 1785 (Northwest Ordinance).
Inventions
Chlorine bleach is invented.
Inventions
The steam-powered loom is invented.
Education
The London Society for the Establishment of Sunday Schools is founded.
Education
Public Education: The Northwest Ordinance stimulates the establishment of public schools through land grants by stipulating that certain amounts of land must be set aside for public education purposes.
Ideas
Hot Air Balloons: Philip Freneau (1752-1832) suggests that hot air balloons could be used to travel to other planets.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818) continues as a diplomatic wife in London when John (1735-1826) is appointed the first U.S. minister to Great Britain.
Economics
American Money: The dollar becomes the official currency of the United States.
Economics
Ann Timothy holds the post Printer to the State of South Carolina.
Economics
Transportation: Regular stagecoach routes linking New York City, Boston, and Philadelphia begin operations.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: The first hot air balloon flight across the English Channel takes place.
Social Issues
Slavery: Virginia deems any person with black blood to be a mulatto and declares that the use of the term Negro is understood to include mulattos.
Social Issues
Slavery: New York passes a gradual emancipation law, prohibits the importation of slaves, and allows masters to manumit slaves without posting bonds.
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1786
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
German chemist M. H. Klaproth (1743-1817) discovers uranium.
Medicine
Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) suggests that some illnesses may be psychosomatic.
Medicine
Pennsylvania Hospital opens an outpatient dispensary, a forerunner of free clinics.
Inventions
American inventor James Rumsey (c.1743-1792), designs the first mechanically driven boat.
Education
Education of Women: A government boarding school for girls is founded in Vienna for the education of teachers and governesses.
Education
Museums: The Philadelphia Museum is founded by Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827).
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Robert Burns (1759-1796) publishes "Poems, chiefly in the Scottish dialect."
Arts and Letters
Opera: Mozart’s (1756-1791) "The Marriage of Figaro" is produced in Vienna.
Monroe, Elizabeth
Elizabeth Kortright (1768-1830) marries James Monroe (1738-1851) in February when she is seventeen.
Monroe, Elizabeth
Eliza Kortright Monroe (1817-1825), daughter of President James Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe, is born.
Economics
Debt-ridden farmers in western Massachusetts, led by Daniel Shays (c.1745-1825), revolt against the state government, protesting high taxes, shortage of money, and insistent creditors. Shays’ Rebellion is crushed in 1787.
Economics
The first ice cream is made commercially in New York City.
Sports
Golf: The Charleston, NC Golf Club is established.
Sports
Mt. Blanc in the Alps is climbed for the first time.
Religion
A collection of sacred music for schools is the first book in the U.S. published with moveable type.
Religion
The Religious Freedom Act abolishes religious tests for voting in Virginia.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The U.S. establishes first Native American reservation and policy of dealing with each tribe as an independent nation.
1787
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
A constitutional convention meets in Philadelphia to frame a Constitution; the Constitution of the U.S. is signed.
Government
New State: Delaware ratifies the Constitution and becomes the 1st state in the Union; Pennsylvania is 2nd state in the Union; New Jersey becomes the 3rd.
Government
Congress enacts the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
Government
National Capital: The new Constitution provides the the creation of a separate national capital, and the search for a site begins.
Inventions
American inventor John Fitch (1743-1798) launches a steamboat on the Delaware River.
Education
Children''s Books: The first American edition of "Mother Goose Rhymes" is published by Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831
Education
Higher Education: The College of Physicians of Philadelphia opens.
Arts and Letters
Mozart (1756-1791) composes "Don Giovanni;" it premieres in Prague.
Ideas
John Adams (1735-1826) writes "A Defense of the Constitution of Government of the U.S.A."
Ideas
James Madison (1751-1836) writes "The Vices of the Political System of the United States."
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799) attends a concert given by Alexander Reinagle (c.1750-1809), finest pianist in the U.S. at the time; he later engages Reinagle to give music lessons to his daughter.
Economics
The first American cotton mill opens in Beverly, Massachusetts.
Daily Life
One of the first non-religious song books, A Select Collection of the Most Favorite Scots Tunes, is published in the U.S. by Alexander Rienagle.
Religion
Lucy Wright (1760-1821), successor to Ann Lee, dominates the period of the Shaker society’s greatest growth.
Religion
Black preacher Richard Allen (1760-1831) founds the African Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Reform
Abolition Movement: The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade is formed by British Quakers.
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1788
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
New State: Georgia ratifies the new Constitution and becomes the 4th state admitted to the Union; Connecticut becomes the 5th; Massachusetts is the 6th; Maryland is the 7th; South Carolina is the 8th; New Hampshire is the 9th; Virginia is the 10th; New York is the 11th.
Government
National Capital: New York City becomes the federal capital of the U.S.
Government
National Capital: Maryland and Virginia give land for a new federal capital.
Science
The Marquis Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827) writes "Laws of the Planetary System."
Medicine
Mobs riot in New York and Boston protesting the use of cadavers for dissection in medical schools.
Inventions
Andrew Meikle (1719-1811), Scottish millwright, patents a thrasher for removing husks from grain.
Education
Hannah More (1745-1833) opens a school for illiterates in England and receives much opposition for educating laborers.
Education
Public Education: The Constitution gives the power to establish schools and license teachers to individual states rather than to the federal government.
Ideas
"The Federalist Papers" are published.
Ideas
Emmanuel Kant (1724-1804) writes "A Critique of Pure Reason."
Adams, Abigail
Abigail (1744-1818) and John Adams (1735-1826) return to Braintree, MA from abroad.
Taylor, Margaret
Margaret “Peggy” Mackall Smith (1788-1852), wife of Zachary Taylor, is born in Calvert County, MD on September 21.
Economics
"Northwest America," the first American ship built on the west coast, is launched.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Botany Bay in Australia becomes an English penal colony.
Daily Life
The first hortensia and fuchsia are imported to Europe from Peru.
Daily Life
Disasters: Fire destroys more than 800 buildings in New Orleans.
Social Issues
Slavery: New York passes a new comprehensive slave law, confirming that all current slaves are slaves for life.
Social Issues
Slavery: Connecticut and Massachusetts forbid residents from participating in the slave trade.
1789
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Federal Judiciary Act creates the Supreme Court.
Law
Chief Justices: President George Washington (1732-1799) nominates John Jay (1745-1829) as the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on September 24th. The Senate confirms the appointment on September 26th. After serving as Chief Justice for five years, Jay resigns from the Supreme Court on June 29, 1795. He is elected Governor of New York in 1796.
Law
The Constitution of the United States goes into effect; the first ten amendments to the Constitution are introduced by the Congress.
Politics
George Washington (1732-1799) is elected President of the U.S., and John Adams (1735-1826)is elected Vice President.
Politics
First Political Parties: The Federalist Party is formed.
Politics
Tammany (Hall) is founded in New York City.
Politics
Political buttons first appear.
Government
New State: North Carolina ratifies the Constitution and becomes the 12th state admitted to the Union.
War
French Revolution: The French Revolution begins.
Medicine
Edward Holyoke (1728-1829), physician, publishes life expectancy table showing the Americans live longer than Europeans.
Inventions
Englishman William Jessup designs first wagons with flanged wheels.
Education
Higher Education: Georgetown University is established in what is now Washington, D.C.
Education
The first modern chemistry textbook, "Elements of Chemistry," is published by Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794); all illustrations are provided by his wife, Marie.
Education
One of the earliest complaints about a textbook is made by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison against a geography book written by Jedidiah Morse, who object to the popular text’s characterization of the young men of Virginia, as “gamblers, cockfighters, and horse-jockies”.
Ideas
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), English barrister, publishes "An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation."
Washington, Martha
Martha Washington (1731-1802) becomes the nation’s first First Lady. She does not attend her husband''s presidential inauguration, but joins him several weeks later in New York City, the nation''''s first capital.
Adams, Abigail
John Adams (1735-1826) becomes Vice President; serves two terms under George Washington.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Paine’s (1764-1849) father loses his business in Philadelphia and is expelled from the Pine Street Monthly Meeting for failure to pay his debts.
Economics
Christopher Colles (c.1738-1821) publishes the first American road map.
Economics
Women''s Firsts: Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) opens a Baltimore bookstore, probably the first woman in America to do so.
Daily Life
Chrysanthemums are introduced to Britain from the Orient.
Daily Life
Holidays: Thanksgiving Day is celebrated as a national holiday for the first time.
Daily Life
Magazines: The first periodical designed for children, "The Children’s Magazine," is published in Hartford, CT.
Reform
Abolition Movement: The Maryland Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery and the Relief of Free Negroes and Others Unlawfully Held in Bondage is founded.
Reform
Temperance Movement: The first organized temperance group is formed by 200 farmers in Connecticut, who pledge not to drink alcoholic beverages during farming season.
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1790
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The first session of the Supreme Court takes place.
Government
The Copyright Act is passed with the help of Noah Webster.
Government
Congress gives George Washington (1732-1799) the power to choose the site for the new capitol.
Government
U.S. President George Washington (1732-1799) delivers the first State of the Union address.
Government
New State: Rhode Island becomes the 13th state to ratify the Constitution and join the United States.
Government
Presidents: John Tyler (1790-1862), 10th President of the U.S., is born in Greenway, Virginia.
Medicine
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) rages against the prevalent practice of bloodletting as a universal cure and founds homeopathy.
Inventions
A foot-powered dental drill is invented by John Greenwood (1760-1819).
Education
Education of Women: Catherine Macaulay’s (1731-1791) "Letters on Education" influences Mary Wollstonecraft’s thinking in "A Vindication of the Rights of Women" (1792).
Education
Public Education: Pennsylvania state constitution calls for free public education but only for poor children. It is expected that rich people will pay for their children's schooling.
Washington, Martha
The Washingtons move to Philadelphia when the capital does.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne (1764-1849) marries John Todd, Jr., a Quaker lawyer, on January 7.
Tyler, Letitia
Letitia Christian Tyler (1790-1842), first wife of John Tyler, is born on her family's plantation, Cedar Grove, in Virginia on November 12.
Economics
The first American steam-powered cotton-processing machines are built, marking the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the U.S.
Economics
Population: The first national census shows the American population at 4 million—about 25% in New England, 25% in the Middle States, and 50% in the South.
Religion
The first Roman Catholic bishop consecrated in America is John Carroll (1735-1815) of Baltimore.
Religion
Women’s Firsts: Mother Bernardina Matthews (1732-1800) establishes a Carmelite convent near Port Tobacco, Maryland, and the first community of Roman Catholic nuns in the Thirteen Colonies.
Religion
The first Roman Catholic Bible is published in the U.S. by Mathew Carey.
Social Issues
Immigration: The federal government requires two years of residency for naturalization.
Social Issues
Slavery: The First United States Census reveals that nearly 700,000 slaves live and toil in a nation of 3.9 million people.
Social Issues
Slavery: Congress denies naturalization to anyone who is not a free white.
Social Issues
Slavery: Congress advocates the expansion of slavery into the Southwest.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: French philosopher Condorcet (1743-1794) writes "On the Admission of Women to Citizens’ Rights."
1791
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution (Bill of Rights) are ratified and become known as the Bill of Rights.
Government
Congress passes the first internal revenue law, a tax of 20 to 30 cents on a gallon of distilled spirits.
Government
New State: Vermont becomes the 14th state in the U.S., ending 14 years as a republic.
Government
National Capital: The design of Washington, DC is developed by Pierre-Charles L’Enfant (1754-1825); President Washington (1732-1799) chooses a site along the Potomic River for the federal district; Congress names it the Territory of Columbia and the capital the City of Washington.
Government
Presidents: James Buchanan (1791-1868), 15th President of the U.S., is born April 23 in Cove Gap (near Mercersburg), Pennsylvania.
Science
M.H. Klaproth (1743-1817) names the element titanium.
Education
Higher Education: The Philadelphia Academy becomes the University of Pennsylvania.
Arts and Letters
Opera: The first performance of Mozart’s (1756-1791) "Magic Flute" takes place in Vienna.
Arts and Letters
The first opera house in the U.S. opens in New Orleans.
Ideas
Thomas Paine (1737-1806) writes "The Rights of Man, Part I" in defense of the French Revolution.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne Todd’s father, John Payne, dies.
Jackson, Rachel
Rachel Donelson Robards (1767-1828) marries Andrew Jackson )1767-1845) in New Orleans.
Economics
The first successful sugar refinery is opened in New Orleans.
Economics
American Money: After adoption of the Constitution in 1789, Congress charters the First Bank of the United States until 1811 and authorizes it to issue paper bank notes to eliminate confusion and simplify trade.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The ratification of the Bill of Rights at last guarantees the freedom of the press, and America's newspapers begin to take on a central role in national affairs.
Daily Life
Dancing: The waltz becomes fashionable in England.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: The first French feminist magazine, Etrennes nationales des dames is founded on the principle that “women are equal to men in rights and in pleasure.”
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Etta Palm d’Aelders (1743-1799) speaks before the French National Assembly, promoting equal education for girls and equal rights for women.
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1792
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
First Political Parties: The Democratic-Republican Party is formed under Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826).
Politics
George Washington (1732-1799) and John Adams (1735-1826) are re-elected President and Vice President of the U.S.
Government
A U.S. mint is established in Philadelphia.
Government
New State: Kentucky becomes the 15th state in the U.S.
Government
National Capital: The cornerstone of the White House is laid.
War
Congress passes a national conscription act to require “each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the republic” to serve in the U.S. militia.
War
Slavery: Congress excludes blacks from military service.
Arts and Letters
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) begins studying with Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) in Vienna.
Arts and Letters
Architecture: Irish-American architect James Hoban (1762-1831) begins to build the White House in Washington, DC.
Arts and Letters
Women’s Firsts: Dance: Suzanne Vaillande (1778-1826) appears in "The Bird Catcher," in New York, the first ballet presented in the U.S. She was also probably the first woman to work as a choreographer and set designer in the United States.
Ideas
Thomas Paine (1737-1806) writes "The Rights of Man, Part II."
Ideas
Education of Women: Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) writes "A Vindication of the Rights of Women."
Madison, Dolley
Dolley and John Todd, Jr. have a son, John Payne Todd (1792-1852) on February 29. He was later adopted by James Madison after Dolley and Madison were married.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne Todd's father, John Payne, dies; her mother opens a boarding house in Philadelphia.
Economics
Twenty-four merchants meet on what is now Wall Street, signing the Buttonwood Agreement, creating the New York Stock Exchange.
Economics
American Money: The federal monetary system is established with the creation of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia, and dollar coins are minted for the first time in the U.S.
Discovery
The Columbia River is discovered by Captain Robert Gray (1755-1806).
Popular Culture
The French national anthem, "La Marseillaise," is composed by Claude-Joseph Rouget de Lisle (1760-1836).
Religion
The Baptist Missionary Society is founded in London.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: Judith Sargent Murray (1751-1820) begins a series of essays titled "The Gleaner.”
1793
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
George Washington (1732-1799) and John Adams (1735-1826) are inaugurated as President and Vice President of the U.S.
Government
Slavery: The Fugitive Slave Act compels escaped slaves to be returned to their masters.
Government
National Capital: The cornerstone of the Capital Building is laid by President Washington (1732-1799).
War
French Revolution: The Reign of Terror begins.
Science
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) links fossils with similar living organisms.
Medicine
Epidemics: Yellow fever kills 5,000 people in Philadelphia.
Inventions
Eli Whitney (1765-1825) invents the cotton gin.
Inventions
French engineer Claude Chappe (1763-1805) invents the mechanical semaphore.
Inventions
Women's Firsts: Mrs. Samuel Slater obtains the first patent given to a woman in the U.S. for a method of producing cotton thread.
Education
African American Education: Katy Ferguson (c.1774-1854), an ex-slave, founds her school for the poor in New York City; students include 28 Black children and 20 white children.
Education
Higher Education: African American Education: Lucy Terry Prince (1724-1821) defends her son’s admission to Williams College, eloquently presenting African-American people’s desire for an education.
Arts and Letters
The Louvre in Paris becomes a national art gallery.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: William Wordsworth (1770-1850) publishes his first poems.
Madison, Dolley
A second son, William Temple Todd (1793-1793), is born to Dolley and John Todd, Jr. Several months later, an epidemic of yellow fever takes the life of this baby, as well as that of his father and his paternal grandparents.
Economics
American Money: The first American coins are struck.
Daily Life
The first public zoo opens in Paris.
Daily Life
France becomes the first country to use the metric system.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: French aeronaut Jean-Pierre Blanchard (1753-1809) makes the first hot air balloon flight over the North American continent.
Religion
Roman Catholicism is banned in France.
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1794
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution, limiting the power of the federal courts, is passed by Congress.
Government
American Flag: The Act of January 13, 1794 states that15 stripes and 15 stars will be added to the flag after May 1795.
War
The U.S. Navy is established.
Science
Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), English physician, suggests the theory of evolution 50 years before his grandson, Charles Darwin (1809-1882) writes his own theory.
Inventions
The cotton gin is patented by Eli Whitney (1765-1825).
Technology
The first "telegraph"--a visual semaphore system--is developed by Claude Chappe (1763-1805) and established between Paris and Lille in France.
Education
Teacher Education: The Ecole Normale is founded in Paris to educate teachers.
Education
Higher Education: The world’s first technical college, the Ecole Polytechnique, opens in Paris.
Education
"Elements of Geometry," by French mathematician Adrien-Marie Legendre (1752-1833) becomes the standard geometry text in Europe and North America.
Ideas
Thomas Paine (1737-1806) writes "The Age of Reason."
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne Todd (1764-1849) is introduced to James Madison (1751-1836) by Aaron Burr (1756-1836) Madison and Dolley Todd are married on September 15 at her sister's estate in what is now West Virginia. Mrs. Madison is disavowed by the Quakers.
Jackson, Rachel
Rachel (1767-1828) and Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) marry a second time in Nashville on January 17.
Economics
The “Whiskey Rebellion”—a protest over the excise tax place on liquor--occurs in Pennsylvania.
Daily Life
Duncan Phyfe (c.1768-1854), a cabinetmaker in New York, brings the elegant Sheraton and Regency furniture styles to the U.S.
Daily Life
Postal rates are usually paid by the person receiving the mail; amount is set by length of distance the mail travels.
Daily Life
Fashion: Men no longer powder their hair.
Popular Culture
The song, "Auld Lang Syne" is published; it was written by Robert Burns (1759-1796) in 1781.
1795
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President George Washington (1732-1799) nominates John Rutledge (1739-1800) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He serves in that position as a recess appointee for four months, but the Senate refuses to confirm him.
Law
The Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution, limiting the power of the federal courts, is ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Government
The Naturalization Act establishes a five-year residence requirement for citizenship. Members of the nobility entering the U.S. must give up their titles.
Government
The Treaty of San Lorenzo between the U.S. and Spain draws the boundary with Florida and gives the U.S. the right to navigate the Mississippi River.
Government
Presidents: James Knox Polk, 11th President of the U.S., is born in Mecklanburg County, North Carolina.
Science
Martin H. Klaproth (1743-1817) names the element titanium.
Inventions
Robert Fulton (1765-1815) patents the first power-shovel for digging canals.
Technology
Francois Appert (1750-1841) designs a preserving jar for foods.
Education
Higher Education: The University of North Carolina, the first state university in the U.S., accepts its first student, Hinton James.
Education
Public Education: Connecticut sells its land in the Western territories for $1.2 million and uses the proceeds to establish a permanent school fund.
Arts and Letters
The American Academy of Fine Arts holds its first exhibition in Philadelphia.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The first horse-drawn railroad appears in England.
Economics
The metric system is officially adopted in France.
Daily Life
Women’s Firsts: Anne Parrish establishes, in Philadelphia, the House of Industry, the first charitable organization for women in America.
Religion
Freedom of worship is declared in France.
Reform
Labor Movement: The Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers (shoemakers) is founded, one of the earliest unions in the U.S.
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1796
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President George Washington (1732-1799) nominates Oliver Ellsworth (1745-1807)as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He is immediately confirmed by the Senate as remains as Chief Justice until his resignation in 1800.
Politics
George Washington (1732-1826) refuses a third term, warns against the dangers of foreign entanglements.
Politics
John Adams (1735-1826)and Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) are elected President and Vice-President.
Government
New State: Tennessee becomes the 16th state in the U.S.
Science
Horace de Saussure (1740-1799) coins the term geology in his work Travels in the Alps.
Medicine
English physician Edward Jenner (1749-1823) introduces vaccination against smallpox.
Technology
James Finley (1768-1822) builds America’s first suspension bridge across Jacob’s Creek in Westmoreland, Pennsylvania.
Technology
Battery Technology: From 1796 - 1799, Alessandro Volta (1745 – 1827) experimented with zinc and silver plates to produce electric currents at the Pavia University. Volta stacked the two to form a "pile", the first "dry" battery.
Arts and Letters
Literature: The first complete works of William Shakespeare (1564-1616) are published in the U.S.
Harrison, Anna
Elizabeth "Betsey" Bassett Harrison Short (1796-1846), the oldest daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born September 29.
Economics
Zane’s Trace, which becomes one of the main routes traveled by migrants to the west, begins construction.
Daily Life
The elephant is brought to the United States from India.
Sports
Billiards is a popular game in the South.
1797
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
John Adams (1735-1826) and Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) are inaugurated as President and Vice-President of the United States.
Government
Tennessee Senator William Blount (1749-1800) becomes the first senator to be impeached.
War
The U.S.S. Constitution, “Old Ironsides,” is launched in Boston Harbor.
Medicine
The Royal Society in England rejects Edward Jenner’s (1749-1823) smallpox vaccination technique.
Technology
A washing machine is patented by Nathaniel Briggs.
Technology
America’s first iron plow is patented by Charles Newbold, amid rumors that the iron would poison the soil and increase weeds.
Technology
The vacuum bottle is designed.
Washington, Martha
Martha (1731-1802) and George (1732-1799) Washington retire to their home at Mount Vernon. Martha wrote to a friend, “The General and I feel like children just released from school.”
Madison, Dolley
James (1751-1836) and Dolley Madison (1764-1849) move from Philadelphia to their home at Montpelier, in Orange County, the Virginia piedmont.
Economics
One pound notes are issued for the first time by the Bank of England.
Sports
Hot Air Balloons: The first parachute jump from a balloon is made by Andre-Jacques Garnerin (1770-1823).
Religion
Ann Griffiths (1776-1805) joins the Methodists and begins composing hymns for them.
Religion
The Pocket Hymn Book, containing words but not music, is published; it is widely used at revival camp meetings.
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1798
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Federalist majority in Congress adds nine years to the requirement for citizenship.
Government
Congress passes the Alien and Sedition Acts, permitting the arrest and deportation of any “dangerous” alien and restricting political opposition.
Government
The U.S. Public Health Service and the U.S. Marine Hospital is authorized.
Science
Louis Nicholas Vauquelin (1763-1829) discovers the element beryllium.
Medicine
Epidemics: A yellow fever epidemic kills over 2,000 people in Philadelphia.
Medicine
The English dermatologist, Robert Willan (1757 ~ 1812) recognizes psoriasis as an independent disease.
Inventions
German inventor Aloys Senefelder (1771-1834) invents lithography.
Inventions
Eli Whitney (1765-1825) invents a milling machine.
Inventions
Robert Fulton (1765-1815) invents a four-man, hand-operated submarine.
Education
Hannah More (1745-1833) is forced to close her school for working-class children on a trumped-up charge of being an unregistered meeting place for Dissenters.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" is published by Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834).
Ideas
Thomas R. Malthus (1766-1834) writes his "Essay on the Principle of Population."
Fillmore, Abigail
Abigail Powers (1798-1853), wife of Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) is born in Stillwater, New York, on March 13.
Harrison, Anna
John Cleves Symmes Harrison (1798-1830), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born October 28.
Popular Culture
Joseph Hopkinson (1770-1842) writes the patriotic song, “Hail Columbia.”
Religion
Catholic women forced to do penance for kindling Sabbath fire for Jews.
1799
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The first U.S. printed ballots were authorized in Pannsylvania.
Government
Congress standardizes U.S. weights and measures.
Government
Gracie Mansion, home of New York City mayors, is completed.
Science
The Rosetta Stone is found near Rosetta, Egypt; when it is translated, it makes the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphics possible.
Technology
Airplanes: Sir George Cayley (1773-1857), a baronet in Yorkshire, near Scarborough, England, conceives a craft with stationary wings to provide lift and "flappers" to provide thrust. It also has a movable tail to provide control.
Education
Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) opens his school in Burgdorf, Switzerland.
Education
A 14-year-old boy graduates from Rhode Island College. Such ability among children is not uncommon; infants of 3 are sometimes taught to read Latin as soon as they are taught English.
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799), first President of the U.S., dies of a throat infection at his home at Mount Vernon.
Monroe, Elizabeth
J.S Monroe (1799-1801), the only son of President James Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe, is born.
Economics
Alexander Hamilton (1755-1804) describes American industry in "Report on the Subject of Manufactures."
Economics
Russia grants the Russian-American Company a monopoly of trade in Alaska.
Discovery
A perfectly preserved mammoth is found in Siberia.
Daily Life
The metric system is established in France.
Social Issues
Slavery: Virginia banishes white mothers of mulattos with their children.
Reform
Labor Movement: The first recorded use of the term scabs, used to refer to those who take the place of striking workers, occurs during a Philadelphia shoemakers’ strike.
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1800
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) is elected the 3rd President of the U.S. and Aaron Burr (1756-1836) is elected the 3rd Vice President.
Government
National Capital: Washington, DC is established as the capital of the United States; Congress meets there for the first time.
Government
The U.S. Congress passes the first bankruptcy law; founding father Robert Morris is released from debtors’ prison.
Government
Spain cedes the Louisiana territory to France.
Government
Congress divides the Northwest Territory into two territories, Indiana and Ohio.
Government
Presidents: Millard Fillmore (1800-1874), 13th President of the U.S., is born in Locke Township (now Summerhill), New York.
Science
William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers infrared light.
Medicine
Benjamin Waterhouse (1754-1846) gives the first smallpox vaccination in the U.S. to his son.
Medicine
Humphry Davy (1778-1829) announces the anaesthetic properties of nitrous oxide.
Inventions
Railroad History: Oliver Evans (1755-1819), an American, creates the earliest successful non-condensing high pressure stationary steam-engine
Inventions
Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) invents the electric battery.
Inventions
An iron-framed printing press is invented by Charles Stanhope (1753-1816), thus allowing large sheet printing.
Technology
Battery Technology: By 1800 Volta (1745-1827) had created the "crown of cups", a modified arrangement of zinc and silver discs dipped in a salt solution.
Education
Libraries: The Library of Congress is proposed by John Adams.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: William Wordsworth (1770-1850) begins the period known as European Romanticism.
Arts and Letters
Parson Weems (1759-1825) writes "The Life of Washington," creating a number of myths about the first American president.
Arts and Letters
C.B. Brown (1771-1810) publishes "Arthur Mervyn," a realistic description of the yellow fever epidemic in Philadelphia that took the lives of Dolley Madison’s husband and infant son.
Adams, Abigail
John Adams (1735-1826) and Abigail Adams (1744-1818) are the first U.S. President and First Lady to actually live in the new capital, Washington, DC. Abigal is also the first wife of a president to live in the White House.
Adams, Abigail
Charles Adams (1770-1800), son of Abigail and John Adams, dies at age 30 of cirrhosis of the liver.
Harrison, Anna
Lucy Singleton Harrison Este (1800-1826), daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born in September.
Fillmore, Abigail
Abigail Powers' (1898-1853) father, a Baptist minister named Lemuel Powers, dies when she is two.
Economics
Population: The population of Washington, DC is 2,464 free citizens and 623 slaves.
Economics
Population: The second national census puts the U.S. population at 5.3 million, including more than 800,000 slaves.
Economics
William Young of Philadelphia is the first American shoemaker to make different shoes for the left and right feet.
Daily Life
Fireboats are in use in New York harbor.
Sports
Boxing: Bill Richmond (1763-1829), a former slave, becomes one of the first popular boxers.
Popular Culture
Mount Vernon Gardens becomes the site of the first summer theatre in the U.S.
Popular Culture
U.S. Marine Band gives its first concert near the future site of the Lincoln Memorial.
Religion
John Chapman (1774-1845) (Johnny Appleseed) begins spreading religious tracts and apple seeds in pioneer communities in the midwest.
Religion
The Church of the United Brethren in Christ is founded in the U.S.
Religion
The Boston Female Society for Missionary Purposes is founded to fund the education of missionaries, initially male, but later also female.
Social Issues
Slavery: A slave named Gabriel Prosser (1775-1800), believing himself called by God, organizes a plot to kill all whites in Virginia, sparing only Quakers, Methodists, and French. The conspirators meet under the pretense of holding religious meetings.
Reform
Elizabeth Peck Perkins (1735?-1807) founds the Boston Female Asylum, the first charitable institution for women there.
Reform
Utopian Movement: Robert Owen (1771-1858) takes over New Lanark mills in Scotland and begins social reforms there.
1801
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President John Adams (1735-1826) nominates John Marshall (1755-1835) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He serves for 34 years, longer than any other Chief Justice.
Government
Great Britain and Ireland unite, creating the United Kingdom; its flag is the Union Jack.
Government
National Capital: Congress takes jurisdiction over the District of Columbia.
Government
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) presents his first annual message to Congress in writing.
Government
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) and Aaron Burr (1756-1836) are inaugurated as the 3rd President and Vice President of the U.S.
War
North African War: The North African state of Tripoli declares war on the United States to compel the young nation to pay tribute to commerce-raiding Arab corsairs.
Science
The first asteroid is discovered by Italian monk and professor of astronomy Giussepe Piazzi (1746-1826).
Science
J.J. Lalande (1732-1807) catalogues 47,300 stars.
Science
Lamarck (1744-1829) develops a classification system for invertebrate animals.
Inventions
Robert Fulton (1765-1815), civil engineer, produces the first submarine, “Nautilis.”
Inventions
Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) invents the first steam powered locomotive (designed for roads).
Education
Catholic Education: The first Roman Catholic school in New York is established.
Education
Libraries: The Library of Congress is established by a vote of the Congress.
Education
The Royal College of Surgeons is founded in London.
Arts and Letters
In France Napoleon opened the Louvre to the public.
Ideas
German philosopher Friedrich von Schelling (1755-1829) writes "System of Transcendental Idealism," a treatise on the philosophy of nature, which influences the development of Romanticism in Europe.
Adams, Abigail
John (1735-1826) and Abigail (1744-1818) Adams retire to Braintree.
Madison, Dolley
James Madison (1751-1836) becomes Secretary of State and the Madisons move to the new capital, Washington, DC. Dolley Madison (1768-1849) finds herself a social leader in the city.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1768-1849) becomes an unofficial White House hostess for Jefferson, whose wife, Martha, died in 1782.
Madison, Dolley
James Madison’s father dies; Madison inherits Montpelier.
Monroe, Elizabeth
J.S Monroe (1799-1801), the only son of President James Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe, dies on September 28 at age two. Cause of death is unknown.
Adams, Louisa
George Washington Adams (1801-1829), son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, is born April 12.
Economics
Great Britain’s first complete census finds the population at 11 million, one quarter of it urban.
Discovery
Mastodon fossils are discovered on a New York farm, the first such fossils of the extinct mammal.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: Lewis (1774-1811) is asked by President Jefferson (1743-1826) to be his secretary-aide.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The New York "Evening Post" is first published.
Religion
The “Plan of Union” permits Congregationalists and Presbyterian ministers to serve in each other’s churches, thus helping to spread Protestantism to frontier communities.
Religion
Catholics are excluded from voting in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
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1802
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Georgia cedes her western lands to the U.S., the last of the original states to do so.
Government
National Capitol: Congress passes an act calling for the establishment of a library within the U.S. capitol.
War
Revolutionary War: The U.S. and Great Britain settle Revolutionary War claims for $2,664,000.
Science
Samuel Hutton explains the natural processes involved in changes in the earth’s crust.
Science
The role of capillaries in pumping blood is explained by Scottish physicist John Leslie.
Science
John Dalton (1766-1844) introduces atomic theory into chemistry.
Science
The term “biology” is coined by German naturalist Gottfried Treviranus (1776-1837).
Medicine
James Smith opens a clinic in Maryland that offers free smallpox vaccinations to the poor.
Education
Higher Education: The U.S. Military Academy at West Point is founded.
Education
Libraries: The Library of Congress issues its first catalog: total holdings, 964 volumes and 9 maps.
Education
Libraries: John Beckley (1757-1807) becomes the first Librarian of Congress; he is paid $2/day.
Ideas
Education of Women: German feminist Amalie Holst publishes "On the Capacity of Women for Higher Education."
Ideas
Daniel Webster (1782-1852) writes "The Rights of Neutral Nations in Time of War."
Washington, Martha
Martha Dandridge Custis Washington (1731-1802) dies of “severe fever” on May 22 at Mt. Vernon.
Harrison, Anna
William Henry Harrison (1802-1838), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born September 3.
Economics
Merino sheep are imported to the U.S. from Spain.
Discovery
Matthew Flinders (1744-1814) lands on a 96-mile-long island south-west of Adelaide and slaughtered 31 kangaroos for a feast. This 3rd largest island off Australia was thus named Kangaroo Island.
Sports
Horse Racing: New York State prohibits public horse races, only allowing them at private jockey clubs.
Popular Culture
The first comic book, "The Wasp," is published.
Popular Culture
The first chess book, "Chess Made Easy," is published in Philadelphia.
Religion
"The Genius of Christianity," by Chateaubriand (1768-1848), attempts to answer the attacks of the Enlightenment by stressing its role in the growth of European culture.
Reform
Labor Movement: The first important labor law protecting children is passed in Great Britain.
1803
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
In "Marbury v. Madison," the U.S. Supreme Court declares a law passed by Congress to be unconstitutional, thereby establishing the principle of judicial review.
Law
The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution, providing for separate ballots for President and Vice President, is passed by Congress.
Government
New State: Ohio becomes the 17th state in the U.S. on March 1.
Government
Land from the Gulf of Mexico to the northwest, and including Louisiana and New Orleans, is purchased from France for $27 million; the U. S. Senate ratifies the Louisiana Purchase.
Science
John Dalton (1766-1844) arranges the atomic elements in a periodic table for the first time.
Science
John James Audubon (1785-1851) does the first banding of wild American birds.
Medicine
A detailed description of hemophilia is published by Pennsylvania physician John C. Otto (1774-1844).
Medicine
German pharmacist Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner (1783-1841) makes morphine from opium. Physicians are delighted that opium has been tamed. Morphine is lauded for its reliability and safety.
Inventions
Robert Fulton (1765-1815) powers a boat with steam.
Education
Alexander I of Russia (1777-1825) establishes free, universal education.
Education
The Englishman, Joseph Lancaster (1778-1838) writes "Improvements in Education as it Respects the Industrious Classes." His ideas will be known as the Lancastrian Method.
Education
Education of Women: Maria Dalle Donne (1778-1842) is appointed director of midwives at the University of Bologna, often lecturing in her own home.
Polk, Sarah
Sarah Childress (1803-1891), wife of James K. Polk (1795-1849), is born on a plantation near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on September 4.
Monroe, Elizabeth
Maria Hester Monroe Gouverneur (1803-1850), daughter of President James Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe, is born in France. She was the first presidential child to be married in the White House.
Adams, Louisa
John Adams II (1803-1834), son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, is born on the 4th of July.
Economics
The population of India is estimated at 200 million, about the same size as all of Europe.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: Lewis (1774-1811) is picked to be the commander of the expedition; he writes to ask William Clark (1770-1838) to join him and share command. Clark accepts.
Daily Life
Jane Aitkin (1764-1832), American printer, bookseller, and bookbinder, publishes the constitution of the Philadelphia Female Association.
Religion
Missionary Peter Cartwright (1785-1872) begins 50 years of circuit riding and preaching on the American frontier.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Louisiana Purchase brings a greater number of trading posts into Indian Territory.
Social Issues
Slavery: Ohio is admitted to the Union as a free state.
Social Issues
Slavery: Denmark becomes the first country to ban slave trade.
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1804
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution, providing for separate ballots for President and Vice President, is ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Politics
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) is re-elected President of the U.S., and George Clinton (1739-1812) is elected as the 4th Vice President of the U.S.
Government
Napoleon Bonaparte (1869-1821) is crowned Emperor of France.
Government
Presidents: Franklin Pierce (1804-1869), 14th President of the U.S., is born in Hillsborough (now Hillsboro), New Hampshire.
War
North African War: Barbary pirates in Tripoli seize and hold the U.S. frigate Philadelphia; Stephen Decatur (1779-1820) and a small group of men destroy it.
Inventions
Railroad History: Matthew Murray of Leeds (1765-1826) , England invents a steam locomotive which runs on timber rails. This is probably the FIRST RAILROAD ENGINE.
Inventions
Railroad History: Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) of Cornwall builds 40 psi steam locomotive for the Welsh Penydarran Railroad.
Technology
Airplanes: Sir George Cayley (1773-1857), England, builds a miniature glider with a single wing and a movable tail mounted on a universal joint. It also has a movable weight to adjust the center of gravity. It is the first recorded fixed-wing aircraft of any size capable of flight.
Technology
John C. Stevens (c.1748-1838) builds a screw-driven boat.
Technology
A method of canning food is developed.
Technology
Shrapnel, named after British soldier Henry Shrapnel (1761-1842), is used for the first time by the British in a war with the Dutch in Africa.
Education
Libraries: “Coonskin Libraries” come into being in Marietta, Ohio when settlers on the Ohio River barter coonskins for books from Boston merchants.
Education
Children''s Books: Ann (1782-1866) and Jane (1783-1824) Taylor of England write stories, nursery rhymes, and hymns; their best-known work is “Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star.”
Education
The first Board of Education in New York City comes into being.
Arts and Letters
Beethoven’s (1770-1827) "Third Symphony" (the "Eroica") establishes the symphony as a premier form of classical music.
Madison, Dolley
A portrait of Dolley Madison (1764-1849) is painted by Gilbert Stuart (1764-1849).
Harrison, Anna
John Scott Harrison (1804-1878), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born October 4.
Jefferson, Martha
Mary "Polly" "Maria" Jefferson Eppes (1778-1804), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies from childbirth complications on April 17 at the age of 25.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: President Thomas Jefferson commissions Merriweather Lewis (1774-1809) and William Clark (1770-1838) to explore the newly acquired Louisiana Territory and begin their journey; Sacajawea (1787-1812), the Shoshoni Indian wife of a French-Canadian trader, is one of their guides.
Daily Life
The first dahlias appear in England.
Daily Life
Bananas are imported from Cuba.
Sports
Women in Sports: Horse Racing: The first woman jockey was Alicia Meynell of England. She first competed in a four-mile race in York, England.
Social Issues
Slavery: Ohio passes black laws to deter runaway slaves from settling in the state.
Social Issues
Slavery: In Pennsylvania, the Underground Railroad is officially established.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Sioux and other tribes encounter the Lewis (1774-1809) and Clark (1770- 1838) expedition.
1805
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) is inaugurated for his second term as President, and George Clinton (1739-1812) is inaugurated for his first term as Vice President.
Government
The Michigan Territory is created from the northern part of the Indiana Territory.
War
Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) defeats the French in the Battle of Trafalgar, making Great Britain the leading naval power in the world.
Science
Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850)proves that water is composed of two parts hydrogen and one part oxygen.
Medicine
The syndrome later called “shell shock” or “battle fatigue” is described by Richard Gallagher.
Technology
Rockets, originally constructed by Sir William Congreave (1772-1828), are reintroduced as weapons into the British army.
Technology
The first covered bridge is built in the U.S. over the Schuylkill River near Philadelphia.
Education
Public Education: New York Public School Society is formed by wealthy businessmen to provide education for poor children. Schools are run on the "Lancasterian" model, in which one "master" can teach hundreds of students in a single room. The master gives a rote lesson to the older students, who then pass it down to the younger students. These schools emphasize discipline and obedience qualities that factory owners want in their workers.
Education
Public Education: New York State creates a permanent school fund.
Education
Johann Pestalozzi (1746-1827) opens his school in Yverdon, Switzerland.
Arts and Letters
The Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts is organized.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: "The Lay of the Last Minstrel," by Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), is the first full-length narrative poem in the Romantic tradition.
Economics
Shipping ice to Martinique in the West Indies becomes a profitable business.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: On November 24, by majority vote, the expedition decides to cross to the south side of the Columbia River to build winter quarters.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: The expedition reaches the three forks of the Missouri River, then on to Montana and the Columbia River, 20 miles from the Pacific Ocean.
Sports
Women in Sports: Hot Air Balloons: Madeleine Sophie Armant Blanchard solos in the first of 67 gas-powered balloon flights. She made her living as a balloonist, was appointed official Aeronaut of the Empire by Napoleon, and toured Europe until she fell to her death in an aerial fireworks display in 1819.
Sports
Women in Sports: Horse Racing: Englishwoman Alicia Meynell, riding as Mrs. Thornton, defeats a leading male jockey, Buckle, in a race.
Sports
Boxing: Tom Cribb (1781-1848), the champion of English bare-knuckle boxers, first enters the ring.
Popular Culture
Ludwig Achim von Arnim (1781-1831), German folklorist, publishes Des Knaben Wunderhorn, setting the stage for the work of the Brothers Grimm.
Religion
Slavery: Virginia allows slaves to accompany white masters to religious services presided over by white preachers.
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1806
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The abdication of Emperor Francis II (1768-1835) signals the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
Government
Holland becomes a kingdom ruled by Louis Bonaparte (1778-1846).
War
The British seize the colony of Capetown in Africa from the French-dominated Dutch.
Medicine
Morphine becomes the first drug to be isolated from a plant.
Technology
Coal gas is first used for lighting at Newport, Rhode Island.
Education
Noah Webster (1758-1843) publishes "The Compendious Dictionary of the English Language," which becomes the recognized authority on American English. The letters i and j and u and v are established as separate letters.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Lord Byron (1788-1824) privately publishes "Fugitive Pieces," which is immediately suppressed by the Church of England on grounds of immorality.
Jefferson, Martha
James Madison Randolph (1806-), the grandson of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), is the first child born in the White House.
Pierce, Jane
Jane Means Appleton (1806-1863), wife of Franklin Pierce (1804-1869), is born March 12 in Hampton, New Hampshire.
Harrison, Anna
Benjamin Harrison (1806-1840), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: January 4, President Jefferson welcomes a delegation of Missouri, Oto, Arikara, and Yankton Sioux chiefs who had met with Lewis (1774-1811) and Clark more than a year earlier.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: March 23, Fort Clatsop is presented to the Clatsop Indian, for which it was named, and the expedition begins the journey home.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: In the fall, Lewis (1774-1811) and Clark (1770-1838) are treated as national heroes. They return to Washington, D.C. The men receive double pay and 320 acres of land as reward, the captains get 1,600 acres. Lewis is named governor of the Louisiana Territory, Clark is made Indian agent for the West and brigadier general of the territory's militia.
Discovery
Zebulon Pike (1779-1813) identifies the Colorado peak that will eventually bear his name.
Discovery
Mungo Park’s (1771-1806) final Niger River expedition ends tragically when he and several other are attacked and killed by African tribesmen.
Sports
Horse Racing: “Yankee” becomes the first horse to trot a mile in under 3 minutes.
1807
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Scandal: Aaron Burr (1756-1836), Vice President under Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), is arrested for treason for planning to invade Mexico; he is later acquitted of all charges.
Government
In an effort to punish Great Britian for impressing American sailors, Congress passes the Embargo Act, which prohibits American vessels from landing in any foreign port without the express authorization of the President.
War
War of 1812: The U.S. frigate "Chesapeake" fires on the British man-of-war Leopard in conflict over the impressments of sailors.
Science
Potassium and sodium are discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829).
Science
A huge meteor lands in Connecticut.
Inventions
Isaac de Rivas makes a hydrogen gas powered vehicle - first with internal combustion power, however it is a very unsuccessful design.
Technology
London streets are lit by gas light.
Technology
Robert Fulton’s (1765-1815) paddle steamer, the Clermont, navigates on the Hudson River.
Education
Children''s Books: Charles (1775-1834) and Mary (1764-1847) Lamb publish "Tales from Shakespeare," a collection of children’s stories based on the plays.
Education
Libraries: The Athenaeum Library is founded in Boston.
Arts and Letters
Architecture: Napoleon (1769-1821) commissions the construction of the Arch de Triumphe.
Van Buren, Hannah
Abraham Van Buren (1807-1873), son of Martin and Hannah Van Buren is born on November 27.
Adams, Louisa
Charles Frances Adams (1807-1886), son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, is born on August 18.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The very first passenger train runs from Swansea to Mumbles in England on March 25th.
Economics
Transportation: The first steamboat with regular passenger service is instituted by Robert Fulton's Clermont (1765-1815).
Economics
The manufacture of clocks with interchangeable parts is begun in Connecticut by Seth Thomas (1785-1859) and Eli Terry (1772-1852).
Discovery
Zebulon Pike (1779-1813) leads first Anglo American expedition into New Mexico. He publishes account of way of life in New Mexico upon return to U.S.
Daily Life
Townsend Speakman 1st sells fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Philadelphia
Daily Life
Townsend Speakman sells first fruit-flavored carbonated drinks in Philadelphia
Sports
Horse Racing: The first Ascot Gold Cup in horse racing is held in England.
Religion
The U.S. Evangelical Association, founded by Jacob Albright (1759-1808), holds its first convention.
Social Issues
Slavery: England prohibits the African slave trade.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: New Jersey revokes the right of women to vote which it had granted in 1776.
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1808
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
"The American Law Journal," America’s earliest law periodical, is published.
Politics
James Madison (1751-1836) is elected as the 4th President of the U.S., defeating Charles Pickney; George Clinton (1739-1812)is reelected as Vice President.
Government
Presidents: Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), 17th President of the U.S., is born December 29 in Raleigh, North Carolina.
Government
Slavery: The United States bans slave trade that involves importing African slaves, but smuggling continues.
Science
Sir Humphrey Davy (1778-1829) discovers the elements boron and strontium.
Inventions
Railroad History: Trevithick (1771-1833) builds a circular railway in London's Torrington Square. Steam carriage "Catch Me Who Can" weighes 10 tons and makes 15 mph.
Education
Higher Education: Andover Theological Seminary is established.
Education
Education of Women: Catholic Education: Elizabeth Seton (1774-1821) establishes a school for girls in Baltimore, Maryland.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1837) publishes the first section of his Romantic epic, "Faust," in Germany.
Arts and Letters
Beethoven (1770-1827) composes the "Fifth" and the "Pastoral" Symphonies.
Ideas
Women''s Rights Movement: Charles Fourier’s (1772-1837) "Theory of the Four Movements" relates social progress to the progress of women toward freedom.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1768-1849) accompanies her husband in his campaign for the presidency, influencing many with her charm and tact.
Jackson, Rachel
Andrew Jackson Jr. (1808-1865), Andrew and Rachel Jackson's adopted son (he was one of the pair of twins born to a sibling of Rachel Jackson), is born and named after his new father.
Economics
John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) incorporates the American Fur Company with himself as the sole stockholder.
Discovery
Extensive excavations begin at Pompeii and last until 1815.
Discovery
The source of the Ganges River is discovered.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "Times" of London sends Henry Crabb Robinson (1775-1867) as the first war correspondent to cover Napoleon’s (1769-1821) campaign in Spain.
Religion
Napoleon (1769-1821) abolishes the Inquisition in Spain and Italy.
Religion
Women''s Firsts: Jane Aitken (1764-1832) publishes the only Bible ever printed by a woman in the U.S. up to this date.
Religion
The first Bible Society is established in Philadelphia.
1809
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
James Madison (1751-1836)is inaugurated as the nation's fourth President and George Clinton is inaugurated as the continuing Vice President.
Government
The Illinois Territory, including what is now Wisconsin, is established.
Government
Presidents: Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), 16th President of the U.S. is born February 12 in Hardin (now Larue) County, Kentucky.
War
Indian Wars: General William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) obtains over 3 million acres of Indian lands with the Treaty of Fort Wayne.
Science
The first detailed geological survey of the United States is published by William McClure.
Inventions
The steamboat is patented by Robert Fulton (1765-1815).
Inventions
Airplanes: The first successful glider is built in England.
Technology
Women's Firsts: The first patent given to a woman was to Mary Kies of Connecticut, for a technique for weaving straw with silk and thread.
Arts and Letters
Architecture: Neoclassicism emerges as a dominant force in British architecture with the construction of Covent Garden Theatre.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1768-1849) becomes the first First Lady to attend her husband's inauguration and the first to host an inaugural ball.
Adams, Louisa
John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) is appointed American minister to Russia.
Harrison, Anna
Mary Symmes Harrison Thornton (1809-1842), daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison is born January 22.
Economics
The U.S. resumes trade with all countries except Britain and France.
Economics
The "Phoenix" becomes the first sea-going steamship, traveling from New York to Philadelphia.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first newspaper published west of the Mississippi River, the "Missouri Gazette," is published in St. Louis.
Sports
Cricket: The first cricket club is founded in Boston.
Popular Culture
Washington Irving (1783-1859) writes "Rip van Winkle."
Religion
Napoleon (1769-1821) annexes the Papal States and takes Pope Pius VII prisoner.
Religion
Elizabeth Seton (1774-1821) founds the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in the U.S.
Reform
The African Female Benevolent Society of Newport (RI) is founded.
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1810
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) emerges as a major figure in South American politics.
Government
Chile declares its independence from Spain.
War
Southerners revolt against Spanish rule in West Florida; the U.S. annexes the area.
Science
John Dalton (1766-1844) publishes "New System of Chemical Philosophy," the foundation for modern chemistry.
Science
Charles Bell’s (1744-1842) "Anatomy of the Brain," studies the difference between sensory and motor nerves.
Science
Nicotine is identified and named after Jean Nicot (c.1530-1600), who sent tobacco back to France.
Medicine
The first American book on pediatrics, "The Maternal Physician," is published in Philadelphia.
Medicine
The field of homeopathy is founded by German physician Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) ; it is not called by this name until 1826.
Technology
Airplanes: Sir George Cayley (1773-1857) tries three times to organize an aeronautical society to study the problem of flight, but finds little interest among scientists.
Education
Yale Medical School is established.
Education
Parochial Education: Elizabeth Seton (1774-1821) and her community of sisters founds the first American Catholic parochial school in Emmitsburg, Maryland.
Education
Education of Women: German feminist and educator Betty Gleim publishes "On the Upbringing and Instruction of the Female Sex."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) writes "Lady of the Lake."
Arts and Letters
The Philharmonic Society in Boston is organized by Gottlieb Graupner (1767-1836).
Arts and Letters
The San Carlo Opera House is built in Naples, Italy.
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: During this year, English stars begin to come in larger numbers to U.S.
Van Buren, Hannah
John Van Buren (1807-1873), son of Martin and Hannah Van Buren is born February 18.
Johnson, Eliza
Eliza McCardle (1810-1876), wife of Andrew Johnson, is born October 4 in Leesburg, Tennessee.
Economics
Population: The U.S. population is about 7,239,881, including 60,000 immigrants and about 1.2 million slaves; New York City becomes the largest city in the U.S.
Economics
Cornelius Vanderbilt (1794-1877) founds a ferry service between New York City and Staten Island.
Economics
The American cotton crop exceeds 175,000 bales; American cotton mills quadruple in one year to 269.
Sports
The first public billiards rooms open in London.
Sports
Boxing: Tom Molineaux (1784-1818), a freed Virginia slave and the first unofficial heavy-weight boxing champion, is defeated in the 40th round in a match in England.
Popular Culture
The first American county fair (a cattle show) is held in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.
Religion
The Cumberland Presbytery in Kentucky is excluded from the Presbyterian Church.
Religion
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions is established, beginning a wide missionary effort in the U.S.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Shawnee, under Tecumseh (1768-1813), begin to establish a tribal confederacy to preserve their lands and culture.
Social Issues
Abortion: Abortion is made a criminal offense in France.
1811
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Scandal: U.S. Senator Timothy Pickering (1745-1829) becomes the first senator to be censured when he reveals confidential documents communicated by the President of the United States (John Adams).
Government
The Prince of Wales, later George IV (1762-1830), becomes Prince Regent of England after George III (1738-1820) is declared insane.
War
Indian Wars: William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), Governor of the Indiana Territories, defeats Indians under Tecumseh (1768-1813) at Tippecanoe, IN.
Science
Iodine is isolated by French chemist Bernard Courtois (1777-1838).
Science
William Herschel (1738-1822) suggests that a nebula is an early stage in the development of a galaxy.
Science
Mary Anning (1799-1847), British geologist, at age 12 is involved in the finding of the first identifiable icthyosaurus and later of a plesiosaur.
Medicine
Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842) writes "New Idea of the Anatomy of the Brain."
Education
Education of Women: Sarah Pierce (1767-1852), founder of the Litchfield Academy, publishes "Sketches of Universal History Compiled from Several Authors: For the Use of Schools."
Education
African American Education: Christopher McPherson (c.1763-?) , a free African American, opens a school for other free Blacks and slaves in Richmond, Virginia. Local white citizens, not only close the school as a public nuisance, but they also send him to the Williamsburg Lunatic Asylum.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Jane Austen (1775-1817) writes "Sense and Sensibility."
Adams, Louisa
Louisa Catherine Adams (1811-1812), the only daughter of John Quincy and Louisa Adams, is born.
Taylor, Margaret
Anne Margaret Mackell Taylor Wood (1811-1875), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, is born April 9.
Economics
Work begins on the Cumberland Road at Cumberland, Maryland; the road reaches Vandalia, Illinois in 1840, at a cost of $7 million, and becomes an important route for the westward expansion of the U.S.
Discovery
The eastern coast of Africa is explored by English naval captain Philip Beaver.
Daily Life
Disasters: Earthquakes beginning on December 16 cause the Mississippi River to flow upstream for several hours; the town of New Madrid, Missouri, is pushed into the river.
Sports
Women in Sports: Golf: On January 9, the first known women’s golf tournament is held at Musselburgh Golf Club, Scotland, among the town fishwives.
Sports
Competitive rowing races are popular; a race between Knickerbocker of New York City and Invincible of Long Island attracts thousands; Knickerbocker wins.
Religion
The “Great Schism” of Welsh Protestants occurs; two thirds leave the Anglican Church.
Religion
The Presbyterian Church in the U. S. formally states its support for “pious females,” who had begun organizing independent, female-run benevolent societies to support foreign and domestic missionaries, teachers, and doctors.
Reform
Labor Movement: “Luddites” destroy weaving machines in North England, trying to prevent conversion from hand looms.
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1812
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
James Madison (1751-1836) is re-elected to a second term as President of the U.S. and Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814) is elected the nation's 5th Vice President.
Politics
The term gerrymander is coined, meaning the practice of dividing a geographic area into voting districts in such a way that one political party is given unfair advantage in an election. The practice is named for Elbridge Gerry, who first thought of doing it, and salamander, because the original voting district resulting from the practice looked like a salamander.
Government
New State: Louisiana becomes the 18th state in the U.S.
Government
George Clinton (1729-1812), 4th Vice President of the United States, dies in office. He is not replaced until the general election in the fall, when Elbridge Gerry is elected.
War
War of 1812: The U.S. declares war on Britain.
War
War of 1812: The U.S. frigate Constitution, Old Ironsides, defeats the British ship Guerriere.
Science
Georges Couvier (1769-1832) discovers that fossils follow an increasing age sequence as one probes deeper into layers of rock and soil.
Medicine
Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) publishes "Medical Inquiries and Observation Upon the Diseases of the Mind."
Medicine
Physician James Thatcher publishes a book about rabies.
Technology
Transportation: Transportation technology is advanced by Scotsman Henry Bell (1767-1830) with his new steamboat, the three-horsepower Comet, which sails on the River Clyde.
Education
Children''s Books: The Brothers Grimm--Jacob (1785-1863) and Wilhelm (1786-1859)-- publish their "Fairy Tales," which include Tom Thumb, Little Red-Riding Hood, Bluebeard, Snow White, and Cinderella.
Arts and Letters
The final shipment of Elgin Marbles—a group of ancient sculptures and architectural details from the Parthenon obtained from the Turks by Lord Elgin (1776-1841)—arrives in England from Greece, giving Londoners their first taste of original classical Greek art.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Lord Byron (1788-1824) writes "Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage."
Ideas
German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Hegel (1770-1831) publishes "Die Objektive Logik."
Madison, Dolley
White House Wedding: At the first wedding in the White House, Dolley Madison's (1768-1849) widowed sister, Lucy Payne Washington (1777?-1846), is married to Supreme Court Justice Thomas Todd.
Adams, Louisa
Louisa Catherine Adams (1811-1812), the only daughter of John Quincy and Louisa Adams, dies in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Van Buren, Hannah
Martin Van Buren (1812-1855), son of Martin and Hannah Van Buren, is born December 20.
Harrison, Anna
Carter Bassett Harrison (1812-1839), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born October 26.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The first commercially successful steam locomotives, using the Blenkinsop rack and pinion drive, commenced operation on the Middleton Railway.
Economics
The manufacture of lead pencils begins.
Economics
The City Bank of New York opens, the forerunner of today’s Citibank.
Economics
Transportation: The first steamboat to sail down the Mississippi River reaches New Orleans in January.
Economics
Large-scale drug production begins in Philadelphia.
Discovery
Swiss historian J.L. Burckhardt (1773-1825) discovers the Great Temple at Abu Simbel in Egypt.
Discovery
Lewis and Clark: On December 20th Sacagawea (1790-1812/1884) dies at Fort Manuel. Clark (1770-1838), who is in St. Louis, assumes custody of Jean Baptiste, as well as her daughter, Lisette.
Popular Culture
The present Drury Lane Theatre in London is built.
Religion
Elizabeth Seton (1774-1821) formally establishes the Sisters of Charity, the first Catholic sisterhood founded in America, from her earlier community (1809).
Religion
Women''s Firsts: Ann Nancy Hesseltine Judson and Harriet Newell are the first two American women sent abroad as missionaries.
Religion
Mother Catherine Spaulding (1793-1858) founds the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Kentucky, a home-visiting order of nurses and teachers.
1813
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
James Madison (1751-1836) is inaugurated to a second term as President of the U.S. and Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814) is inaugurated as the nation's 5th Vice President.
War
War of 1812: U.S. forces capture York (now Toronto); the British seize Fort Niagara and burn Buffalo, NY; the British blockade coastal ports.
War
War of 1812: The Battle of Lake Erie (under Captain Oliver Hazard Perry) and the Battle of the Thames (Ontario) provide two victories for the Americans.
Inventions
Railroad History: Englishman William Hedley (1773-1843) builds and patents a railroad locomotive which can haul 10 coal wagons at 5 mph, equal to 10 horses.
Inventions
J.F. Hummel patents rubber.
Education
Higher Education: Colby College in Maine is founded.
Education
Higher Education: McGill University in Montreal, Canada, is founded.
Arts and Letters
The London Philharmonic Society is founded.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1827) completes his first major work, "Queen Mab"—an anti-religious work, at the age of 21.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Jane Austen (1775-1817) writes "Pride and Prejudice."
Adams, Abigail
Nabby Adams Smith (1765-1813), daughter of Abigail and John Adams, dies on August 15, of cancer.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1764-1849) serves ice cream for the first time in the White House at the second Inaugural Ball.
Harrison, Anna
Anna Tuthill Harrison Taylor (1813-1845), daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born October 28.
Economics
Francis Cabot Lowell (1775-1817) first employs young women workers to work at the spinning frames and looms at his mill in Waltham, Massachusetts; living in boardinghouses established by Lowell, they became the first large-scale women’s labor force in America.
Daily Life
Newspapers: An editorial in the Troy (NY) Post first uses the nickname, “Uncle Sam,” as a symbolic reference to the United States.
Daily Life
The Grand Freemason Lodge is founded in the U.S.
Daily Life
Dancing: The waltz becomes popular in Europe.
Daily Life
The game of craps is first introduced into New Orleans, adapted from a French dice game called “hazards.”
Popular Culture
Johann Rudolf Wyss (1782-1830) completes "The Swiss Family Robinson."
Religion
The Methodist Missionary Society is founded.
Religion
A choirbook is composed for use in the Spanish missions of the southwest.
Religion
American nun Mother Mary Rhodes (1782-1853) founds the Sisters of Loretto in Kentucky after establishing two other communities for women west of the Allegheny Mountains.
Reform
Labor Movement: Leaders of the anti-technology Luddite movement in England are sentenced to hanging or deportation.
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1814
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Elbridge Gerry, 5th Vice President of the United Sates, dies in office; he is not replaced until the election of 1816, when Daniel D. Tompkins is elected.
War
National Capital: War of 1812: The British burn the White House, the Capital, and many other buildings in Washington, DC.
War
War of 1812: The Treaty of Ghent ends the British-American War on December 24. The Treaty returned conditions between the two countries to those that existed before the war began. Neither side achieved a clear victory.
Science
Massachusetts physician Jacob Bigelow (1786-1879) publishes "Flora Bostoniensis," the standard botany manual for years.
Inventions
Railroad History: George Stephenson (1781-1848), British inventor, invents the first steam locomotive, which is used instead of horses and mules to haul coal.
Inventions
The metronome is invented in Vienna by J.N. Maelzel (1772-1838).
Inventions
Eli Terry (1772-1852) invents a 30-hour shelf clock that uses interchangeable parts.
Inventions
Railroad History: Englishman George Stephenson (1781-1841) builds Blucher, his first railway engine. Pulls 30 tons at 4 mph, but is not efficient.
Education
Libraries: Although the Library of Congress is destroyed when the British burn Washington, DC, Congress decides to start over by purchasing Thomas Jefferson’s (1743-1826) personal library.
Arts and Letters
Franz Schubert (1797-1828) begins composing Lieder, lyrical songs in the Romantic tradition.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Jane Austen (1775-1817) publishes the novel "Mansfield Park," creating the character of Fanny Brice.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1764-1849) is responsible for saving the famous Peale portrait of George Washington, hanging in the White House, and the Declaration of Independence, from the British when they invade the capital. She leaves the city just ahead of the British troops, who then burn Washington, DC.
Fillmore, Abigail
Abigail Powers (Fillmore) (1798-1853) begins teaching in New Hope at age 16.
Harrison, Anna
James Findlay Harrison (1814-1817), is the last son born to William Henry and Anna Harrison.
Taylor, Margaret
Sarah Knox Taylor Davis (1814-1835), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, is born March 6.
Economics
Francis Cabot Lowell (1775-1817) opens the first totally mechanized factory for processing raw cotton into finished cloth.
Daily Life
The term grapefruit is used for the first time in print, perhaps because its clusters resemble those of grapes.
Daily Life
Gas street lamps are installed in the first neighborhood—St. Margarets, Westminster, in London.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "London Times" begins to be printed by a steam-operated press.
Popular Culture
Frances Scott Key (1779-1843) writes a poem about the British bombardment of Fort McHenry in the War of 1812 called “Defense of Fort McHenry.” It is later set to music and becomes “The Star Spangled Banner.”
Popular Culture
Children’s Books: Johann David Wyss (1743-1818) added religious piety to the Rousseauian influence in his "The Swiss Family Robinson"(German original 1812-1813); first edited and translated for English readers by William (1756-1836) and Mary (1797-1851) Godwin.
Religion
Pope Pius VII (1740-1823) returns to Rome and restores the Inquisition.
Religion
Elizabeth Seton’s (1774-1821) Sisters of Charity take charge of orphanages in Philadelphia (and later, in 1817, in New York City), establishing the first Catholic orphanages in America.
Social Issues
Native Americans: War of 1812: General Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) leads his troops to victory over the Creek Indians allied with Britain in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend (Alabama), thus destroying all future Creek power in the West.
1815
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
National Capital: The Capitol Building and the White House are rebuilt after the burning of Washington, DC.
War
The first steam warship, the U.S.S. Fulton is built.
War
U.S. naval hero Stephen Decatur (1779-1820) stops attacks by Algerian pirates by threatening to bomb Algiers.
War
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) defeats the British at the Battle of New Orleans, fought two weeks after the Treaty of Ghent is signed.
Science
Sophie Germain (1776-1831) is awarded a gold medal from the Institute of France for her essay on elasticity.
Medicine
The Apothecaries Act in Britain bans the practice of medicine by unqualified doctors.
Inventions
A harder, smoother road surface made of crushed stones is invented by John McAdam (1756-1836).
Inventions
Davy invents the safety lamp for miners.
Inventions
Railroad History: Stephenson's (1781-1841) second engine: 6 wheels and a multitubular boiler.
Inventions
Railroad History: Englishman Julius Griffiths patents a passenger road locomotive.
Education
Libraries: Thomas Jefferson sells his book collection to the Library of Congress after its original collection was destroyed by the British army.
Education
Sunday school education is promoted in Boston.
Education
Education of Women: Margaret Bryan publishes An Astronomical and Geographical Class Book for Schools based on her girls’ school lectures.
Arts and Letters
The Biedermeier period in art and furniture design begins.
Arts and Letters
Magazines: "The North American Review" is established in Boston, soon to be the foremost literary journal in the U.S.
Tyler, Letitia
Mary Tyler Jones (1815-1848), is the first daughter born to John and Letitia Christian Tyler on April 15.
Economics
Leading imports in the United States are woolen and cotton items, sugar, and coffee. The leading export is cotton.
Daily Life
Transportation: The Conestoga wagon becomes a major method of transportation, especially among those headed west.
Daily Life
Dancing: A French ballroom dance, the quadrille, becomes fashionable among the English aristocracy.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: The 1815 edition of the Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon lays out the division of the sexes: “Man obtains, woman sustains . . . man resists fate itself and defies force, even in defeat. Woman, however, submits willingly and finds comfort and succor, even in her tears.”
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1816
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The right to review state court decisions is affirmed by the Supreme Court.
Politics
James Monroe (1758-1831) is elected 5th President of the U.S. and Daniel Tomkins (1774-1825) is elected as the nation's 6th Vice President.
Government
The U.S. Congress passes the first protective tariffs.
Government
New State: Indiana becomes the 19th state in the U.S.
Science
The first book on mineralogy in the U.S., "Elementary Treatise on Mineralogy and Geology," is published by Parker Cleaveland (1780-1858).
Medicine
Epidemics: Ireland suffers a typhus epidemic that kills about a quarter of its population.
Inventions
The stethoscope is invented by French physician R. T. Laennec (1781-1826).
Inventions
The kaleidoscope is invented by Sir David Brewster (1781-1868).
Education
German educator Friedrich Frobel (1782-1852) moves his first educational community from Griesheim to Keilau, Thuringia.
Education
Children’s Books: "A Merry Method of Making Minor Mathematicians" is published by John Harris (1820-1884); this collection of mnemonic rhymes was designed to teach the multiplication tables.
Arts and Letters
Opera: "The Barber of Seville," by Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868) opens in Rome.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Jane Austen (1775-1817) writes "Emma."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1827) writes his first major poem, "Alastor."
Ideas
Hegel (1770-1831) completes his "Science of Logic;" his philosophy of idealism will dominate metaphysics for 25 years.
Tyler, Letitia
Robert Tyler (1816-1877), the first son of John and Letitia Christian Tyler, is born September 9.
Taylor, Margaret
Octavia Pannel Taylor (1816-1820), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, is born August 16.
Economics
American Money: The second Bank of the United States is chartered for 20 years until 1836.
Economics
Transportation: Regular clipper ship service across the Atlantic begins between New York and Liverpool, England.
Economics
The first Savings bank, The Provident Institute for Savings, is founded in Boston.
Daily Life
Disasters: The summer of 1916 is unusually cold in many parts of the world due to the eruption of the Tambora volcano in Indonesia—perhaps the greatest in recorded history. In New England, there is 10 inches of snow in June 6, and half an inch of ice in Vermont and New Hampshire in July and August. It is recorded as “the year in which there was no summer.”
Sports
Boxing: Jacob Hyer beats Tom Beasley in a boxing match and calls himself America’s first boxing champion.
Popular Culture
Ananias Davisson (1780-1857) publishes "Kentucky Harmony," a collection of music of the South and Midwest U.S.
Religion
The American Bible Society is founded; one of its goals is to place a Bible in every American home.
Social Issues
Immigration: Large numbers of British immigrants come to the United States and Canada.
Social Issues
The American Colonization Society forms—assists in repatriating free African Americans to a Liberian colony on the west coast of Africa.
1817
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
James Monroe (1758-1831) is inaugurated as the 5th President of the U.S. and Daniel Tomkins (1774-1825) is inaugurated as the nation's 6th Vice President.
Government
New State: Mississippi becomes the 20th state in the U.S.
War
Indian Wars: The Seminole War begins on the border between the U.S. and Spanish Florida.
Science
Selenium and lithium are discovered.
Science
Cadmium is discovered independently by Friedrich Stromeyer (1776-1835) and Hermann (1765-1846).
Medicine
James Parkinson (1755-1828) describes the degenerative disease that will carry his name.
Education
Early frontier education is influenced by the American Tract Society which spreads religious literature by means of circuit riders.
Education
Public Education: A petition presented in the Boston Town Meeting calls for establishing of a system of free public primary schools. Main support comes from local merchants, businessmen and wealthier artisans. Many wage earners oppose it, because they don't want to pay the taxes.
Arts and Letters
Opera: "Cinderella," a comic opera by Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), is first staged in Rome.
Ideas
David Ricardo (1772-1823) promotes liberal economic theory in his "Principles of Political Economy and Taxation;" his ideas are the foundation of modern economics as a science.
Ideas
G.F. Hegel (1770-1831) publishes the "Encyclopedia of Philosophy."
Madison, Dolley
The Madisons retire to Montpelier, their estate in Virginia, where Dolley continues her role as hostess and helps her husband, who suffers from arthritis, by taking dictation for his correspondence. She also helps him prepare his papers for future publication.
Harrison, Anna
James Findlay Harrison (1814-1817), the last son born to William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies.
Van Buren, Hannah
Smith Thompson Van Buren (1817-1876), son of Martin and Hannah Van Buren is born January 16.
Economics
Native Americans: American traders began to compete with Native American tribes for the buffalo fur business.
Economics
The U.S. begins construction of the Erie Canal between Buffalo and Albany.
Economics
The New York Stock and Exchange Board is officially established, to be renamed the New York Stock Exchange in 1863.
Economics
John Jacob Astor (1763-1848) obtains a fur trade monopoly in the Mississippi Valley, founding his fortune.
Daily Life
Baltimore becomes the first American city lit by gas.
Popular Culture
Stories of a sea serpent off the coast of Gloucester, Massachusetts tell of a creature 3 feet in diameter and from 70-100 feet long with a long tongue that shoots out of its mouth.
Religion
Construction of the Vatican Museum begins in Rome.
Social Issues
Slavery: The American Society for the Return of Negroes to Africa is founded in Richmond, Virginia; the Society first sends Negroes to Sierra Leone, then buys and establishes a neighboring area called Liberia.
Reform
Prison Reform: British reformer Elizabeth Fry (1780-1845) founds a prisoner’s aid society focusing on the prison conditions of women and children.
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1818
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The border between the U.S. and Canada is agreed to be the 49th parallel.
Government
New State: Illinois becomes the 21st state in the U.S.
Government
American Flag: The Act of April 4, 1818 states that 13 stripes and one star for each state will be added to the flag on the 4th of July following the admission of each new state and is signed into action by President Monroe.
Science
F.W. Bessel (1784-1846) catalogs over 3,000 stars in his Fundamenta Astronomiae.
Science
Cadmium is discovered independently by Friedrich Stromeyer (1776-1835) and Hermann (1765-1846).
Medicine
Iodine is used as a treatment for goiter by French chemist Jean-Baptiste Dumas (1800-1884).
Medicine
Marie Gillain Boivin (1776-1841) publishes her gynecological-obstetrical text, "Nouveau traité des maladies de l’uterus et des annexes."
Inventions
A lathe for making irregularly shaped items such as gun stocks is designed.
Education
Public Education: Boston public schools offer schooling for children as young as 4 years.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Lord Byron (1788-1824) writes "Don Juan."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: John Keats (1795-1821) writes "Endymion."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) writes "The Heart of Midlothian" and "Rob Roy."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Mary Godwin Shelley (1797-1851) writes "Frankenstein."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Jane Austen’s (1775-1817) last two novels, "Northanger Abbey" and "Persuasion," are published after her death.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818), second First Lady of the United States, dies of typhoid fever in October while residing in Braintree, MA.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882), wife of Abraham Lincoln, is born December 13 in Lexington, Kentucky.
Economics
Transportation: Packet boat lines begin to sail between New York and Liverpool, England.
Discovery
John Ross (1777-1856) leads an expedition to the Arctic to discover a Northwest Passage.
Daily Life
The tin can is introduced to the United States.
Sports
Horse Racing: The first professional horse racing occurs in the U.S.
Popular Culture
Englishman Thomas Bowdler (1754-1825) publishes a censored version of "The Family Shakespeare"; the expression to bowlderize becomes a term for the practice of omitting vulgar words from written works.
Religion
The lyrics for the hymn “Silent Night, Holy Night,” are written by the young curate, Joseph Mohr.
1819
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
'In "McCulloch v. Maryland," the Supreme Court expands federal powers by allowing Congress to charter a bank, an act not specifically permitted by the Constitution.
Government
Florida is ceded to the U.S. by Spain.
Government
New State: Alabama becomes the 22nd state in the U.S.
Government
The U.S. cities of Memphis and Minneapolis are founded.
Science
The American Geological Society is established at Yale College in Connecticut; it disbands in 1828.
Science
Electromagnetism is discovered by Danish physicist Hans C. Oersted (1777-1851).
Medicine
Mitscherlich discovers isomorphism.
Inventions
W.K. Clarkson patents the bicycle.
Education
Education of Women: Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870) writes "An Address to the Public: Particularly to the Members of the Legislature of New York, Proposing a Plan for Improving Female Education."
Education
Higher Education: Focusing on technical training, Norwich University opens in Vermont.
Education
Slavery: African American Education: Virginia outlaws blacks and a mulatto, whether free or slave, from meeting for the purposes of education and forbids teaching blacks to read and write.
Ideas
German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) publishes "The World as Will and Idea."
Tyler, Letitia
John Tyler Jr. (1819-1896), son of John and Letitia Tyler, is born April 27.
Taylor, Margaret
Margaret Smith Taylor (1819-1820), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, is born July 27.
Van Buren, Hannah
Hannah Hoes Van Buren (1783-1819) dies of tuberculosis on February 5, eighteen years before her husband, Martin Van Buren, becomes President of the U.S.
Fillmore, Abigail
Abigail Powers (1798-1853) meets Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) at the Academy in New Hope, New York.
Economics
The Bank for Savings in New York City opens as one of the first U.S. savings banks.
Economics
The first commercially produced eating chocolate is produced in Switzerland.
Economics
Transportation: The very first ship to use steam as support on an Atlantic crossing was the American sailing ship Savannah who had been equipped with auxiliary steam engines geared to two paddle wheels on the ship’s sides. Because of distrust in this new mode of transportation, the vessel does not carry either passengers or cargo.
Discovery
An expedition to the Rocky Mountains is led by explorer Stephen Long (1784-1864).
Religion
With roots in the Protestant Reformation and liberal New England Congregationalism, Unitarianism is founded in Boston by William Ellering Channing (1780-1842).
Social Issues
Immigration: Congress establishes reporting on immigration.
Social Issues
Slavery: Canada denies the American government the right to pursue runaway slaves within its borders.
Reform
Labor Movement: Children under the age of 9 are forbidden to work in mills in England; other young workers are limited to 12-hour days.
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1820
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
First Political Parties: James Monroe (1758-1831) is re-elected to a second term as President of the U.S. on the Democratic-Republican ticket, defeating John Quincy Adams; John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) is elected the nation's 7th Vice President.
Government
Slavery: Congress passes the Missouri Compromise, admitting Maine into the Union as a free state and Missouri as a slave state; slavery becomes excluded from the Union north of the Mason-Dixon Line.
Government
The Public Land Act lowers the cost of western lands to $1.25 an acre, in the hope of encouraging settlement of the West.
Government
New State: Maine becomes the 23rd state to join the Union.
Science
Andre Marie Ampere (1775-1836), French physicist, discovers the basic processes of electric currents.
Medicine
The New York Eye Infirmary is founded.
Inventions
An improved plow and cultivator is invented by Henry Burden (1791-1871) of New York.
Education
Massachusetts physician John Gorham (1783-1829) publishes a 2-volume textbook, "Elements of Chemical Science," which is the standard for years.
Education
Public Education: First public high school in the U.S., Boston English, opens.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: John Keats (1795-1821) writes "Ode on a Grecian Urn" and "Ode to a Nightingale."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832) publishes "Ivanhoe."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Percy Bysshe Shelly (1792-1827) writes "Prometheus Unbound."
Ideas
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) writes "Principles of Political Economy."
Taylor, Margaret
Margaret Smith Taylor (1819-1820), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, dies October 22 from malaria three months after the death of her sister.
Taylor, Margaret
Octavia Pannel Taylor (1816-1820), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, dies July 8 of malaria.
Monroe, Elizabeth
White House Wedding: Elizabeth Monroe (1768-1830) is the first First Lady to have a daughter (Maria Hester Monroe) married in the White House.
Fillmore, Abigail
While teaching in New Hope, Abigail Fillmore (1798-1853) begins a campaign to raise funds for the first circulating library in New York.
Tyler, Julia
Julia Gardiner Tyler (1820-1889), second wife of John Tyler, is born in Gardiner’s Island in New York.
Economics
The percentage of people working in agriculture begins to decline as family farms are gobbled up by larger agricultural businesses. At the same time, cities grow tremendously, fueled by new manufacturing industries.
Economics
A canning factory is opened in Boston by William Underwood.
Discovery
Nathanial Palmer becomes the first person to actually see the land mass of Antartica.
Discovery
The statue of the Venus de Milo (c. 150 B.C.) is discovered in Melos.
Discovery
Major Stephen Long (1784-1864) leads an expedition from Pittsburgh, exploring the area between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains.
Discovery
Platinum is discovered in the Russian Ural Mountains.
Popular Culture
The short story as a literary form is introduced by Washington Irving (1783-1859) with the publication of "The Sketch Book," which includes “Rip Van Winkle” and “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.”
Religion
The Jesuits are driven out of Rome.
Religion
The music for the hymn “Silent Night, Holy Night,” is composed by Franz Xaver Huber to words written by the young curate, Joseph Mohr.
Social Issues
Slavery: 86 Blacks set sail for the British colony of Sierra Leone on the ship Mayflower of Liberia.
Social Issues
Slavery: In Charleston, South Carolina, slaves are required to wear distinctive identification tags. This law is later extended to free blacks in the city as well.
1821
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Mexico declares independence from Spain. Santa Fe Trail opened to international trade.
Government
James Monroe (1758-1831) is inaugurated to a second term as President of the U.S. and John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) is inaugurated as the nation's 7th Vice President.
Government
New State: Missouri becomes the 24th state to join the Union (as a slave state).
Inventions
The electric motor is invented by Michael Faraday (1791-1867).
Technology
Sound reproduction is demonstrated by Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875).
Education
Education of Women: The Troy Female Seminary is founded by Emma Hart Willard (1787-1870).
Education
Native American Education: A Cherokee named Sequoyah (c.1770-1843) develops an alphabet of 86 characters, with which stories, hymns, and a Bible were printed in the Cherokee language.
Education
Education of Women: Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) opens a dame school for young girls in Boston.
Education
Children’s Books: Early Piety, or Memoirs of Childhood mixes stories such as "Of a very good girl; that died very happy before she was seven years old, with others like "the history of a sad wicked child, and his miserable death."
Arts and Letters
Frances Wright (1795-1852) publishes "Views of Society and Manners in America."
Tyler, Letitia
Letitia (Letty) Tyler Semple (1821-1907), daughter of John and Letitia Tyler, is born on May 11.
Economics
Population: The fourth census (1820) shows that the population of the U.S. is about 9.6 million.
Daily Life
Transportation: The first wagon train on the Santa Fe Trail is led by William Becknell (1788-1865).
Daily Life
The game of poker is invented by sailors in New Orleans.
Popular Culture
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) publishes "The Spy," which leads him to become the first popular American novelist.
Religion
The first Catholic cathedral to be dedicated in the U.S. is the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Baltimore.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Benjamin Lundy (1789-1839), Quaker saddle maker, begins publishing his anti-slavery newspaper, Genius of Universal Emancipation.
Reform
Black Suffrage Movement: Nearly all property qualifications required to vote are abolished by the New York state constitution, but the state continues to deny suffrage to Blacks.
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1822
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Presidents: Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1881), 19th President of the U.S., is born October 4 in Delaware, Ohio.
Government
Florida is organized as a territory.
Government
Presidents: Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), 18th President of the U.S., is born April 27 in Point Pleasant, Ohio.
Science
A theory of evolution, subsequently proved to be in error, is published by Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829).
Medicine
Observations of human gastric juices are begun by U.S. Army physician William Beaumont (1785-1853). His observations are made on a sailor who suffered a bullet wound in the stomach that did not quite heal.
Inventions
The first patent for making false teeth is obtained by W.C. Graham.
Technology
Gas lights are installed on the streets of Boston.
Education
Higher Education: Hobart College is founded in Geneva, NY; it offers an “English Course” designed for “the practical business of life.”
Arts and Letters
Franz Liszt (1811-1886), Hungarian pianist, makes his debut at age 11.
Arts and Letters
The diorama, paintings illuminated in a dark room to give the illusion of reality, is invented by Daguerre and Bouton.
Arts and Letters
The Royal Academy of Music in founded in London.
Economics
Cotton mills in Massachusetts begin using water-powered machinery.
Discovery
The Rosetta stone, found in 1799, is deciphered by French Egyptologist Jean Francois Champollion (1790-1832).
Daily Life
Molly Pitcher, a.k.a. Mary McCauley (1754-1832), is awarded a pension by the state of Pennsylvania.
Sports
Soccer: Yale prohibits the playing of football (soccer); violators are fined.
Social Issues
Slavery: An informer reveals a plot led by Denmark Vesey (1767-1822), a free black man, for a massive slave uprising in South Carolina. Thirty-five blacks, including Vessey, are hanged, and severely repressive slave codes are passed in the South.
Reform
Slavery: Liberia is founded as a colony for blacks fleeing America.
Reform
Protest Music: “The Ballad of Major Andre” is written during the American Revolution by Major John Andre (? -1780).
1823
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Daniel Webster (1782-1852) takes a seat in the House of Representatives, and Henry Clay (1777-1852) becomes Speaker of the House.
Government
James Monroe (1758-1831) presents his Monroe Doctrine, stating that any attempts by Europeans to interfere in the Americas will be considered an affront to the national interest of the U.S.
War
Indian Wars: American troops defeat the Sauk and Fox chief Black Hawk, who has tried to prevent white settlement in the Illinois territory.
Medicine
The first ophthalmology book in the U.S., "A Treatise on the Diseases of the Eye," is published.
Medicine
The British medical journal, "The Lancet," is first published.
Inventions
Computers: Early attempts to build a calculating machine (computer) are made by Charles Babbage (1791-1871).
Inventions
A waterproof fabric is invented by Charles Macintosh (1766-1843).
Education
Education of Women: Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) founds a girls’ school in Hartford, CT.
Education
Teacher Education: The first private normal school (for training teachers) in the U.S. opens in Concord, Vermont.
Education
The first gymnasium offering systematic instruction is started by the Round Hill School in Massachusetts. Gymnastics is scheduled from 5 to 7 p.m.
Education
Children''s Books: Clement Clark Moore (1779-1863) publishes "A Visit from St. Nicholas" ("‘Twas the Night Before Christmas").
Education
African American Education: Alexander Lucius Twilight (1795-1857) graduates from Middlebury College, making him the first black college graduate in the U.S.
Arts and Letters
Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1857) completes the "Missa Solemnis, Op. 123."
Tyler, Letitia
Elizabeth "Lizzie" Tyler Waller (1823-1850), daughter of John and Letitia Tyler, is born July 11.
Sports
Football: Football is invented by a 17-year-old British rugby player when, against the rules of rugby, he takes up the ball and runs with it.
Sports
Horse Racing: The first great U.S. horse race takes place between the North and the South on Long Island; the purse is about $20,000.
Popular Culture
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) publishes "The Pioneers," the first of the Leatherstocking Tales.
Reform
Abolition Movement: An Anti-Slavery Society is founded in England by William Wilberforce (1759-1833).
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1824
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) is elected as the 6th President of the U.S. by the House of Representatives when none of the four candidates achieves a majority in the national election; John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) is re-elected as Vice President.
Politics
The world’s first public opinion poll tries to predict voting intentions for the presidential election of 1824.
Government
The Tariff Act of 1824 is passed by Congress in an effort to protect American industry.
Government
National Capital: The Capitol Rotunda is completed; it is the connecting space between the House of Representatives and the Senate sides of the building.
Government
Native Americans: The U.S. Secretary of War establishes the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), which does not receive congressional authorization until 1934.
Science
French physicist Nicholas Leonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) first states the principle that will become William Thompson’s (1824-1907) Second Law of Thermodynamics (energy moves from a warm to a cold body, not the reverse).
Education
Emma Willard (1787-1870) writes a widely-used textbook, "Ancient Geography."
Education
The first science and engineering school in the U.S. is founded; it is later named Renssalaer Polytechnic Institute.
Education
Mary Randolph (1762-1828) publishes "The Virginia Housewife," intended to instruct novice wives.
Education
Children''s Books: Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) writes a children’s book, "Conversations on Common Things."
Arts and Letters
The National Gallery is London is founded.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd’s (1818-1882) mother dies in childbirth when she is six years old.
Taylor, Margaret
Mary Elizabeth Taylor Bliss Dandridge (1824-1909), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, is born April 20.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: Construction begins on the 1st locomotive workshop in New Castle, England.
Discovery
A gateway to the west through the Rocky Mountains is discovered at South Pass, WY.
Discovery
The Great Salt Lake is discovered.
Religion
The Sunday School Union is founded in the United States.
Reform
Utopian Movement: Robert Owen (1771-1858) founds New Harmony, a utopian community in Indiana.
Reform
Labor Movement: The first recorded strike by women is a weaver’s strike at Pawtucket, RI.
1825
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The U.S. signs a treaty with Russia setting the border between Canada and Alaska.
Government
Native Americans: Congress adopts a policy of removal of eastern Indian tribes to territory west of the Mississippi River; whites settle on Indian lands.
Government
John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) is inaugurated as the 6th President of the U.S. and John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) is inaugurated as the continuing Vice President.
Government
Native Americans: A treaty is established between the U.S. and the Oglala branch of the Teton Sioux (Lakota) regarding fur trade, signed for the Oglala by Standing Buffalo (aka Standing Bull).
Science
Michael Faraday (1791-1867) succeeds in isolating benzene.
Science
Georges Couvier (1769-1832) suggests that alterations in the earth causing extinction of whole animal species are associated with great natural catastrophes.
Technology
Railroad History: Stephenson's (1781-1841) 8-ton LOCOMOTION No. 1 built for the Stockton & Darlington Railroad is capable of pulling 90 tons of coal at 15 mph.
Arts and Letters
"The Diary of Samuel Pepys" is published.
Arts and Letters
Dance: The Bolshoi Ballet is established in Moscow.
Ideas
English philosopher John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) publishes "Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind," an early work in psychology, at age 19.
Adams, Louisa
Louisa Adams (1775-1852) moves into the White House with her husband, John Quincy.
Tyler, Letitia
Anne Contesse Tyler (1825), daughter of John and Letitia Tyler, is born in April and dies three months later in July.
Adams, Louisa
Louisa Adams (1775-1852) becomes the first First Lady to write her autobiography, which she called "Adventures of a Nobody."
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd’s (1818-1882) father remarries—Elizabeth (Betsy) Humphreys of Frankfort, KY.
Economics
The Erie Canal, connecting Lake Eire and the Hudson River, opens.
Economics
The New York Stock Exchange opens, trading mostly canal, turnpike, mining, and gas lighting companies.
Discovery
Alexander Gordon Laing (1793-1826) is the first explorer to reach Timbuktu (in what is now Mali).
Daily Life
Tea roses from China are introduced in Europe.
Daily Life
Duncan Phyfe (1768-1854) begins producing furniture in the Empire style.
Sports
Baseball: A Baseball Club is organized in Rochester, New York.
Sports
Horse Racing: The New York Trotting Club builds a race course on Long Island.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Chippewa, Iowa, Potawami, Sauk and Fox, Sioux, and Winnebago tribes sign a treaty for territorial boundaries.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Creek Indians reject a treaty ceding all their lands in Georgia to the U.S.
Reform
Labor Movement: In Boston, 600 master carpenters strike for a 10-hour day.
Reform
Utopian Movement: A community of slaves is organized by Frances Wright (1795-1852), designed to help them get ready for freedom.
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1826
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Third Parties: The first third party in the U.S., the Anti-Masonic Party, is founded.
Science
André Ampere (1775-1836) publishes his "Treatise on Electrodynamics."
Inventions
The first permanent photograph is produced by J.N. Niepce (1765-1833), a French scientist.
Inventions
Samuel Morey (1762-1843) patents an internal combustion engine.
Inventions
The first reflecting telescope is built in the U.S. by Amasa Holcomb (1787-1875) in Massachusetts.
Inventions
Bassell designs a pendulum that takes exactly one second per swing.
Education
The American Lyceum—a mechanism for adult education—is founded.
Education
Education of Women: The first public high schools for girls open in New York and Boston.
Education
The Smithsonian Institution is founded in Washington, DC, endowed by James Smithson (1765-1829).
Arts and Letters
The U.S. Academy of Design is founded by Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872).
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861) publishes "Essays on Mind, with Other Poems."
Adams, Louisa
John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd President of the U.S., dies in Braintree (now Quincy), MA.
Jefferson, Martha
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) dies on July 4 at Monticello (near Charlottsville, VA).
Fillmore, Abigail
Abigail Powers (1798-1853) marries Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) on Feb. 5 in Moravia, NY.
Taylor, Margaret
Richard Taylor (1826-1879), son of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, is born January 27.
Harrison, Anna
Lucy Singleton Harrison Este (1800-1826), daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies April 7.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd (1818-1882) enters the academy of Dr. John Ward; stays until she is 14.
Grant, Julia
Julia Boggs Dent (1826-1902), wife of Ulysses S. Grant, is born on January 26 on her family’s plantation near St. Louis, Missouri.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The first line of rails in the New England States is said to have been laid down at Quincy, Mass., 3 miles in length and pulled by horses.
Discovery
The first overland journey to Southern California is led by Jedediah Strong Smith (1798-1831).
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first issue of the "United States Telegraph" is published; it reflects an anti-John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) bias.
Popular Culture
James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851) publishes "The Last of the Mohicans."
Social Issues
Slavery: A Pennsylvania law makes kidnapping a felony, thereby nullifying the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Creek Indians sign the Treaty of Washington, which voids the previous treaty and cedes less land to the government; it requires the Indians to move in 1827.
Reform
Temperence Movement: The American Society for the Promotion of Temperance is founded in Boston.
1827
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Sectional differences in the U.S. between the North and South increase over tariffs: northern industrialists are for them; southern plantation owners oppose them.
Government
Joint occupation of the Oregon territory is agreed upon by the U.S. and Britain.
War
Congress gives the President the right to call out the militia.
Science
The mammalian ovum (egg) is discovered, proving that mammals do develop from eggs.
Science
John J. Audubon (1785-1851) publishes "Birds of North America."
Medicine
Brights’ disease (of the kidneys) is described by English physician Richard Bright (1789-1858).
Inventions
The screw propeller for ships is invented.
Education
Joanne Bethune founds the Infant School Society in New York City.
Education
African American Education: A letter in the Freedom Journal demands education for black women.
Education
The first nautical school in America is opened in Nantucket, Massachusetts.
Education
Public Education: Massachusetts requires every town with 500 or more families to establish a public high school.
Education
Public Education: Massachusetts passes a law making all grades of public school open to all pupils free of charge.
Arts and Letters
"A Midsummer Night’s Dream," by Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847), premieres.
Economics
Transportation: The first public transit system—horse-drawn busses—appear in New York City.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad is chartered to run from Baltimore to the Ohio River in Virginia. It was the first westward bound railroad in America.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The Switch Back Gravity Railroad in Pennsylvania begins operation in May of 1827 before work begins on the B&O. It is the second railroad in the U.S.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first newspaper for blacks in the U.S., "Freedom’s Journal" is published in New York City.
Daily Life
Cincinnati is considered the Queen City of the west, at least for a time before the rise of Chicago.
Daily Life
Karl Baedeker (1801-1859) begins publishing his travel guides.
Daily Life
John Walker (1781-1859) introduces sulfur friction matches—called Lucifers—in England.
Daily Life
Holidays: The Mardi Gras celebration begins when French-American students organize a procession of street maskers on Shrove Tuesday in New Orleans.
Sports
A handbook for sportsmen, the American Shooter’s Manual, is published in Philadelphia.
Popular Culture
The murder of Maria Martin in England is the inspiration for a wildly popular melodrams, Maria Martin, or The Murder in the Red Barn.
Religion
The Second Great Awakening, an era of intense, emotional religious revivalism, makes a large impression across the country.
Reform
Perhaps the first organized American women’s club, the Women’s Social Society at New Harmony, is founded by Frances Wright.
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1828
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
First Political Parties: The Democratic party is formed, based on Jeffersonian principles. Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) is the first nominee, and defeats John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) for the Presidency; John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) is re-elected Vice President.
Politics
Third Parties: The Working Men’s Party is founded in New York City.
Government
Railroad History: Congress authorizes the construction of the first state-owned railway in Pennsylvania.
Government
The so-called Tariff of Abominations, imposing duties on manufactured goods is passed.
Science
The discipline of organic chemistry begins.
Science
Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) is awarded a gold medal by Britain’s Royal Astronomical Society for her catalog of nebulae.
Medicine
Dr. Hopff first uses the term "hemophilia" in describing the blood disease.
Inventions
The electromagnet is invented.
Education
Education of Women: Zilpah Grant (1794-1874) becomes head of the Ipswitch Female Seminary, a select girls’ boarding school.
Education
Noah Webster (1758-1843) publishes his "American Dictionary of the English Language," with 70,000 definitions, including many words derived from immigrant and Native American languages.
Education
Libraries: The Reading Room Society, the first social library for African Americans, opens in Philadelphia.
Arts and Letters
Franz Schubert (1797-1828) gives his only public concert in Vienna.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Alexander Dumas (pere--1802-1870) writes "The Three Musketeers."
Jackson, Rachel
Rachel Donelson Robards Jackson (1767-1828) dies at home on December 22 at 62. She is the first President's wife to die after her husband had been elected to office of President but before he was sworn in and she could become the First Lady.
Fillmore, Abigail
Millard Fillmore (1800--1874) is elected to the New York State Legislature, where he serves until 1831.
Fillmore, Abigail
Millard Powers Fillmore (1828-1889), son of Millard and Abigail Fillmore, is born April 25.
Johnson, Eliza
Martha Johnson Patterson (1828-1901), daughter of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, is born October 25.
Adams, Louisa
White House Weddings: Louisa (1775-1852) and John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) son, John II (1803-1834), marries Mary Catherine Hellen in the White House.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: Delaware & Hudson Canal Co. builds a railroad from their mines to the termination of the canal at Honesdale.
Economics
Construction starts on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first Indian newspaper, the Cherokee Phoenix is published in Georgia.
Daily Life
Magazines: Sarah Josepha Hale (1788-1879) becomes editor-publisher of the American Ladies Magazine (until 1836).
Sports
The first archery club is formed in Philadelphia; members pay an initiation fee of $5.00 and $.50 dues a month.
Popular Culture
Thomas (“Jim Crow”) Rice (1808-1860) introduces the song “Jim Crow” between acts of a play; it is the first international song hit of American popular music.
Social Issues
Native Americans: American social critic Elizabeth Sanders (1762-1851) anonymously publishes a booklet praising Indian culture and condemning its destruction by General Andrew Jackson.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Isabella van Wagener (c. 1797-1883) is freed from slavery and takes the name Sojourner Truth; she preaches against slavery throughout New York and New England.
1829
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The practice of awarding political appointments based on party service is introduced by Andrew Jackson (1767-1845).
Government
Andrew Jackson (1767-1848) is inaugurated as the 7th President of the U.S. and John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) is inaugurated as the continuing Vice President.
Inventions
Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) invents the daguerreotype, a commonly used form of photography.
Inventions
The concertina is patented by Sir Charles Wheatstone (1802-1875).
Inventions
An early version of the typewriter is patented by William Austin Burt (1792-1858).
Technology
The term “technology” is coined in a work called "Elements of Technology" by Harvard professor Jacob Bigelow., M.D. (1787-1879).
Education
Special Education: The Perkins Institution, the first school for the blind in the U.S. opens.
Education
The first American encyclopedia, Encyclopedia Americana ins published.
Education
Special Education: Louis Braille (1809-1852) adapts a communication system used by the French military.
Education
Children’s Books: Ann Taylor (1782-1866) and her sister Jane (1783-1824) collaborated on several books of poems for "infant minds," chiefly but not exclusively religious poems. Ann (1782-1866) was author of "My Mother" and Jane (1783-1824) of "Twinkle, twinkle, little star." They wrote "Original Poems for Infant Minds," illustrated with woodcuts.
Arts and Letters
Opera: Rossini (1792-1868) completes his last major work, the opera, "William Tell."
Arts and Letters
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) debuts in Vienna.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) publishes his first work, "Tamerlane and Other Poems."
Adams, Louisa
George Washington Adams (1801-1829), son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, dies a mysterious death on April 30. Many historians believe he committed suicide.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The first steam locomotive used in America, the English-built Stourbridge Lion, is put to work on the Delaware & Hudson.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: Peter Cooper (1791-1883) of New York in 6 weeks time builds the Tom Thumb, a vertical boiler 1.4 HP locomotive, for the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad.
Economics
The first modern hotel, the Tremont, opens in Boston with 170 rooms.
Daily Life
Second Great Awakening: In part stimulated by the Second Great Awakening, crusader Sylvester Graham attacks meats, fats, catsup, mustard, pepper, and white bread as stimulating carnal appetites.
Religion
The Catholic Emancipation Act in Britain allows Catholics to hold public office.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Sarah Moore Grimké (1792-1873) publishes Epistle to the Clergy of the Southern States, in which she attacks religious rationalizations of slavery.
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1830
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Native Americans: The Indian Removal Act is passed enabling whites to move Indians to reservations.
Government
Abortion: U.S. Congress makes abortion a statutory crime.
Government
Mexico bans further U.S. settlement in Texas.
Government
Presidents: Chester A. Arthur (1830-1886), 21st President of the U.S., is born October 5 in Fairfield, Vermont.
Science
The cell nucleus in plants is discovered.
Science
Charles Lyell (1797-1875) organizes the geological system into three groups: eocene, miocene, and pliocene.
Medicine
America’s first veterinarian, Charles Grice, opens an animal hospital in New York City.
Inventions
Frenchman, B. Thimonnier (1793-1859), invents a sewing machine.
Inventions
The fountain pen is patented by H.D. Hyde of Pennsylvania.
Education
African American Education: By this time, most southern states have laws forbidding teaching people in slavery to read. Even so, around 5 percent become literate at great personal risk.
Arts and Letters
Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) writes his "Symphonie fantastique."
Monroe, Elizabeth
Elizabeth Kortright Monroe (1768-1830), wife of James Monroe, in office 1817-1825, dies at the family home, Oak Hill, in Virginia.
Fillmore, Abigail
The Fillmore family moves to Buffalo; both parents are active in efforts to improve public education and establish a public library system there.
Harrison, Anna
John Cleves Symmes Harrison (1798-1830), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies October 30 in the midst of political controversy.
Lane, Harriet
Harriet Lane (1830-1903), niece of President James Buchanan, is born on May 9 in Franklin County, Pennsylvania.
Johnson, Eliza
Charles Johnson (1830-1863), son of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, is born February 19.
Tyler, Letitia
Tazewell Tyler (1830-1874), the youngest of John and Letitia Tyler's children, is born December 6.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The Best Friend is built at the West Point Foundery at New York for the Charlston & Hamburg Railroad. It was the first completely American-built steam engine to go into scheduled passenger service.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The first locomotive built in the U.S. makes its first trip on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad; it later loses a race against a horse when an engine belt slips. 0 1210 1830 12 Population: The fifth national census puts the population at 12.8 million, including about 150,000 immigrants. 0 8066 1830 12 Transportation: Railroad History: The Best Friend is built at the West Point Foundery at New York for the Charlston & Hamburg Railroad. It was the first complete
Economics
Population: The fifth national census puts the population at 12.8 million, including about 150,000 immigrants.
Daily Life
Fashion: Ladies' skirts grow shorter and sleeves and hats grow bigger; stiff collars become part of men’s dress.
Daily Life
Sylvester Graham invents the graham cracker, which becomes a favorite of children everywhere.
Daily Life
Magazines: "Godey's Lady's Book," a magazine for women, is founded.
Popular Culture
Oliver Wendell Holmes (1809-1894) writes the poem, “Old Ironsides,” which so popularizes the story of the U.S.S. Constitution that plans to scrap the ship are cancelled.
Religion
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, or Mormons, is founded by Joseph Smith (1805-1844).
1831
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Former President John Quincy Adams (1767-1848) is elected as the Congressional representative from Massachusetts.
Government
Presidents: James A. Garfield (1831-1881), 20th President of the U.S. is born November 19 in Orange, Ohio.
Government
U.S. copyright law is amended to last for 28 years, renewable for 14.
War
The French Foreign Legion is founded.
Science
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) sails on the H.M.S. Beagle, a trip on which he conceives the idea of evolution.
Science
Michael Farraday (1791-1867) develops the electromagnetic generator.
Inventions
Chloroform is invented.
Inventions
An early version of the mechanical reaper is developed by Cyrus McCormick (1809-1884).
Technology
Airplanes: Thomas Walker (1804-1886) proposes a tandem-wing airoplane with the pilot and the propulsion system amidships. This would later influence Samuel Langley as he designed his aerodromes.
Education
Libraries: The Female Literary Society, the first social library for African-American women, is founded in Philadelphia.
Education
African American Education: Maria W. Miller Stewart (1803-1879), an African American orator, exhorts African Americans to become educated and fight for their rights; she speaks out at a time when very few women are able to speak in public.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Victor Hugo (1802-1885) publishes "The Hunchback of Notre Dame."
Monroe, Elizabeth
James Monroe, fifth President of the U.S. dies in New York, New York (b. 1758).
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Ware Webb (1831-1889), wife of Rutherford B. Hayes, is born August 28 in Chillicothe, Ohio.
Economics
The Industrial Revolution focuses on textile mills.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: Robert L. Stevens buys the British locomotive, the John Bull, and establishes America’s first steam railway.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The 3.5 ton De Witt Clinton hauls 5 stage coach bodies on railroad wheels at 25 mph on the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad between Albany and Schenectady.
Economics
Transportation: The Canadian paddle steamer, Royal William, cross the Atlantic with steam as the prime source of drift. However, her engines had to be stopped every few days because they had to be scraped from the accumulated salt deposits from the seawater used in her boilers.
Discovery
Scottish explorer James Ross (1800-1862) and his Uncle, Sir John Ross (1777-1856), determine the position of the magnetic North Pole.
Daily Life
This year sees the first use of the term “Old Glory” for the U.S. flag.
Sports
Horse Racing: A popular racing sheet, the "Spirit of the Times," is established by William Trotter; its aim is to improve the reputation of racing and other sports.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: The first showboat is built, called "The Floating Theatre."
Popular Culture
Samuel Francis Smith (1808-1895) writes the words to "My Country, 'Tis of Thee."
Social Issues
Immigration: German immigration to the U.S. is about 15,000.
Social Issues
Slavery: Nat Turner (1800-1831) leads an unsuccessful slave uprising.
Social Issues
Slavery: The term "underground railroad" becomes widely used.
Reform
Abolition Movement: William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) begins publishing his abolitionist periodical, The Liberator.
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1832
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) is re-elected President and Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) is elected the 8th Vice President on the new Democratic Party ticket.
Politics
Third Parties: For the first time in American history, a third party challenges the major two parties. William Wirt (1772–1834) of the Anti-Masonic Party carries 8 percent of the vote and one state. Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), Democratic-Republican, is reelected President over National-Republican Henry Clay (1777–1852).
Government
John C. Calhoun (1782-1850) becomes the first Vice President to resign from office; he runs successfully for the Senate.
Government
States in the South begin a series of nullification acts, attempting to redefine their relationship to the federal government.
War
Indian Wars: U.S. troops fight the last Indian war north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.
Science
Jane Kilby Welsh publishes her textbook, "Familiar Lessons in Mineralogy and Geology."
Medicine
The dissection of cadavers in medical schools is legalized in Massachusetts.
Medicine
Epidemics: A cholera epidemic sweeps through major American cities, killing over 7,000 people in New York and New Orleans.
Medicine
The disease later known as Hodgkin’s disease is described by English physician Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866).
Inventions
The lawn mower is invented.
Inventions
Walter Hunt (1796-1859) invents a lock-stitch sewing machine.
Inventions
Cyrus McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper.
Inventions
Louis Braille (1809-1852) invents the stereoscope.
Education
Education of Women: Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) founds the Western Female Institute in Cincinnati.
Education
Special Education: Samuel Howe (1801-1876) founds the Perkins Institute, the first major school for the blind in the U.S.
Arts and Letters
The Boston Academy of Music offers free music lessons to children, adults, and teachers.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) finishes "Faust."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) publishes "The Lady of Shalott."
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Webb's (1831-1889) father dies of cholera.
Fillmore, Abigail
A daughter, Mary Abigail (1832-1854), is born to Abigail and Millard Fillmore in Buffalo on March 27.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary (1818-1882) is enrolled at Madame Victorie Mentelle’s select school for young ladies.
Garfield, Lucretia
Lucretia Rudolph (1832-1918), wife of James A. Garfield, is born on April 19 in Hiram, Ohio.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Lavinia Scott (1832-1892), wife of Benjamin Harrison, is born On October 1 in Oxford, Ohio.
Johnson, Eliza
Mary Johnson Stover Brown (1832-1883), daughter of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, is born May 8.
Adams, Abigail
Thomas Boylston Adams, third son of John and Abigail Adams, dies at 59, probably of complications of alcoholism.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: "The Brother Jonathon" was the first locomotive in the world to have a four-wheel leading truck; it was designed by John B. Jervis for the Mohawk & Hudson Railroad.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: "The American No. 1" was the first 4-4-0, the first of its class; it was designed by John B. Jervis (1795 –1885), Chief Engineer for the Mohawk & Hudson.
Economics
Transportation: The "Ann McKim," first of the American clipper ships, is launched in Baltimore.
Daily Life
Frances Trollope (1780-1863) publishes "Domestic Manners of the Americans."
Reform
The first work to treat women in a completely distinctive way, "The History of Women," is published.
Reform
Abolition Movement: The New England Anti-Slavery Society is founded in Boston.
Reform
Abolition Movement: African American women found the first Anti-Slavery society in Salem, Massachusetts.
1833
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Congress gives President Jackson (1767-1845) the power to use the armed forces to enforce the tariff laws; South Carolina rescinds its nullification acts after a compromise on tariffs is reached.
Government
President: Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901), 23rd President of the U.S., is born.
Government
National Capital: The Treasury building burns to the ground in Washington, DC.
Government
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) is inaugurated as President and Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) is inaugurated as the nation's 8th Vice President.
Science
Michael Farraday (1791-1867) coins the terms electrolysis, electrolyte, anode, and cathode.
Inventions
Computers: Charles Babbage (1791-1871) suggests the possibility of building an “analytical engine,” an early calculator.
Education
Education of Women: Prudence Crandall (1803-1890) admits black students to her girls’ school in Connecticut and is imprisoned for violating a law passed especially to prevent her from doing so.
Education
Higher Education; Education of Women: African American Education: Oberlin College in Ohio is the first college to admit Blacks and women.
Education
Libraries: The first tax-supported public library in the United States is founded in Peterborough, New Hampshire.
Education
Children’s Books: Peter Parley's "Winter Evening Tales;" this delightful little book with its copperplate title page and frontispiece shows a less forbidding side of S. G. Goodrich (1793-1860).
Arts and Letters
Frederic Chopin (1810-1849) writes the "Piano Concerto in E Minor."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) writes "In Memoriam."
Daily Life
Magazines: Parley's Magazine for Children & Youth. This is a twice-monthly magazine, founded by Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860). It emphasized geography, travel, natural history, and simple technology, along with Bible stories.
Daily Life
Transportation: The Canadian ship, S.S. Royal William crosses the Atlantic in 25 days.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first "penny press," the "New York Sun," makes newspapers widely available, thus helping the spread of literacy.
Daily Life
Magazines: The first magazine for mothers, "Mother’s Magazine," is published and edited by Abigail Goodrich Whittelsey (1788-1858).
Sports
Baseball: An early form of baseball is played by the Olympic Ball Club in Philadelphia; most rules are like those of English cricket.
Popular Culture
The legend of Davy Crockett (1786-1836) is begun with the publication of "Sketches and Eccentricities of Col. David Crockett, of West Tennessee."
Social Issues
Slavery: The British Empire abolishes slavery in its colonies.
Reform
Abolition Movement: The American Anti-Slavery Society is founded in Philadelphia by James Mott (1788-1868). Lucretia Mott (1793-1880), his wife, founds the Female Anti-Slavery Society.
Reform
Labor Movement: Shoemakers in Geneva, New York, go on strike; they win, but a later court case declares strikes to be illegal.
Reform
Labor Movement: The General Trades Union is formed in New York City.
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1834
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Third Parties: Anti-Jackson forces form the American Whig party; it lasts until 1852.
Government
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) removes federal deposits from the Bank of the U.S. and deposits them in “pet” state banks around the country.
Government
The U.S. Senate censures Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) for taking federal deposits from the Bank of the U.S.; the censure is removed from the record the following year.
Government
The city of Toronto is incorporated.
Science
Amalgam (a mercury alloy) is introduced as a filling material for decayed teeth.
Medicine
An antidote for arsenic poisoning is discovered by Robert Bunsen (1811-1899).
Inventions
The mechanical reaper is patented by Cyrus H. McCormick (1809-1884).
Inventions
Computers: Charles Babbage (1791-1871)invents the principle of the "analytical engine," which is the forerunner of the computer.
Inventions
Jacob Perkins (1766-1849) invents an early refrigerator (really an early ice machine).
Education
Special Education: French teacher Louis Braille invents (1809-1852) a system of printed raised dots that enables the blind to read.
Education
Children''s Books: The fairy tale "The Three Bears" is popularized.
Arts and Letters
"The Last Days of Pompeii is published."
Lincoln, Mary
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) enters politics in the Illinois legislature at the age of 25.
Johnson, Eliza
Robert Johnson (1834-1869), son of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, is born February 22.
Adams, Louisa
John Adams II (1803-1834), son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, dies an alcohol related death on October 23.
Economics
Twenty-eight million acres of public land are offered for sale to those who wish to move west.
Discovery
The first settlement is established in Oregon.
Daily Life
Tomatoes are begun to be eaten in the U.S.; before this, people thought they were poisonous and they were only used as ornamental “love apples.”
Sports
Baseball: The first printed rules for a game much like baseball are found in the Book of Sports.
Sports
Baseball: Robin Carver publishes the "Book of Sports," the first American book on baseball.
Sports
Women in Sports: The first modern Lacrosse games are played. Lacrosse will become a major new sports opportunity for women in the 1990's with many colleges offering scholarship dollars. The original game was played by North American Indians.
Popular Culture
Madame Tussaud (1761-1850) opens her wax museum in London.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Under an 1828 treaty, the U.S. orders the Seminole Indians to leave Florida.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Four thousand Oglala people relocate to Fort Laramie to boost their fur trade with white people.
Reform
Labor Movement: The Factory Girls Association is organized in the Lowell textile mills; women workers stage their first strike, which fails.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Anti-abolition riots occur in New York City and Philadelphia.
1835
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Congress pays off the national debt.
War
Mexican Wars: American settlers defeat a Mexican cavalry in the first battle of the Texas Revolution.
War
Indian Wars: A new Seminole War begins in Florida after the escape of Seminole leader Osceola.
Science
Hailey's comet appears in its usual 75-year cycle.
Inventions
The revolver is invented by Samuel Colt (1814-1862).
Inventions
Computers: Charles Babbage (1791-1871) invents a mechanical calculator.
Education
African American Education: A school that enrolls 14 Black students in New Hampshire is burned to the ground.
Education
Children''s Books: Hans Christian Anderson (1805-1875) publishes a book of his "Fairy Tales."
Education
Education of Women: Harriet Hunt (c.1805-?) is accepted at Harvard Medical School, but the male students riot and she is forced to withdraw.
Education
Education of Women: Education for girls is established in Panama.
Ideas
Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859) publishes his "Democracy in America," a work that is still quoted today.
Ideas
Women''s Rights Movement: Lydia Maria Child (1802-1880) publishes "History of the Condition of Women."
Jackson, Rachel
Assassination: President Andrew Jackson survives the first-ever assassination attempt on a U.S. president.
Monroe, Elizabeth
Eliza Kortright Monroe Hay (1786-1835), daughter of President James Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe, dies in France at age 49, shortly after converting to the Catholic faith. Cause of death is unknown
Taylor, Margaret
Sarah "Knox" Taylor Davis (1814-1835), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, dies September 15 of malaria.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: 1,096 miles of railroad tracks are in use in the U.S.
Economics
Native Americans: Gold is found on Cherokee lands in Georgia.
Economics
The first cast-iron bridge in America is built over Dunlap’s Creek in Brownsville, Pennsylvania.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "New York Herald" is published as a penny-paper.
Sports
For a purse of $1,000, nine runners participate in a 10-mile foot race on Long Island; the winner’s time is 59 minutes, 44 seconds.
Popular Culture
P.T. Barnum (1810-1891) begins his career as a showman in the U.S.
Popular Culture
A pseudoscience called “phrenology” becomes popular; it says that physiological features, especially of the head, determine character.
Religion
Women''s Firsts: Henrietta Hall Schuck becomes the first American female missionary in China at age 18.
Reform
Prison Reform: Mt. Pleasant Female Prison, the first American prison for women, is founded in New York.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Censorship efforts in Southern states expel abolitionists and forbid the mailing of antislavery propaganda.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Pro- and anti-slavery mobs clash in Charleston, South Carolina, in Boston, and in New York; in Boston, the pro-slavery attackers take William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879) and parade him through the streets with a rope around his neck.
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1836
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President Andrew Jackson(1767-1845) nominates Roger Brooke Taney (1777-1864) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He is confirmed by the Senate in 1836 and serves for twenty-eight years, the second-longest tenure of any Chief Justice.
Politics
Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) is elected as the 8th U.S. President and Richard M. Johnson (1780-1850) is elected as the nation's 9th Vice President.
Politics
Texas declares independence from Mexico.
Government
New State: Arkansas becomes the 25th state in the U.S.
Government
The Michigan territory is divided to create Wisconsin.
War
Mexican Wars: The battle of the Alamo takes placeover 13 days; less than 200 defenders are finally defeated by 2,500 Mexican soldiers.
Science
The first American botanical textbook, "Elements of Botany," is written by Asa Gray (1810-1888).
Science
Pepsin, the powerful ferment in gastric juice, is recognized by the German physiologist, Theodor Schwann (1810-1882).
Inventions
Francis Pettit Smith and John Ericcson (1803-1889) co-invent the propellor.
Education
Higher Education: Education of Women: Women’s Colleges: Wesleyan College is chartered to Georgia and is known for granting the first college degrees to women.
Education
Public Education: Child labor laws in Massachusetts require children to attend school for at least three months a year until they are 15.
Education
Special Education: Laura Bridgman (1829-1889) becomes the first deaf-mute taught to communicate at the Perkins Institute.
Education
Public Education: The first McGuffey readers are published.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) writes "The Pickwick Papers."
Ideas
The first meeting of the Transcendentalist Club is held in Boston.
Madison, Dolley
James Madison (1751-1835) dies at the Madisons' home at Montpelier, and is buried there.
Fillmore, Abigail
Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) is elected again as a Representative to Congress; serves until 1839.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd (1818-1882) enrolls for two more years at Ward’s academy.
Pierce, Jane
Franklin Pierce Jr. (1836), son of Franklin and Jane Pierce, is born February 2 and dies three days later on February 5.
Jefferson, Martha
Martha Washington Jefferson Randolph (1772-1836), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies of apoplexy on October 10.
Economics
American Money: With minimum regulation, a proliferation of 1,600 local state-chartered, private banks now issue paper money.
Daily Life
Gas stoves are manufactured for the first time.
Daily Life
The Arc de Triumphe, begun 30 years earlier, is finished.
Sports
Cricket: Batting pads for Cricket are invented.
Religion
The first Mormon Temple is dedicated in Kirtland, Ohio.
Social Issues
Native Americans: A written Seneca Indian language is devised by missionaries Laura Wright (1809-1886) and her husband.
Social Issues
Slavery: Texas wins independence from Mexico and legalizes slavery. Free blacks and mulattos are forbidden from entering the state.
Reform
Labor Movement: At age 11, mill worker Harriet Jane Hanson Robinson leads her young co-workers out in support of older workers striking in protest over wage cuts.
Reform
Abolition Movement: There are 500 active abolitionist societies in the North.
Reform
Temperance Movement: The Ladies' American Home Education Society and Temperance Union is founded.
1837
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Membership on the Supreme Court is increased from seven to nine.
Government
President Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) recognizes the Republic of Texas on his last day in office, thereby preventing its admission as a slave territory.
Government
Martin Van Buren (1782-1862) is inaugurated as the 8th U.S. President and Richard M. Johnson (1780-1850) is inaugurated as the nation's 9th Vice President.
Government
New State: Michigan becomes the 26th state in the U.S.
Government
Presidents: Grover Cleveland (1837-1906), 22nd President of the U.S., is born in Caldwell, New Jersey.
War
Indian Wars: General Zachary Taylor tricks(1784-1850) Seminole leader Osceloa (c.1804-1838) and captures him.
Science
French mathematician Simeon Denis Poissson (1781-1840) develops the rules of probability by studying the incidence of death from mule kicks in the French army.
Inventions
Alfred Lewis Vail (1807-1859), Samuel Morse’s (1791-1872) assistant, develops the “Morse Code” of dots and dashes that will be used by telegraphers everywhere.
Inventions
John Deere (1804-1886) invents the steel-toothed plow.
Inventions
English schoolmaster, Rowland Hill (1744-1833) invents the postage stamp.
Education
Higher Education: Education of Women: Women’s Colleges: Mount Holyoke Female Seminary is founded and is chartered in 1888(becomes the model for other colleges in the future years).
Education
Public Education: Horace Mann (1796-1959) becomes head of the newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education. Edmund Dwight (1716-1755), a major industrialist, thinks a state board of education was so important to factory owners that he offered to supplement the state salary with extra money of his own.
Education
Freidrich Froebel (1782-1852) establishes the first kindergarten in Germany.
Education
Higher Education: Education of Women: Women's Colleges: Mary Mason Lyon (1797-1849) opens Mt. Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts, one of the first colleges for women.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Nathaniel Hawthorne’s (1804-1864) first work, "Twice-Told Tales" is published.
Ideas
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) publishes "The American Scholar."
Arthur, Ellen
Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (1837-1880), wife of Chester A. Arthur, is born August 30 in Culpepper Court House, Virginia.
Economics
Transportation: The first British liner made of iron—the Great Britain—is launched.
Economics
The economic Panic of 1837 is felt across the nation. Many people are out of work.
Daily Life
Victoria (1819-1901) becomes Queen of Great Britain. She is the first monarch to live in Buckingham Palace.
Daily Life
Magazines: Sarah Josepha Hale (1788-1879), author of "Mary Had A Little Lamb," begins editing the popular women''s magazine, "Godey''s Lady''s Book."
Sports
The first boat race, sponsored by the Castle Garden Boat Club, is held in Poughkeepsie, NY.
Sports
Women in Sports: Donald Walker's book, "Exercise for Ladies," warns women against horseback riding, because it deforms the lower part of the body.
Religion
American Presbyterians are split into the “old” and the “new.”
Reform
Abolition Movement: The first Anti-Slavery Convention of American Women is held in New York.
Reform
Labor Movement: The Grimké sisters found the National Female Anti-Slavery Society, one of the first to admit women of color from the start.
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1838
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Slavery: John Calhoun (1782-1850), Senator from South Carolina, introduces resolutions in the Senate affirming the legality of slavery.
War
Afrikaner (Boer) forces fight and defeat the Zulu at the Battle of Blood River in South Africa.
Science
The Royal Irish Academy elects astronomer Caroline Herschel to membership.
Science
The idea that cells are the basic building blocks of all living things is advanced.
Inventions
America’s first microscope is built by Charles A. Spencer (1813-1881).
Inventions
A one-day, brass movement clock is invented that is both accurate and inexpensive, giving rise to the term “Yankee ingenuity.”
Technology
Samuel Morse (1791-1872) gives the first demonstration of the telegraph.
Education
Education of Women: William Holmes MdGuffey (1800-1873) supports more liberal education for women.
Education
French philosopher Auguste Comte (1798-1857) gives the discipline of sociology its name.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Author James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) publishes two novels criticizing American democracy; he is roundly criticized.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Edgar Allen Poe (1809-1849) writes "Ligeia," often called the first work of American science fiction.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) writes "Oliver Twist" and "Nicholas Nickleby."
Harrison, Anna
William Henry Harrison (1802-1838), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born September 3.
Economics
Transportation: The British liner Great Western sails from England on her maiden voyage; she is the first to cross the Atlantic regularly.
Economics
Transportation: The British steamship Sirius crosses the Atlantic solely on steam power in 18 days, 10 hours.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The New York "Herald" is the first U.S. newspaper to employ European correspondents.
Daily Life
The coronation of Queen Victoria (1819-1901) takes place a year after she ascends the throne.
Popular Culture
Jenny Lynd (1820-1887), the "Swedish Nightingale," makes her debut.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Fifteen thousand Cherokee Indians remaining in Georgia are moved by federal troops 800 miles westward in what becomes known as "the Trail of Tears."
Reform
Women's Suffrage: Widows with school-age children are allowed to vote in school board elections in Kentucky.
Reform
Abolution Movement: Angelina Grimké becomes the first woman to ever address an American legislature, speaking on abolition in Massachusetts.
1839
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Women's Firsts: Mississippi becomes the first state to give the right to own property to women, although they must have their husbands’ permission.
Politics
Third Parties: The first anti-slavery political party, the Liberty Party, runs James Birney (1792-1857) for president. He loses.
Government
The kingdom of Belgium is recognized by all countries of Europe.
War
The first Opium War between Britain and China begins.
Science
Ozone is discovered and named.
Inventions
The first electric clock is invented.
Inventions
The first bicycle is constructed by Scottish inventor Kirkpatrick Macmillan (1813-1878).
Technology
Louis Daguerre (1787-1851) takes the first photograph of the moon.
Technology
Telegraph inventor Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) makes the first daguerreotype portraits to be produced in the U.S.
Education
The Lowell Institute in Boston is founded to provide free lectures by eminent scholars.
Education
A College of Dental Surgery opens in Baltimore.
Education
Teacher Education: The first public normal school (teachers' college) is founded in Lexington, Massachusetts.
Ideas
The unofficial headquarters of the Transcendentalist Club is Elizabeth Palmer Peabody’s (1804-1894) Boston bookshop.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1768-1849) moves back to Montpelier to try farming.
Harrison, Anna
Carter Bassett Harrison (1812-1839), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies August 12.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd (1818-1882) goes to live with her sister, Elizabeth Edwards (Mrs. Ninian), in Springfield, Illinois; she meets Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) there at a dance.
Tyler, Julia
Julia Gardner Tyler (1820-1889) is the first President's wife to pose for a department store advertisement.
Pierce, Jane
Frank Robert Pierce (1839-1843), son of Franklin and Jane Pierce, is born August 27.
Economics
The manufacture of rubber is pioneered by Charles Goodyear (1800-1860).
Daily Life
Magazines: The Lowell mill girls begin publishing "The Lowell Offering," a monthly magazine of poetry, fiction, and essays that becomes internationally known.
Sports
Horse Racing: The first Grand National horse race is run in Britain.
Sports
Baseball: Abner Doubleday (1819-1893) lays out the first baseball field and the first game is played.
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1840
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) is elected the 9th President of the U.S., and John Tyler (1790-1862) is elected as the 10th Vice President on the Whig ticket.
Government
Upper and lower Canada are united by an Act of Parliament.
Government
Stamps: The first postage stamps appear in Britain, bearing Queen Victoria's (1837-1901) profile. The tiny stamps (3/4 by 7/8 inches) are printed using only black ink. Brazil is the second nation to have postage stamps.
Science
Louis Agassiz (1807-1873) publishes a work on the movements and effects of glaciers.
Science
The fundamentals of artificial fertilizer are discovered.
Science
James Joule (1818-1889) develops the idea that energy can be converted from one state to another, but cannot be destroyed.
Medicine
The American Society of Dental Surgeons is organized in New York City.
Inventions
Englishman John Herschel (1792-1871) invents the blueprint.
Education
Women’s Colleges: St. Mary-of-the-Woods College is founded in Indiana as the first of many women's institutions that are established by Catholic Sisters and is chartered in 1846.
Education
Public Education: Irish Catholics in New York City struggle for local neighborhood control of schools as a way of preventing their children from being force-fed a Protestant curriculum.
Ideas
Margaret Fuller (1810-1850) becomes editor of "The Dial," an influential transcentalist publication.
Harrison, Anna
Benjamin Harrison (1806-1840), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born.
Adams, Abigail
"Selected letters" by Abigail Adams (1744-1818) on social, political, and other matters are published.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: There are 2,816 miles of railroad in operation in the U.S.
Economics
Transportation: The Cunard steamship line is established, the first with scheduled transatlantic sailings.
Economics
Population: The sixth national census shows a population of more than 17 million; 600,000 immigrants have arrived since 1830, 207,281 from Ireland.
Daily Life
Women''s Firsts: Elizabeth Peabody (1804-1894) becomes the first woman publisher in Boston and the U.S.
Daily Life
History of Toys: The first American dollmaker is granted a patent and dolls begin to be mass-produced in America for the first time.
Sports
The game of bowling (called nine pins) becomes popular in the U.S.
Popular Culture
The expression, "O.K." is first used; it refers to “Old Kinderhook,” birthplace of Martin Van Buren (1782-1862), and is also the name of a Democratic Club in New York City.
Popular Culture
The ritual of afternoon tea is introduced in Britain by Anna, the Duchess of Bedford (1788-1861).
Popular Culture
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) writes "The Pathfinder."
Social Issues
Native Americans: An increasing flow of emigrants to Oregon and California bring cholera, smallpox, and measles to the Indians as well as accelerated buffalo hunting for the fur trade.
Social Issues
Immigration: Over a million Irish immigrants arrive in the United States, driven out of their homes in Ireland by the potato famine.
Social Issues
Slavery: Slaves on the Spanish ship Amistad mutiny and sale the ship into a Connecticut harbor.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Lydia Maria Child (1802-1880) and her husband, David Lee Child (1794-1874), edit the Anti-Slavery Standard until 1844.
Reform
Labor Movement: The 10-hour day is established for federal employees by a Presidential order.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Women's Rights Movement: William Lloyd Garrison refuses to speak at the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London because women have been excluded from the meeting.
Reform
Abolution Movement: Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton are chosen as delegates to the World’s Anti-Slavery Convention in London.
1841
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Slavery: Affirming a strong argument made by John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), the Supreme Court rules that the slaves who took over the Amistad may be freed. Thirty-five freed men return to Africa.
Government
President William Henry Harrison (1773-1841) dies in office and is replaced by Vice-President John Tyler (1790-1852) as the 10th U.S. president; no new Vice President is selected.
Government
Tyler’s cabinet resigns over his veto of a bill creating a national bank; Daniel Webster remains Secretary of State.
Government
New Zealand becomes a British crown colony.
War
Mexican Wars: Texas soldiers invade New Mexico and claim all land east of the Rio Grande. Their efforts are thwarted by Governor Manuel Armijo (1793-1853).
Medicine
James Braid (1795-1860), Scottish surgeon, investigates the use of hypnosis.
Inventions
Adolphe Sax (1814-1894) invents the saxophone.
Inventions
Cornstarch is patented by Orlando Jones.
Inventions
Samuel Slocum (1792- 1861) patents the stapler.
Technology
The first U.S. steam fire engine is tested in New York City.
Education
Children''s Books: Harriet Martineau (1802-1876) publishes a collection of children’s stories, "The Playfellow."
Education
Education of Women: Oberlin College in Ohio is the first to grant college degrees to women.
Education
New England transcendentalists found the commune and school, Brook Farm.
Education
Education of Women: Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) publishes "A Treatise on Domestic Economy."
Education
Children’s Books: Unlike the early nineteenth-century Rousseauesque castaways, Victorian versions of the Crusoe story stressed adventure, manliness, and self-help. Well-known examples include Captain Marryat's reassuringly Evangelical Masterman Ready.
Education
Children’s Books: Frederick Marryatt (1792-1848), an ex-naval officer who wrote a whole series of shipboard novels. His Masterman Ready, or the Wreck of the Pacific, first published in three volumes in 1841-42.
Ideas
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) writes "Self Reliance."
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1764-1849) returns to Washington, DC.
Pierce, Jane
Benjamin Pierce (1841-1853), son of Franklin and Jane Pierce, is born April 13.
Harrison, Anna
Anna Symmes Harrison (1775-1864) is the first President's wife to never get to see or live in the White House because her husband, William Henry Harrison, died before she could join him there. President Harrison delivered the longest inaugural address (105 minutes) on a very cold winter day and contracted pneumonia.
Tyler, Letitia
Letitia Christian Tyler (1790-1842) is the First Vice President's wife to become First Lady at the death of the former president.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "New York Tribune" begins publishing, edited by Horace Greeley.
Popular Culture
Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) publishes the first detective story, "Murders in the Rue Morgue."
Popular Culture
James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851) writes "The Deerslayer."
Popular Culture
Charles Dickens (1812-1870) writes "The Old Curiosity Shop."
Social Issues
Slavery: Slaves aboard the U.S.S. Creole take over the ship and sail it to Nassau, where they become free.
Social Issues
Slavery: Texas gives its citizens the right and responsibility to apprehend runaway slaves and turn them over to the law so that they may be returned to their owners or sold at auction.
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1842
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The border between the U.S. and Canada is established from Maine to the Great Lakes.
Government
American author Washington Irving (1783-1859) is appointed ambassador to Spain.
Government
Stamps: The first adhesive postage stamps are used in the U.S.
War
Indian Wars: After destroying the Seminoles’ crops and villages, U.S. troops force a peace treaty and move them to Indian Territory in eastern Oklahoma.
Science
The Doppler Effect is described by Christian Doppler (1803-1853).
Medicine
The first surgery using an anesthetic—ether—is performed by Dr. Crawford Long (1815-1878) of Georgia.
Inventions
Joseph Dart builds the first grain elevator.
Education
Women's Colleges: Augusta Female Seminary—later Mary Baldwin Seminary, then College) is founded by Presbyterians in Staunton, VA; it will become one of the best-known early 19th century schools for girls.
Arts and Letters
The New York Philharmonic Orchestra gives its first performance.
Ideas
Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) becomes editor of "The Dial," an influential transcendentalist publication.
Tyler, Letitia
Letitia Christian Tyler (1790-1842) dies of a second stroke in the White House on September 10. She is the first First Lady to die during her husband's presidency.
Mary Todd (1818-1882) and Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) are married on November 4 at her sister Elizabeth’s house in Springfield.
Harrison, Anna
Mary Symmes Harrison Thornton (1809-1842), daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies November 16.
Discovery
John Charles Fremont (1813-1890) maps the Oregon Trail and wagon trains begin to move west.
Daily Life
Disasters: Mount St. Helens in Washington state erupts.
Sports
Horse Racing: Horse races at the Union Course on Long Island attract thousands of fans.
Popular Culture
P.T. Barnum (1810-1891)exhibits the young midget, Tom Thumb (Charles Sherwood Stratton, c. 1850).
Reform
Labor Movement: The landmark Supreme Court decision, Commonwealth v. Hunt, rules that trade union are not illegal, the striking for a closed shop is legal, and that unions cannot be held responsible for illegal actions by individuals.
1843
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Jefferson Davis (1808-1889) enters politics as a delegate to the Democratic State Convention in Alabama.
Government
Diplomatic representatives are sent to Hawaii by the U.S.
Government
Presidents: William McKinley (1843-1901), 25th President of the U.S. is born in Niles, Ohio.
Government
The first town meeting is held in Boston at Faneuil Hall.
Inventions
A U.S. patent for a hand-cranked ice cream freezer is granted to Nancy M. Johnson.
Inventions
Alexander Bain (1818-1903) of Scotland invents the facsimile.
Technology
Airplanes: William Samuel Henson, England, proposes the Aerial Steam Carriage in "Mechanics Magazine," the first known design for a propeller-driven fixed-wing aircraft.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) writes "Morte d’Arthur" and "Locksley Hall."
Ideas
Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) lays the foundations for existentialism by stressing the primacy of the individualand the inevitability of suffering.
Ideas
Women''s Rights Movement: Margaret Fuller (1810-1850) writes “The Great Lawsuit: Man versus Men, Woman versus Women.”
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd (1818-1882) and Abraham Lincoln’s(1809-1865) son Robert Todd (1843-1926) is born August 1 in Springfield, in the Globe Tavern, where the Lincolns lived for a time after their marriage.
Pierce, Jane
Frank Robert Pierce (1839-1843), son of Franklin and Jane Pierce, dies November 14 of typhoid fever; Franklin Pierce begins to wonder if God is taking his children.
Economics
Samuel Morse (1791-1872) starts to build a telegraph line between Baltimore and Washington, DC.
Discovery
John Charles Fremont (1813-1890) crosses the Rocky Mountains into California.
Daily Life
Fashion: A new form of female dress--bloomers--is introduced by Amelia Bloomer (1818 - 1894).
Daily Life
The first use of the word “millionaire” occurs in newspapers.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: The Mansion of Happiness is developed by S.B. Ives in Salem, Massachusetts. It becomes the first board game sold in the United States.
Sports
Skiing begins as a sport in Norway.
Sports
Rowing is introduced at Harvard.
Popular Culture
Charles Dickens (1812-1870) publishes "A Christmas Carol."
Popular Culture
American Theathre: The first minstrel show is performed in New York City.
Religion
The Jewish organization B’nai B’rith is founded.
Religion
Sojourner Truth (1797-1883) becomes a traveling evangelical preacher.
Reform
Labor Movement: The Lowell Female Labor Reform Association wins the first investigation of labor conditions by a government agency.
Reform
Mental Health Movement: Dorothea Dix (1802-1887) pushes reforms in the way mental health patients are treated through the Massachusetts legislature.
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1844
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
James Knox Polk (1795-1849) is elected as the 11th President of the U.S., and George Dallas (1792-1864) is elected as the nation's 11th Vice President.
Government
A plan to annex Texas is rejected by the Senate.
Government
The first treaty of peace, amity, and commerce is signed by the U.S. with China.
War
A gun on the new frigate Princeton, being demonstrated by the U.S. Navy, explodes, killing the Secretaries of State and the Navy, as well as other government officials.
Medicine
Nitrous oxide is first used in dentistry.
Inventions
Paper made from wood pulp is invented by Friedrich Keller.
Inventions
Englishman John Mercer (1829- 1897) invents mercerized cotton.
Technology
Charles Goodyear (1800-1860) receives a patent for rubber vulcanization.
Technology
Samuel F.B. Morse (1791-1872) sends his first telegraph message to an associate 45 miles away: the message is, “What hath God wrought?”
Arts and Letters
Literature: Alexander Dumas (1802-1870) writes "The Three Musketeers."
Ideas
Karl Marx (1818-1883) writes of religion as “the sigh of the oppressed creature, the feelings of a heartless world…the opium of the people.”
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1768-1849) sells Montpelier and is the first First Lady to be granted a permanent seat on the floor of the House of Representatives.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd (1818-1882) and Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) buy a home from the Episcopal minister who had married them. This will prove to be the only home the couple ever own.
Tyler, Julia
Julia Gardner (1820-1889) is the first woman to marry an American President while he was in office.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Webb's (1831-1889) mother, Maria Webb, moves her family to Delaware, Ohio, so that her sons, Joseph and James, can enroll in the newly formed Methodist college, Ohio Wesleyan University.
Economics
Morse’s (1791-1872) telegraph is used for the first time between Baltimore and Washington, DC.
Daily Life
The first private bath in an American hotel is built in the New York Hotel.
Sports
Cricket: The first official international cricket match is played: Canada vs. United States.
Religion
Brigham Young (1801-1877) is chosen to replace Joseph Smith (1805-1844) as leader of the Mormons.
Religion
The Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) is founded in England.
Reform
Anti-Child Labor Movement: The Factory Act in England prohibits children under 13 from working more than 6 ½ hours a day.
1845
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Congress establishes the first week in November for election day; the harvest is over but the roads are still passable.
Government
The U.S. Senate overrides a presidential veto for the first time.
Government
New State: Florida becomes the 27th state in the Union.
Government
New State: Texas becomes the 28th state in the Union.
Government
James Knox Polk (1795-1849) is inaugurated as the 11th President of the U.S., and George Dallas (1792-1864) is inaugurated as the nation's 11th Vice President.
Inventions
American Elias Howe (1819-1867) invents a sewing machine.
Inventions
Sarah Mather receives a patent for a submarine telescope.
Inventions
Rubber bands are invented.
Inventions
The first pneumatic tires are patented in England.
Technology
Airplanes: William Samuel Henson and John Stringfellow (1799-1883) attempt to form the Aerial Transit Company, which (if only they had a practical airplane), would have been the world's first airline. To drum up support, they build and test a model of Henson's aerial carriage with a 20-foot wingspan. It makes brief glides, but does not sustain flight.
Education
The first written examinations in elementary schools begin in Boston.
Education
Higher Education: The U.S. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) publishes his poem, “The Raven” with the famous line, “Quoth the Raven, Nevermore.”
Ideas
Catherine Beecher writes An Essay on Slavery and Abolitionism with Reference to the Duty of American Women to Their Country
Ideas
Margaret Fuller publishes Women in the Nineteenth Century, an expansion of her earlier essay calling for equality for women.
Polk, Sarah
Sarah Childress Polk (1803-1891) is the first First Lady to be "selected" by the previous President for her position (President Tyler told newly elected James Polk that he needed to get married and should marry Sarah). As a result of this selection, Sarah is the first First Lady to serve as her husband's personal secretary.
Harrison, Anna
Anna Tuthill Harrison Taylor (1813-1845), daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies July 5.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Webb (1831-1889) attends classes at Ohio Wesleyan and receives some credits from the College, although female students are not officially enrolled there.
Jackson, Rachel
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), 7th President of the U.S., dies at the Hermitage in Nashville, Tennessee.
Economics
Power looms for weaving carpets and tapestries are built by Erastus Bigelow (1814-1879).
Daily Life
The Eastern Hotel in Boston becomes the first steam-heated building in the U.S.
Daily Life
Magazines: "Scientific American Magazine" begins publication.
Religion
Children’s Books: "Letter to My Young Cousin" by American Sunday school Union. This is a book of religious advice on behavior in the family, written as from one teenage girl to another.
Social Issues
Immigration: The potato crop fails in Europe, hitting Ireland especially hard; Irish immigrants continue to flock to the U.S.
Reform
Labor Movement: The Industrial Congress of the U.S., one of the earliest labor unions, is organized.
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1846
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
New State: Iowa becomes the 29th state in the U.S.
War
Mexican War: The U.S. declares war on Mexico over California. U.S. forces under General Zachary Taylor (1784-1850) defeat the Mexicans at Palo Alto, the Navy occupies Monterey, and the territory of New Mexico is annexed to the U.S.
Science
Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) is awarded the King of Prussia’s Gold Medal for science.
Science
The planet Neptune is discovered by German astronomer Johann Gottfied Galle.
Medicine
Dr. William Morton (1819-1868), a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use anesthesia for tooth extraction.
Inventions
Elias Howe (1819-1867) receives a patent for his sewing machine.
Education
The Smithsonian Institution is established in Washington, DC as a center for scientific research.
Education
Education of Women: The National Academy of Design accepts women students.
Ideas
Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) publishes "The Evils Suffered by American Women and American Children."
Lincoln, Mary
With Mary’s (1818-1882) encouragement, Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) is elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Lincoln, Mary
Edward Baker (1846-1850), son of Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln, born on March 10 in Springfield.
Harrison, Anna
Elizabeth "Betsey" Bassett Harrison Short (1796-1846), the oldest daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, is born September 29.
Harrison, Anna
Elizabeth "Betsey" Bassett Harrison Short (1796-1846), the oldest daughter of William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies September 26.
Tyler, Julia
David Gardiner "Gardie" Tyler (1846-1927), the first son born to John Tyler and his second wife Julia, is born on July 12.
Daily Life
Women''s Firsts: Sarah Bagley (1806-1848) becomes the first woman telegrapher in the U.S.
Daily Life
The first painted Christmas card is designed.
Sports
Baseball: New York surveyor Alexander Cartwrite codifies the rules of baseball.
Sports
Baseball: The first recorded baseball game is played in Hoboken, NJ.
Popular Culture
Edward Lear (1812-1888) publishes his "Book of Nonsense."
Religion
The Mormons under Brigham Young (1801-1877) move westward beyond the U.S. borders to the Great Salt Lake.
Religion
The American Missionary Association is founded, combining Protestant evangelicalism with abolitionism.
Social Issues
Slavery: During the Mexican-American War, Mexico is defeated and forced to yield an enormous amount of territory to the United States. Americans then wrestle with a controversial topic: Should slavery be permitted in the new lands?
Reform
Capital Punishment: Michigan becomes the first state to outlaw capital punishment.
1847
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
California comes under U.S. control.
Government
Liberia, colonized by American ex-slaves, becomes the first independent republic in Africa.
Government
Stamps: United States stamps debut. The first two feature George Washington (1732-1799) and Ben Franklin (1706-1790).
Science
Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) discovers a new comet which is named after her.
Science
Joseph Leidy (1823-1891) suggests that the environment affects changes (evolution) within a species.
Medicine
Childbirth assisted by anesthetic (chloroform) first takes place.
Medicine
The American Medical Association is organized in Philadelphia.
Medicine
Epidemics: Another world-wide epidemic of influenza occurs.
Medicine
Antiseptics are developed by Ignaz Semmelweis (1818-1865), a Hungarian.
Inventions
The ophthalmoscope is invented by Charles Babbage (1791-1871) .
Education
Women's Colleges: Rockford Female Seminary (later College) is founded in Rockford, IL; it is called the “Mount Holyoke of the West.”
Arts and Letters
Literature: Emily Bronte (1818-1848) writes "Wuthering Heights" and Charlotte Bronte (1816-1855) writes "Jane Eyre."
Fillmore, Abigail
The Fillmore (1800-1874) family moves to Albany when Fillmore is elected state comptroller; the children are away at boarding school and college.
Mckinley, Ida
Ida Saxon (1847-1907) , wife of William McKinley, is born in Canton, Ohio on June 8.
Tyler, Letitia
Alice Tyler Denison (1847-1854), daughter of John and Letitia Tyler, is born March 23.
Economics
Evaporated milk is made for the first time.
Daily Life
Disasters: Forty-seven of the eighty-seven members of the Donner Party die while trapped in the Sierra Mountains.
Daily Life
The California town of Yerba Buena is renamed San Francisco.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The telegraph is used to transfer stories over great distances, thus making news more immediate.
Religion
The Mormons found Salt Lake City, Utah.
Social Issues
Immigration: The first Chinese immigrants arrive in the U.S.
Social Issues
Immigration: Irish immigration reaches 105,000, 3 times more than the year before.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Taos Rebellion against the U.S. military occurs.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) , escaped ex-slave, begins publishing his abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.
Reform
Anti-Child Labor Movement: Women and children in Britain may only work a 10-hour day.
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1848
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Zachary Taylor (1784-1850) is elected 12th President of the U.S. on the Whig ticket; Millard Fillmore is elected as the 12th Vice President.
Politics
Third Parties: Former Democratic President Martin van Buren (1782-1862) becomes the presidential candidate of the anti-slavery Free-Soil Party. He wins 10 percent of the popular vote, and is credited with siphoning off enough votes from Democratic candidate Lewis Cass (1782-1866 ) to help Whig candidate Zachary Taylor (1784- 1850) win the election.
Government
New State: Wisconsin becomes the 30th state in the U.S.
War
Mexican Wars: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends the war with Mexico, the U.S. receives New Mexico and California as well as parts of Nevada, Utah, Arizona and Colorado for $15 million.
Science
Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) becomes the first woman to be elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Science
Hyperion, the eighth moon of Saturn, is discovered.
Medicine
Epidemics: More than 5,000 deaths are caused by a cholera epidemic in New York City.
Inventions
Margaret (Mattie) Knight (1838-1914) (10) invents a stop-motion device to keep shuttles from sliding out of the looms and injuring workers.
Inventions
Chewing gum is invented by John B. Curtis (1827–1897) of Maine.
Inventions
Waldo Hanchett patents the dental chair.
Education
Women’s Colleges: Moore College of Art is founded in Philadelphia (then called the Philadelphia School of Design for Women); it is the first and only women's visual arts college in the nation--and one of only two in the world.
Education
Libraries: Boston Public Library becomes the first publicly supported major urban library.
Education
Public Education: Massachusetts Reform School at Westboro opens, where children who have refused to attend public schools are sent. This begins a long tradition of "reform schools," which combine the education and juvenile justice systems.
Education
Public Education: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo guarantees citizenship rights to everyone living in new American areas, mostly Mexicans and Native people. It also guarantees the continued use of the Spanish language, including in education. One hundred fifty years later, in 1998, California breaks that treaty, by passing Proposition 227, which would make it illegal for teachers to speak Spanish in public schools.
Education
Education of Women: A medical school for women opens with 12 students in Boston.
Ideas
Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) publish "The Communist Manifesto."
Tyler, Julia
John Alexander "Alex" Tyler (1848-1883), son of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, is born on April 7.
Tyler, Letitia
Mary Tyler Jones (1815-1848), the first daughter born to John and Letitia Christian Tyler, dies June 17.
Taylor, Margaret
Margaret Smith Taylor (1788-1852) is the only First Lady whose portrait does not hang in the White House. She refused to ever have it made.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Webb (1831-1889) meets Rutherford B. Hayes for the first time when he is visiting her town with his mother. She begins college at the Cincinnati Wesleyan Female College this year as well.
Adams, Louisa
John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), son of Abigail and John Adams, dies of a massive stroke on February 23.
Economics
Gold is first discovered in California, in Sutter's mill. After President Polk (1795-1849) announces the news in December, the gold rush begins soon after.
Daily Life
Niagara Falls stops flowing for the first time in history because of an ice jam in the Niagara River.
Popular Culture
Stephen Foster (1826-1864) writes “Oh, Susannah,” which becomes popular among the “49ers” and establishes his reputation as a song writer.
Religion
Spiritualism becomes popular in the U.S.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The California Gold Rush begins, increasing Western expansion across former Native American lands.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: The National Convention of Colored Freedmen held in Cleveland, Ohio resolves that women should be elected delegates on an equal basis with men.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: The first Women’s Rights convention is held in Seneca Falls, NY.
1849
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Zachary Taylor (1784-1850) is inaugurated as the 12th President of the U.S. and Millard Fillmore is inaugurated as the 12th Vice President.
Government
Thomas Ewing (1829-1896) of Ohio is appointed as the first Secretary of the Interior, a department created to meet the needs of western settlers.
Government
Congress establishes the Minnesota territory.
Science
Jeffries Wyman (1814-1874) describes the similarities between the skeletons of apes and humans.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Female doctors are permitted to practice medicine for the first time in the U.S., and Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) becomes the first woman physician in the U.S.
Inventions
The safety pin is invented by Walter Hunt (1796-1859) , trying to satisfy a $15 debt; he spends 3 hours bending wire into various forms.
Inventions
Mary Ann Woodward patents a fan that attaches to a rocking chair.
Technology
Airplanes: Sir George Cayley (1773-1857), builds a small glider designed to lift about 80 pounds of the ground. He refers to it as his Boy Glider. It is the first recorded manned (or boyed) fixed-wing aircraft. It lifts a 10-year old boy off the ground for a few yards on test runs. Cayley also flew it in a high wind like a kite, tethered to the ground.
Education
Children’s Books: Anna Maria Hall (1800-1881) is one of the most prolific Victorian writers for children, best known for such moral tales as "Grandmamma's Pockets."
Education
The Free Academy in New York City opens; it will become the College of the City of New York and offer free education to the children of New York’s working class.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison (1768-1849) dies on July 12 at the age of 81.
Polk, Sarah
James K. Polk (1795-1849) is the first President to be photographed while in office; he dies on June 15 in Nashville, Tennessee.
Fillmore, Abigail
The family moves to Washington.
Lincoln, Mary
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) applies for a patent on a floating dry dock; he is the only U.S. President to do so.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) meets Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) , a student of her father’s in Cincinnati.
Tyler, Julia
Julia Tyler Spencer (1849-1871), daughter of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, is born on December 25.
Economics
Seven thousand “49ers” invade California in a search for gold.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The Pacific Railroad Company is chartered, the first railroad west of the Mississippi River.
Economics
Women''s Rights Movement: Amelia Bloomer (1818 - 1894) begins publishing "The Lily," moving it to Ohio in 1853 and employing female typesetters in spite of a strike by males on the staff.
Sports
The Pearl of Bermuda beats the U.S. yacht Brenda in the first recognized international yacht race.
Social Issues
Slavery: California holds a convention, adopting a constitution that forbids slavery and requests admission to the Union.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The giant redwood trees in California are named Sequoias in honor of the Cherokee Indian Chief, Sequoya (c.1770-1843).
Social Issues
Immigration: The California Gold Rush sparks first mass immigration from China.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Maryland slave Harriet Tubman (c.1820-1913) escapes to the North with some help from her friends.
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1850
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Slavery: The Compromise of 1850 is passed after bitter debates about slavery in new territories and states.
Government
Vice President Millard Fillmore (1800-1847) becomes the 13th President of the U.S. on the death of Zachary Taylor. No new Vice President is selected.
Government
New State: California becomes the 31st state in the U.S.
Government
The city of Los Angeles is incorporated.
Government
New Mexico (which included present day Arizona, southern Colorado, southern Utah, and southern Nevada) is designated a territory, but denied statehood.
Science
The inner-most ring of Saturn is discovered.
Inventions
The continuous stitch sewing machine is invented by Isaac Singer (1811-1875).
Inventions
Joel Houghton is granted the first dishwasher patent in 1850.
Technology
Newspapers: Powerful, giant presses appear, and they are able to print ten thousand complete papers per hour.
Technology
The first clear photograph of the moon is made (a daguerreotype).
Education
Education of Women: The Female Medical College of Pennsylvania is founded.
Education
Public Education: One of the first “free,” or public, schools in New Jersey is founded by Clara Barton (1821-1912).
Education
Children’s Books: "Three Little Kittens" and other stories from Mama Lovechild''s Series were issued by the American toy and game publisher, McLoughlin Brothers.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1806-1861) writes "Sonnets from the Portuguese."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) writes "The Scarlet Letter."
Lincoln, Mary
Edward Baker Lincoln (1846-1850), son of Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln, dies of tuberculosis at age 3, on February 1.
Lincoln, Mary
William Wallace Lincoln (1850-1862), son of Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln, is born on December 21.
Taylor, Margaret
President Zachary Taylor (1784-1850), 12th President of the U.S., dies of indigestion on July 9 in Washington D.C. after less than a year-and-a-half in office on .
Fillmore, Abigail
The first library in the White House is established by Abigail Fillmore (1798-1853); She used her furniture money to buy the books. In addition to the library, she also had the first White House bathtub installed and replaced the fireplace used for cooking with the first White House cookstove.
Tyler, Letitia
Elizabeth "Lizzie" Tyler Waller (1823-1850), daughter of John and Letitia Tyler, dies June 1 from childbirth complications.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Webb Hayes (1831-1889) is the first First Lady to earn a college degree from Cincinnati Wesleyan.
Grant, Julia
Fredrick Dent Grant (1850-1912), son of Ulysses and Julia Grant, is born May 30.
Monroe, Elizabeth
Maria Hester Monroe Gouverneur (1803-1850) President James Monroe and Elizabeth Monroe, dies at the age of 47.
Economics
Young Bavarian-American Levi Strauss (1829-1902) invents blue jeans.
Economics
Population: The population of the U.S. is 23 million (3.2 million black slaves).
Daily Life
Fashion: Crinolines become popular in the U.S., later to be replaced by hoop skirts.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first "pictorial" weekly newspapers emerge; for the first time they feature extensive illustrations of news events.
Popular Culture
P.T. Barnum (1810-1891) brings Jenny Lind (1820-1887) to sing in the U.S.
Popular Culture
Steven Foster (1826-1864) writes “Camptown Races.”
Popular Culture
Charles Dickens (1812-1870) publishes "David Copperfield."
Social Issues
Native Americans: Silversmithing is introduced to the Navajo Indians, who make it an art form.
Social Issues
Slavery: The Compromise of 1850 includes the Fugitive Slave Act, a law designed to assist in the recovery of runaway slaves by increasing federal officers and denying fugitive slaves a right to a jury trial.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Women gain the right to own land in Oregon.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Harriet Tubman (c.1820-1913) begins to lead slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. She makes 19 trips back to the South to free about 300 slaves.
1851
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
American Money: Three-cent coins are authorized by Congress.
Government
National Capital: The dome on top of the Capitol Building is designed.
Science
Understanding of the rotation of the earth is advanced.
Medicine
Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) sets up a small medical clinic in a New York City tenement district.
Medicine
The use of glass eyes is introduced; many think they will restore sight.
Education
Libraries: The first law allowing towns to support free libraries through taxes is passed in Massachusetts.
Education
Teacher Education: White American education pioneer Myrrilla Miner opens a teaching college for black women in Washington, DC, the Miner Normal School, amid threats, arson attempts, and stone-throwing mobs.
Education
Libraries: Fire at the Library of Congress burns two-thirds of its collection, 900 of which have still to be replaced.
Education
Public Education: State of Massachusetts passes its first compulsory education law. The goal is to make sure that the children of poor immigrants get "civilized" and learn obedience and restraint, so they make good workers and don't contribute to social upheaval.
Arts and Letters
Opera: Giuseppe Verdi’s (1813-1901) opera "Rigoletto" is first performed in Venice.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Herman Melville (1819-1891) publishes "Moby Dick."
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1881) asks Lucy Webb (1831-1889) to marry him; she accepts.
Tyler, Julia
Lachlan Tyler (1851-1902), son of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, is born December 2.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "New York Times" begins publishing.
Daily Life
The first double-decker omnibus, drawn by horses, appears in England.
Daily Life
Fashion: Amelia Jenks Bloomer (1818-1894) gives her name to “bloomers,” a split skirt designed by Elizabeth Smith Miller (1822-1911) for bicycle riding.
Sports
In the America’s Cup race, the U.S. yacht America beats the British yacht Aurora on Cowes, England.
Sports
Baseball: The first baseball uniforms are worn by the New York Knickerbockers—straw hats, white shirts, and blue trousers.
Popular Culture
Stephen Foster (1826-1864) publishes “Old Folks at Home.”
Popular Culture
Children’s Books: The American abolitionist novel Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe (1812-1896) was pirated and abridged to become a children's classic. Although the book presents both African-American and white characters through melodrama and stereotype, the novel has received increasing critical reappraisal in recent years.
Religion
The first Young Men’s Christian Association (WMCA) opens in Boston.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Sioux Indians give their Iowa lands, and most of their lands in Minnesota to the U.S.
Reform
Temperance Movement: Prohibition against liquor is begun in Maine and Illinois.
Reform
Native Americans: Bishop Jean Baptiste Lamy (1818-1888) arrives in New Mexico and establishes schools, hospitals and orphanages throughout the territory.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Sojourner Truth (1797-1883) gives her famous "Ain't I a Woman" speech at the Women's Rights Convention in Akron, Ohio.
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1852
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Democrat Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) is elected as the 14th President of the U.S., defeating the Whig candidate, General Winfield Scott; William R. King (1786-1853) is elected as the 13th Vice President. The Whig party ceases to be a power.
Government
Napoleon III (1808-1873) becomes the Emperor of France.
Government
The South African Republic (Transvaal) is established.
Government
Stamps: The first pre-stamped envelopes are sold. Pre-stamped postcards (for a penny) appear 19 years later.
Science
Kerosene is discovered and named.
Medicine
A Dutch army surgeon creates the first cast for broken bones by injecting bandages with plaster.
Inventions
Elisha Gray (1835-1901) invents a safety device to prevent the fall of heavy machinery; his invention makes the development of the elevator possible.
Inventions
James Otis (died 1861) designs a passenger elevator.
Inventions
The non-rigid airship is invented by Henri Giffard.
Education
Education of Women: Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) publishes "The Laws of Life, with Special Reference to the Physical Education of Girls."
Education
Women's Colleges: The National Women’s Education Association is founded by Catherine Beecher (1800-1878) to provide help for women’s colleges, and promote the idea of women as teachers.
Education
The first effective school attendance law is passed in Massachusetts; it requires at least 12 weeks attendance for all children between 8 and 14, six of which must be consecutive.
Education
Libraries: The Boston Public Library is founded.
Education
Women’s Colleges: Mills College is founded in California; it is the oldest women's college in the western part of the United States.
Grant, Julia
Ulysses Simpson "Buck" Grant Jr. (1852-1929), son of Ulysses and Julia Grant, is born July 22.
Johnson, Eliza
Andrew Johnson Jr. (1852-1879), son of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, is born August 6.
Madison, Dolley
John Payne Todd (1792-1852), the biological son of Dolley Madison and the stepson of President James Madison, dies of typhoid fever. John''s life choices, made him a charlatan and constant disgrace to his parents.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Webb (1831-1889) and Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1881) are married on December 30 in Cincinnati.
Adams, Louisa
Louisa Catherine Johnson Adams (1775-1852) dies in Washington on May 15 at the age of seventy-seven; the U.S. Congress adjourns to attend her funeral, the first time this honor is conferred upon a woman.
Taylor, Margaret
Margaret Mackall Smith Taylor (1788-1852) dies near Pascagoula, Mississippi on August 18 at the age of sixty-four.
Economics
The Wells Fargo Company is founded.
Discovery
Livingstone (1813-1873) begins explorations of the Zambezi River in South Africa.
Daily Life
The U.S. imports sparrows from Germany as a defense against caterpillars.
Sports
The first intercollegiate rowing race is held between Harvard and Yale.
Popular Culture
The character of “Uncle Sam” appears for the first time in the "New York Lantern Weekly."
Popular Culture
Stephen Foster (1826-1864) writes “My Old Kentucky Home.”
Religion
American Catholics hold their first Plenary Council in Baltimore.
Social Issues
Immigration: Chinese immigration is encouraged in California, particularly to provide labor for building railroads.
Reform
Labor Movement: Ohio becomes the first state to regulate working hours for women.
Reform
Temperance Movement: The Woman’s New York Temperance Society is formed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony.
1853
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Washington Territory is formed from part of the Oregon Territory.
Government
With the Gadsden Treaty, the U.S. secures land from Mexico that completes its acquisition of land in the continental United States.
Government
Franklin Pierce (1804-1869) is inaugurated as the 14th President of the U.S., and William R. King (1786-1853) is inaugurated as the 13th Vice President. King dies soon after taking office, and is not replaced.
Medicine
Alexander Wood (1817-1884) uses hypodermic syringes for injections under the skin.
Medicine
Smallpox vaccinations are made compulsory in Britain.
Medicine
Chloroform is used by Queen Victoria (1819-1901) as an anesthetic in the birth of her 7th child; it becomes an accepted practice in England.
Medicine
Epidemics: More than 3,000 perish from yellow fever in New Orleans.
Inventions
African American inventors: George Crum invents the potato chip.
Technology
Airplanes: The first heavier-than-air flying machine, a glider, flies across a valley for 500 yards carrying its frightened creator, George Cayley (1773-1857).
Education
Higher Education: Antioch College in Ohio opens.
Education
Women's Colleges: American educator Mary Easton Sibley (1800-1878) founds the Lindenwood Female College in Missouri.
Education
Children’s Books: From his weekly magazine, "Household Words," Charles Dickens (1812-1870) waxes nostalgic for the educationally-incorrect fairy tales and nursery rhymes of his youth, such as Aladdin or Jack the Giant-Killer.
Arts and Letters
Painting: Rosa Bonheur’s (1822-1899) painting, "The Horse Fair," establishes her reputation as an artist.
Fillmore, Abigail
Abigail Powers Fillmore (1798-1853) dies of pneumonia at the Willard Hotel in Washington at the age of fifty-five.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Scott (1832-1892) graduates from the Oxford Female Academy. She begins teaching
Pierce, Jane
Benjamin Pierce (1841-1853), son of Franklin and Jane Pierce, dies tragically January 16 in a train accident before his parents' eyes.
Hayes, Lucy
Birchard Austin Hayes (1853-1926), son of Rutherford and Lucy Hayes, is born November 4 in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln’s son Thomas "Tad" (1853-1871) is born on April 4 in Springfield.
Tyler, Julia
Lyon Gardiner Tyler (1853-1935), son of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, is born in August.
Economics
American Money: Three-dollar gold pieces are authorized by Congress.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The Baltimore and Ohio railroad is completed as far as the Ohio River.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The New York Central railroad is formed, connecting New York City and Buffalo, NY.
Economics
The building of Steinway pianos is begun in New York City by Henry Steinway (1797-1871) and his three sons.
Economics
Tiffany and Company, jewelers, is established.
Economics
Condensed milk is introduced by Gail Borden (1801-1871).
Discovery
Commander Matthew Perry (1794-1858) sails into Japan’s Edo Bay, hoping to open Japan to trade with the west.
Religion
Women's Firsts: Antoinette Brown Blackwell (1825-1921) becomes the first ordained minister of a recognized denomination, the Congregationalists.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Seventy-three women present a petition to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention urging women’s suffrage.
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1854
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Political Parties: The Republican Party is formed in Ripon, Wisconsin; opposition to slavery is their central principle.
Politics
Third Parties: The Know-Nothing Party is formed; native white Protestants opposed to immigration and Catholicism run Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) for President.
Government
Clara Barton (1821-1912) becomes perhaps the first regularly appointed woman civil servant in the U.S. with a clerkship in a Washington, DC patent office.
Government
The Gadsden Purchase Treaty is ratified.
Medicine
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) introduces nurses and standards of cleanliness into military hospitals in the Crimea.
Inventions
The first form of the electric light bulb is invented by Heinrich Goebel (1818-1893) in Germany.
Inventions
The Smith and Wesson revolver is invented.
Technology
The use of the Bunsen burner is introduced.
Education
Special Education: The first state-supported school especially designed for the mentally retarded opens in Syracuse, NY.
Education
Education of Women: Emily Blackwell (1826-1910), Elizabeth Blackwell’s sister, earns a medical degree at Cleveland’s Western Reserve University.
Arts and Letters
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) writes "Walden," or "Life in the Woods."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Alfred Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) writes "The Charge of the Light Brigade," a poem about a tragic battle in the Crimean War.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline (1832-1892)and Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) move to Indianapolis, Indiana.
Fillmore, Abigail
Mary Abigail (Abby) Fillmore (1832-1854) dies of cholera on July 27 at the age of 22.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy (1831-1889) and Rutherford Hayes (1822-1893) and their family move into its own house in Cincinnati.
Tyler, Letitia
Alice Tyler Denison (1847-1854), daughter of John and Letitia Tyler, dies June 8 of colic.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline and Benjamin Harrison’s son, Russell Benjamin Harrison (1854-1936), is born on August 12.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: Immigration: 13,000 Chinese arrive, the beginning of large-scale Chinese immigration; they are employed largely in railroad building in the west.
Popular Culture
Stephen Foster (1826-1864) writes “Jeanne with the Light Brown Hair.”
Religion
Pope Pius IX (1792-1878) sets forth the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.
Social Issues
Slavery: During the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Congress sets aside the rulings from the Missouri Compromise of 1820 and allows these two new territories to choose whether or not to allow slavery. Violent clashes erupt.
Reform
Abolition Movement: Northern resistance to the expansion of slavery increases.
Reform
Temperance Movement: Black temperance advocate Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911) lectures for antislavery societies.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Susan B. Anthony collects 6,000 signatures on a petition for women’s rights.
1855
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The first U.S. Court of Claims is established.
Government
Stamps: Prepayment of postage is required in United States
Inventions
The first patent for the production of rayon is obtained by George Audemars.
Inventions
Kerosene is patented by Abraham Gesner (1797-1864) .
Inventions
The printing telegraph is invented.
Education
The first German-language kindergarten in the United States is established by Margarethe Schurtz in Watertown, WI.
Education
A professorship of technology is created at Edinburgh University.
Education
Children’s Books: Charlotte Yonge (1823-1901) publishes the children's historical novel, "The Little Duke," and also "The History of Sir Thomas Thumb, a traditional folktale to which Yonge adds material from the Arthurian legends and from the German tales of the Brothers Grimm.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) writes "Hiawatha."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Walt Whitman (1819-1892) writes "Leaves of Grass."
Arts and Letters
The Boston Philharmonic Orchestra is organized.
Lincoln, Mary
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) runs unsuccessfully for the Senate.
Grant, Julia
Ellen Wrenshall "Nellie" Grant Sartoris Jones (1855-1922), daughter of Ulysses and Julia Grant, is born July 4.
Van Buren, Hannah
Martin Van Buren (1812-1855), son of Martin and Hannah Van Buren, dies in Paris on March 19.
Economics
Transportation: The first Cunard liner crosses the Atlantic in 9 ½ days.
Economics
The first oil refinery in the U.S. is built in Pittsburgh.
Discovery
Missionary David Livingstone (1813-1873) discovers falls on the Zambezi River which he names Victoria Falls.
Sports
Horseback riding by women becomes popular; many riding academies are set up to help women learn.
Social Issues
Slavery: Fugitive slave Ann Wood leads a wagon load of armed boys and girls in a shootout with slave catchers; two are killed and the rest escape to the North.
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1856
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
James Buchanan (1791-1868) , Democrat, is elected the 15th President of the U.S., and John C. Breckenridge (1821-1875) is elected as the nation's 14th Vice President.
Politics
Third Parties: Former President Millard Fillmore (1800-1874) is selected to be the presidential candidate of the Know-Nothing or American Party.
Government
Presidents: Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) , 28th President of the United States, is born.
War
The Crimean War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
Science
A Neanderthal skull is found in a cave near Dusseldorf in Germany.
Inventions
Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) invents a process which makes it possible to mass-produce low-cost steel.
Inventions
A patent for a pencil with an attached eraser is granted to H.L. Lipman.
Inventions
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) invents the process of pasteurisation.
Technology
Railroad History: The first railroad bridge across the Mississippi River is completed between Rock Island, Illinois and Davenport, Iowa.
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: The first American copyright law is established because of the efforts of Dion Boucicault (1820-1890). In its earliest form, it only protects the title of the play.
Tyler, Julia
Robert Fitzwalter Tyler (1856-1927), son of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, is born March 12.
Lane, Harriet
Harriet Lane (1830-1903) serves as James Buchanan's hostess because he never married.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy and Rutherford Hayes’s second son, James Webb Hayes (1856-1934), is born on March 20th in Cincinnati.
Hayes, Lucy
Fannie Hayes Platt, Rutherford’s sister and Lucy’s great friend, dies of complications of childbirth.
Economics
The first street trains, powered by steam, begin running between Boston and Cambridge, MA.
Economics
The Western Union Company is established.
Discovery
Borax is discovered in California.
Sports
Boxing: The longest bare-knuckle boxing match in history pits James Kelly vs. Jack Smith in Melbourne, Australia; the fight lasts 6 hours and 15 minutes.
Sports
Women in Sports: Catherine Beecher (1800-78) publishes Physiology and Calisthenics for Schools and Families, the first fitness manual for women.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Pottawatomie Massacre takes place in Kansas.
Reform
Abolition Movement: An anti-slavery group led by John Brown (1800-1859) attacks a pro-slavery settlement in Franklin County, Kansas. Horace Greeley’s (1811-1872) "New York Tribune" calls the territory “Bleeding Kansas.”
1857
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Slavery: In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court rules that slaves are not free just because they live in a free state, that blacks do not have the right to sue in federal court, and that Congress does not have the right to try to exclude slavery from the territories.
Government
Presidents: William Howard Taft (1857-1930) , 27th President of the United States, is born.
Government
National Capital: The House of Representatives moves into its current home in the south wing of the Capitol.
Government
Stamps: Perforated U.S. stamps appear (Previously people had to cut apart sheets of stamps).
Government
James Buchanan (1791-1868) is inaugurated as the 15th President of the U.S., and John C. Breckenridge (1821-1875) is inaugurated as the nation's 14th Vice President.
Science
Yeast is discovered to be a living plant.
Science
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) proves that fermentation is caused by living organisms.
Science
In a letter to Asa Gray (1810-1888) , Charles Darwin (1809-1882) first outlines his theories of evolution and natural selection.
Medicine
Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) founds her own New York Infirmary for Women and Children.
Medicine
Epidemics: One of the worst epidemics of influenza begins this year and spreads around the world in the next two years.
Inventions
George Pullman (1831-1897) invents the Pullman Sleeping Car for train travel.
Technology
Airplanes: Jean-Marie Le Bris (1817-1872), a French sea caption, tests a glider modeled after an albatross. This "artificial bird" makes one short glide, but on the second glide it crashes and Le Bris breaks his leg.
Education
Children’s Books: Thomas Hughes (1822-1896), writes "Tom Brown's Schooldays," making Arnold's Rugby the model for what Victorian schoolboys expected their schools to be like.
Education
Libraries: The Watkinson Library is founded as a “a library of reference” for the community of Hartford, Connecticut.
Education
The National Education Association is founded in Philadelphia for the purpose of advancing the professionalism of teaching.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880) publishes "Madame Bovary."
Ideas
'The Atlantic Monthly' is founded.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) takes great pleasure in her new sewing machine, a gift from her mother.
Lane, Harriet
Harriet Lane (1830-1903) is the first woman to have a federal steamship named after her.
Economics
E.G. Otis installs the first safety elevator.
Economics
The laying of the transatlantic cable begins.
Economics
A financial panic triggers a serious depression; thousands of businesses fail.
Daily Life
Central Park, in New York City, is designed.
Daily Life
Holidays: The first Mardi Gras pageant of decorated floats is held in New Orleans.
Daily Life
The American Chess Association is formed.
Sports
Baseball: Twenty-five teams form the first baseball association, the National Association of Baseball Players.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: The Married Women’s Property Bill passes in England.
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1858
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
New State: Minnesota becomes the 32nd state in the U.S.
Government
Presidents: Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) , 26th President of the United States, is born.
Government
Britain takes over the government of India from the East India Company.
Government
A treaty of peace, friendship, and commerce is signed between the U.S. and China.
Science
The cell is isolated by Berlin doctor Rudolf Virchow (1821-1902) , who calls it the basic unit of all life.
Inventions
Hamilton Smith (1862-1943) patents the rotary washing machine.
Inventions
Jean Lenoir (1822-1900) invents an internal combustion engine.
Education
Children’s Books: Rev. Frederic William Farrar (1831-1903), a schoolmaster, writes the moralistic tale "Eric," or "Little by Little," about a boy who goes bad.
Education
A chemistry department and research lab are established by Harvard University.
Arts and Letters
The first public concert is performed by the New York Symphony Orchestra.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: “The Courtship of Miles Standish” is published by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882).
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy and Rutherford Hayes’s third son, Rutherford Platt Hayes (1858-1927), is born on June 24 in Cincinnati.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford Hayes (1822-1893) is appointed to an unexpired term as city solicitor of Cincinnati in December.
Hayes, Lucy
The Hayes family has its first Christmas tree, decorated as a surprise by their German servants.
Lincoln, Mary
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) runs for the Senate from Illinois against incumbent Democrat Stephen Douglas (1813-1861); he loses, but the Lincoln-Douglas debates form a part of U.S. history.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline and William Harrison’s first daughter, Mary Scott (1858-1930) is born on April 3.
Grant, Julia
Jesse Root Grant (1858-1934), son of Ulysses and Julia Grant, is born February 6.
Economics
The transatlantic cable is completed, allowing telegraphic communication between the U.S. and Britain; the service ends after a month because the signal is too weak.
Economics
Transportation: Stagecoach service and mail delivery begin between San Francisco and St. Louis.
Economics
Macy’s Department Store opens.
Discovery
Lake Tanganyika in East Africa is first discovered by Europeans.
Daily Life
Princess Victoria (1840-1901) of England (daughter of Queen Victoria) chooses Wagner’s “Bridal Chorus” and Mendelssohn’s “Wedding March” for her wedding, thus beginning a tradition.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: The first use of fingerprints as a means of identification occurs in India.
Sports
Baseball: The National Association of Baseball Players is organized.
Religion
Marie-Bernard Soubirous (1843-1879), later to become St. Bernadette of Lourdes, first sees a vision of the Virgin Mary at Lourdes in France.
Religion
The Ladies’ Christian Association, forerunner to the Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA), is founded in New York City.
Religion
Another religious revival begins in New York and Pennsylvania and sweeps across the country; religious conversions are many.
Social Issues
Slavery: Slaves are sold at very high prices because of high demand for cotton, and southerners begin to talk about reopening the slave trade.
1859
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Supreme Court upholds the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850; Georgia prohibits the deathbed manumission of slaves and rules that free blacks can be sold back into slavery; tensions between North and South escalate.
Government
New State: Oregon becomes the 33rd state in the U.S.
Government
President James Buchanan (1791-1868) rules that the New Mexico territory should become a reservation for American Indians.
Government
National Capital: The Senate moves into the enlarged north wing of the Capitol, where it remains, today.
War
The first iron-clad armored warship, Britain’s HMS Warrior, is launched.
Science
Botanist Almira Hart Lincoln Phelps (1793-1884) is the second woman elected to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Science
Charles Darwin’s (1809-1882) "Origin of the Species" is published.
Inventions
The first practical storage battery is invented.
Inventions
The steamroller is invented.
Education
The Cooper Union in New York City is established, primarily for adult education in the arts and sciences.
Arts and Letters
Opera: The opera "Faust" is performed.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) writes "A Tale of Two Cities."
Arts and Letters
Women's Firsts: Harriet E. Wilson (1827-1863), author of "Our Nig," becomes the first African-American novelist published in the U.S.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) is elected to his own two-year term as city solicitor in Cincinnati.
Hayes, Lucy
The Hayes home is enlarged, with quarters for servants and a brick kitchen with a new range.
Economics
Work is begun on the Suez Canal.
Economics
The first commercial oil well is brought in at Titusville, PA.
Discovery
The first large silver deposit found in the U.S., the Comstock Lode, is found in Nevada.
Daily Life
Big Ben, the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament in London is started.
Sports
Baseball: The first intercollegiate baseball game in the U.S. is played by students from Amherst and Williams Colleges in Massachusetts.
Sports
The first national billiards champion wins a $15,000 prize.
Popular Culture
Charles Blondin (1824-1897) walks across Niagara Falls on the tightrope; he is watched by 25,000 people.
Popular Culture
Wearing the body-hugging costume later named for him, Jules Leotard (1839-1870) performs the first flying trapeze act without a net at the Cirque Napoleon.
Popular Culture
Daniel Emmett (1815-1904) writes “Dixie” and "Turkey in the Straw."
Reform
Abolition Movement: John Brown (1800-1859) seizes the armory at Harper’s Ferry to provide for his militia; he is later captured and hanged.
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1860
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) of Illinois becomes the first Republican to win the United States Presidency; he becomes the 16th President and Hannibal Hamlin (1809-1891) of Maine is elected as the 15th Vice President.
Politics
South Carolina secedes from the Union followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
Government
Stamps: By 1860, almost all countries have postage stamps.
Government
The U.S. Secret Service is established.
Science
The fact that the star Sirius is a double star is discovered.
Medicine
Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) opens the world’s first school of nursing.
Inventions
The first practical gasoline engine is built.
Education
The first English language kindergarten is established in Boston by Elizabeth Peabody (1804-1894).
Education
Olympia Brown (1835-1926) becomes the first woman to study theology with men—at St. Lawrence University.
Arts and Letters
Literature: George Eliot(1819-1880) (Mary Ann Evans) publishes "The Mill on the Floss."
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: Dion Boucicault (1820-1890) begins promotion of "combination companies". The company and players would travel with scenery for 1 play.
Arthur, Ellen
William Lewis Arthur (1860-1863), son of Chester Alan and Ellen Arthur, is born December 10.
Tyler, Julia
Pearl Tyler Ellis (1860-1947), daughter of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, is born June 20.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes’s (1831-1889) boys suffer from mumps, whooping cough, and measles.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) and her husband take a long trip, by riverboat, to Canada, by rail and boat to Boston, to New England and home by way of New York City. Total cost: $310.77.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) begins 30 years of serving on the board of managers of the Indianapolis Orphans’ Asylum.
Wilson, Ellen
Ellen Louise Axson (1860-1914), first wife of Woodrow Wilson, is born in Savannah, Georgia on May 15.
Harding, Florence
Florence Kling DeWolfe (1860-1924), wife of Warren G. Harding, is born in Marion, Ohio on August 15.
Economics
Slavery: Cotton shipments are at an all-time high (2 billion pounds a year), which gives the South extra incentives to keep slavery.
Economics
The first Pony Express riders make it from Missouri to California in 10 days.
Economics
Population: The population of the United States (1860) is 32 million.
Daily Life
Fashion: Bustles begin to take the place of hoop skirts in American women’s fashion.
Daily Life
History of Toys: A chemistry set for children is offered for sale for $5.00.
Sports
Boxing: The longest prizefight in American history is held in Maine; it lasts for 4 hours and 20 minutes.
Sports
Croquet is introduced to the U.S. from England; it becomes very popular.
Sports
Golf: The first British Open Golf Championship is held.
Popular Culture
Stephen Foster (1826-1864) composes “Old Black Joe.”
Religion
The Seventh Day Adventist church is founded by William Miller (1782-1849) and his followers.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The U.S. Army's Fort Definace in New Mexico is attacked by 1,000 Navaho Indians; the Indians lose.
Social Issues
Immigration: Poland’s religious and economic conditions prompt immigration of approximately two million Poles by 1914.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Elizabeth Cady Stanton speaks to a meeting of the New York State Legislature on behalf of women’s suffrage.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Women are allowed to collect their own wages, to sue, and to inherit their husbands’ property in New York State; married women are allowed to be guardians of their children
Reform
Labor Movement: Six thousand shoemakers go on strike in Lynn, MA for higher wages; the companies grant higher wages but refuse to recognize the union.
1861
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Jefferson Davis (1808-1889) is elected President of the Confederate States of America.
Politics
Virginia secedes from the Union, followed within five weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, thus forming an eleven state Confederacy with a population of 9 million.
Government
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) is inaugurated as the 16th President and Hannibal Hamlin (1809-1891) is inaugurated as the 15th Vice President.
Government
New State: Kansas becomes the 34th state in the United States.
Government
The United States introduces the passport system.
Government
Congress passes the first income tax in the U.S. to support the war.
War
Civil War: The Union Army under Gen. Irvin McDowell (1818-1885) suffers a defeat at Bull Run 25 miles southwest of Washington.
War
Civil War: Pierre Beauregard (1813-1893) opens fire with 50 cannons upon Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. The Civil War begins.
War
Confederates invade New Mexico from Texas.The Confederate Territory of Arizona is declared with the capital at La Mesilla.
War
Civil War; National Capital: The U.S. Capitol houses Union soldiers, providing medical attention and a place to sleep.
Inventions
Elisha Otis (1811-1861) patents elevator safety brakes, creating a safer elevator.
Inventions
Linus Yale (1821-1868) invents the Yale lock or cylinder lock.
Education
The first American doctor of philosophy degree is awarded by Yale University.
Education
Women's Colleges: Vassar College for women is founded in Poughkeepsie, NY.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: George Eliot (1819-1880) (Mary Ann Evans) writes "Silas Marner."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Charles Dickens (1812-1870) writes "Great Expectations."
Lincoln, Mary
The Lincolns (Abraham: 1809-1865 and Mary Todd: 1818-1882) move into the White House in March of 1861.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) joins the 23rd Ohio Volunteer infantry as a Major.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy and Rutherford Hayes’s fourth son, Joseph Thompson (1861-1863), is born on December 21 in Cincinnati.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline (1832-1892) and Benjamin (1831-1901) Harrison’s third child and second daughter dies at birth.
Roosevelt, Edith
Edith Kermit Carow (1861-1948), wife of Theodore Roosevelt, is born in Norwich, Connecticut on August 6.
Taft, Helen
Helen Herron Taft (1861-1943), wife of William Howard Taft [1909-1913] is born in Cincinnati, Ohio on June 2.
Economics
American Money: Gold payments are suspended; greenbacks become the national currency.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: Leland Stanford (1824-1893) hires Chinese laborers to help build the western part of the Central Pacific Railroad.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: There are 30,000 miles of railroad track in the U.S.
Economics
Telegraph wires are strung between San Francisco and New York.
Economics
Pencils are mass-produced in New York by Eberhard Faber.
Economics
American Money: Congress authorizes the United States Treasury to issue paper money for the first time in the form of non-interest bearing Treasury Notes called Demand Notes.
Daily Life
Daily weather forecasts are begun in Britain.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: A record balloon trip is made between Cincinnati, Ohio and the South Carolina coast is made in 9 hours.
Popular Culture
Wartime Music: “The Battle Hymn of the Republic” is written during the Civil War by Julia War Howe for the Union.
Popular Culture
Wartime Music: “Battle Cry of Freedom” is written during the Civil War by George F. Root for the Union.
Popular Culture
Wartime Music: “Dixie Land” is written during the Civil War by Daniel Emmett for the Confederate.
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1862
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Homestead Act is passed, decreeing that any American may have 160 acres of land in the west free, if he lives on it for five years.
Government
President Lincoln (1809-1865) issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves "henceforth and forever free."
Government
The U.S. Department of Agriculture is created by Congress.
Government
The Medal of Honor is authorized by Congress.
Government
Railroad History: President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) signs the Pacific Railway Act, which authorizes the construction of the first transcontinental railroad.
Government
American Money: The Secretary of the Treasury is empowered by Congress to have notes engraved and printed, which is done by private banknote companies.
War
Civil War: The bloodiest battle of the Civil War occurs at Antietam; over 23,000 are killed or wounded.
War
Civil War: The Confederate Ironclad 'Merrimac' sinks two wooden Union ships then battles the Union Ironclad 'Monitor' to a draw. Naval warfare is thus changed forever, making wooden ships obsolete.
War
Civil War: Confederate surprise attack on Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's (1822-1885) unprepared troops at Shiloh on the Tennessee River results in a bitter struggle with 13,000 Union killed and wounded and 10,000 Confederates.
War
Civil War: 75,000 Federals under Gen. John Pope (1874-1937) are defeated by 55,000 Confederates under Gen. Stonewall Jackson (1824-1863) and Gen. James Longstreet (1821-1904) at the second battle of Bull Run in northern Virginia.
Science
The speed of light is successfully measured.
Medicine
The first children’s clinic is opened in New York City.
Inventions
The Gatling (a 10 barrel, automatic firing) gun is invented by R.J. Gatling (1818-1903).
Inventions
A timepiece for split-second timing—the chronograph—is invented.
Inventions
Jean Lenoir (1822-1900) makes a gasoline engine automobile.
Inventions
Alexander Parkes (1813-1890) invents the first man-made plastic.
Education
Women's Firsts: In Ohio, Mary Jane Patterson receives a degree from Oberlin, becoming the first black woman to graduate from an American college.
Education
Children’s Books: Christina Rossetti''s (1830-1894) long fantasy, "Goblin Market," about two sisters'' struggle to resist the tempting fruits of the goblin men, was long categorized as a children''s fairy tale, but is increasingly reread as a major poem of its period.
Education
African American Education: One of the earliest and longest-lived freedmen’s schools, the Penn School on St. Helena Island, NC, is founded by Laura Matilda Towne (1825-1901).
Education
Women's Firsts: Geologist Florence Bascom (1862-1945) becomes the first woman to receive a Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins University; she goes on to teach at Bryn Mawr.
Education
The Morrill Land-Grant Act endows colleges of agriculture and industry.
Arts and Letters
Literature; Victor Hugo (1802-1885) writes "Les Misérables."
Lincoln, Mary
The Lincolns’ son William Wallace (1850-1862) dies of typhoid fever at age 11 on February 20.
Harrison, Caroline
Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) raises a regiment for the Union in the Civil War (1,000 men from Indiana) known as the 70th Indiana Regiment.
Tyler, Julia
John Tyler (1790-1862), 10th President of the U.S., dies in Richmond, Virginia.
Van Buren, Hannah
Martin Van Buren (1782-1862), 8th President of the U.S., dies in Kinderhook, New York.
Economics
American Money: Demand Notes are replaced by United States Notes.
Economics
1,000 guns a day are being produced by the Colt factory.
Economics
The first automobile with an internal combustion engine is constructed.
Economics
A process for concentrating fruit juice is patented.
Popular Culture
Julia Ward Howe's (1819-1910) poem, "The Battle Hymn of the Republic" is published and later set to music. The music for "Taps" is also composed.
1863
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
President Lincoln (1809-1865) issues the final Emancipation Proclamation freeing all slaves in territories held by Confederates and emphasizes the enlisting of black soldiers in the Union Army.
Government
New Mexico is divided in half, creating the Territory of Arizona.
Government
National Capital: The "Statue of Freedom" is place on top of the Capitol building and becomes the crowning feature of the dome.
Government
New State: West Virginia becomes the 35th state in the United States.
Government
President Lincoln (1809-1865) delivers the Gettysburg Address.
Government
Congress establishes free mail delivery in cities.
War
Civil War: The tide of war turns against the South as the Confederates are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania.
War
Civil War: The Union institutes a draft to recruit soldiers for the Civil War.
War
Civil War: The Battle of Gettysburg takes place.
Science
The National Academy of Sciences is founded in Washington, DC.
Education
Children’s Books: The Rev. Charles Kingsley’s (1819-1875) fairy tale "The Water-Babies" combines many of these enthusiasms in a tale of how a little chimney-sweep goes backward in evolution when he is wicked, and forwards when he does as he would be done by.
Arts and Letters
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910) adopts the pen-name, Mark Twain.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Henry Wordsworth Longfellow (1807-1882) publishes the poem, “Paul Revere’s Ride.”
Pierce, Jane
Jane Means Appleton Pierce (1806-1863), wife of Franklin Pierce (1804-1869), dies of tuberculosis in Andover, Massachusetts on December 2 at the age of 57.
Arthur, Ellen
William Lewis Arthur (1860-1863), son of Chester Alan and Ellen Arthur, dies July 7.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy and Rutherford Hayes’s fourth son, Joseph (1861-1863), dies of dysentery at the age of two on June 24.
Johnson, Eliza
Charles Johnson (1830-1863), son of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, dies April 4 in a horse accident.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889), her four sons, and her mother go to West Virginia to be with Rutherford (1822-1893) and his regiment.
Economics
American Money: The design of U.S. currency incorporates a Treasury seal, the fine line engraving necessary for the difficult-to-counterfeit itaglio printing, intricate geometric lathe work patterns, and distinctive linen paper with embedded red and blue fibers.
Economics
Transportation: The world''''s first underground railway service, London''''s Metropolitan line between Paddington and Farringdon, is opened.
Economics
Traveler’s Insurance Company is founded in Hartford, CT.
Daily Life
Holidays: The first national Thanksgiving Day is proclaimed by President Lincoln (1809-1865) to be the fourth Thursday of November.
Daily Life
The first paper dress patterns are developed by Ebenezer Butterick (1826-1903).
Sports
The four-wheeled roller skate is patented by James Plimpton of New York.
Sports
Horse Racing: The Grand Prix horse race is first held in Paris.
Popular Culture
Stephen Foster (1826-1864) composes “Beautiful Dreamer.”
Religion
Olympia Brown (1835-1926) is ordained a minister by the Northern Universalists in Weymouth, MA.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Kit Carson (1809-1868) begins resettling Navajo and Apache Indians on reservations by force.
Social Issues
Slavery: The Emancipation Proclamation delivered by President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) decrees that all slaves in Rebel territory are free on January 1, 1863.
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1864
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) nominates Salmon Portland Chase (1808-1873) Chief Justice of the Supreme Court; he is confirmed by the Senate on the same day, and holds the position for eight years, until his death in 1873.
Politics
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) is reelected for a second term as President of the United States, and Andrew Johnson (1808-1875) is elected as the nation's 16th Vice President.
Government
New State: Nevada becomes the 36th state in the United States.
Government
The territory of Montana is organized.
Government
Twenty-six nations sign the Geneva Conventions, an agreement to respect humanitarian rules of war with respect to prisoners, sick soldiers, Red Cross neutrality, and civilians in war zones.
Government
American Money: Congress authorizes the inscription, "In God We Trust" on U.S. coins.
War
Civil War: General William Tecumseh Sherman (1820-1891) marches his Union army through Georgia, captures Atlanta and Savannah, and leaves a 300 mile path of destruction, 60 miles wide, all the way to the sea.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Dr. Mary Edwards Walker (1832-1919) is appointed assistant surgeon in the Union Army.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Inventor Norbert Rillieux (1806-1894) patents a process for refining sugar that is used by sugar processing plants all over the world.
Technology
Airplanes: Count Ferdinand d’Esterno, France, publishes the first scientific observations of the effects of the wind on a wing in his pamphlet, "Du Vol des Oiseaux."
Education
Women’s Firsts: Rebecca Lee Crumpler (1846-1922) becomes the first black woman to receive an M.D. degree. She graduated from the New England Female Medical College.
Education
Public Education: Native Americans: Indian Education: Congress makes it illegal for Native Americans to be taught in their native languages. Native children as young as four years old are taken from their parents and sent to Bureau of Indian Affairs off-reservation boarding schools, whose goal, as one BIA official put it, is to "kill the Indian to save the man."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) begins writing his epic, "War and Peace."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Jules Verne (1828-1905) publishes "A Journey to the Center of the Earth."
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) runs for Congress from Ohio and wins without ever leaving his troops.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy and Rutherford Hayes’s fifth son, George Crook (1864-1866) is born on September 29 in Chillicothe, Ohio.
Cleveland, Frances
Frances Folsom (1864-1947), wife of Grover Cleveland (1837-1906), is born in Buffalo, New York, on July 21.
Harrison, Anna
Anna Tuthill Symmes (1775-1864) Harrison dies on February 25 in North Bend, Ohio, at the age of eighty-eight.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The Pennsylvania Railroad begins using steel for its rails.
Daily Life
Taking pictures that will be become famous as a record of the Civil War, New York photographer Matthew Brady (1822-1896) travels through the nation's battlefields.
Daily Life
Newspapers: In Louisiana, the New Orleans Tribune begins publication. It is one of the first African-American-run daily newspapers.
Social Issues
Immigration: European immigration to the U.S. increases, due in large part to the Homestead Act and also because immigrants are excluded from the draft.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Many Navahos die as they make the "Long March" through New Mexico to their grim reservation at Bosque Redondo.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The massacre of Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indians at Sand Creek, CO occurs.
Reform
Labor Movement: The first International Workingmen's Association is founded by Karl Marx (1818-1883) in London and New York.
1865
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Thirteenth Amendment, forbidding slavery, is passed by the Congress, ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Government
Warren G. Harding (1865-1923), 29th President of the United States, is born near Marion, Ohio.
Government
Following the assassination of President Lincoln, his Vice-President, Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), becomes the 17th President of the United States. No new Vice President is selected.
Government
American Money: Gold Certificates are issued by the Department of the Treasury against gold coin and buillion deposits and are circulated until 1933.
Government
American Money: The Department of the Treasury establishes the United States Secret Service to control counterfeit money.
War
Indian Wars: Escalation of the Plains War between the U.S. military and the Sioux and Cheyenne.
War
Civil War: Gen. Robert E. Lee (1807-1870) surrenders his Confederate Army to Gen. Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) at the village of Appomattox Court House in Virginia; the Civil War ends.
Science
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) proposes the laws of heredity.
Medicine
Antiseptic surgery is initiated by Joseph Lister (1827-1912) using carbolic acid.
Medicine
The Chicago Hospital for Women and Children is established, in part, by Dr. Mary Harris Thompson, one of the best-known surgeons of her era.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Dr. Mary Walker (1832-1919) becomes the first woman to receive the Medal of Honor, for her service during the Civil War.
Inventions
The coffee percolator is invented.
Education
Higher Education: The Universities of Maine and Kentucky, Purdue University and Cornell University are all founded.
Education
Higher Education: Yale University opens the first Department of Fine Arts in the U.S.
Education
Higher Education: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is founded.
Education
Women's Colleges: Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) is the first woman appointed as a professor of astronomy, at Vassar College.
Education
Children''s Books: Lewis Carroll''s (1832-1898) "Alice in Wonderland" is published.
Education
Children''s Books: "Hans Brinker," or "The Silver Skates" is written by Mary Mapes Dodge (1831-1905).
Education
Public Education (1865-1877): African Americans mobilize to bring public education to the South for the first time. After the Civil War, and with the legal end of slavery, African Americans in the South make alliances with white Republicans to push for many political changes, including for the first time rewriting state constitutions to guarantee free public education. In practice, white children benefit more than Black children.
Arts and Letters
Opera: Wagner’s (1813-1883) opera "Tristan and Isolde," premiers in Munich.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Jules Verne (1828-1905) writes "From the Earth to the Moon."
Jackson, Rachel
Andrew Jackson Jr. (1808-1865), Andrew and Rachel Jackson's adopted son (he was one of the pair of twins born to a sibling of Rachel Jackson), dies.
Lincoln, Mary
Assassination: President Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) is assassinated at Ford's Theatre in Washington, DC.
Johnson, Eliza
Eliza McCardle Johnson (1810-1876) is the first First Lady to teach her husband, Andrew Johnson, to read and write.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882) and her family move to Chicago.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford (1822-1893) and Lucy (1831-1889) Hayes go to Washington for his first term in Congress. The children stay in Chillicothe with their grandmother.
Harrison, Caroline
General Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) and the 70th Indiana are mustered out of Federal service on June 8, 1865.
Economics
The Atlantic cable is completed.
Economics
The first oil pipeline is laid in Pennsylvania (6 miles).
Economics
The Union Stockyards open in Chicago.
Daily Life
The first carpet sweeper comes into popular use.
Daily Life
Transportation: George Pullman''s (1831-1897) railroad sleeping cars appear in the U.S.
Daily Life
The first fire department with paid firefighters is founded in New York City.
Sports
Billiard balls made out of a composition material replace balls made of ivory.
Sports
Boxing: Boxing's Queensbury Rules are laid out.
Sports
Women in Sports: Matthew Vassar opens Vassar College with a special School of Physical Training with classes in riding, gardening, swimming, boating, skating and "other physical accomplishments suitable for ladies to acquire ... bodily strength and grace."
Popular Culture
Another popular favorite published this year is Mark Twain's (1835-1910) short story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County."
Social Issues
Hate Groups: The Ku Klux Kan is founded in Tennessee.
Social Issues
Poverty: The Salvation Army is founded in England by William Booth (1829-1912).
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1866
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting voter discrimination, is passed by the Congress.
Government
Civil Rights Movement: The Freedman’s Bureau Bill is established to provide assistance to freed slaves.
Government
American Money: Congress authorizes the issuance of the 5-cent piece, the “nickel.”
Government
Civil Rights Movement: Despite the veto of President Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), the U.S. passes a Civil Rights Law, protecting the rights of citizenship for former slaves freed by the Thirteenth Amendment.
Government
Tennessee becomes the first state readmitted to the Union.
Inventions
Dynamite is developed by Swedish engineer Alfred Nobel (1801-1872).
Inventions
Englishmen Robert Whitehead (1861-1947) invents a torpedo.
Inventions
A 12-horsepower steam automobile is developed in Connecticut.
Technology
Battery Technology: Georges Leclanche (1839-1882), a French engineer, patents a new system, which is immediately successful. In the space of two years, twenty thousand of his cells are being used in the telegraph system.
Technology
Airplanes: The Aeronautical Society is founded in England.
Education
Women’s Firsts: Lucy Hobbs (1833-1910) becomes the first woman to graduate from dental school, the Ohio College of Dental Surgery.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910) writes "War and Peace."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Feodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881) writes "Crime and Punishment."
Van Buren, Hannah
John Van Buren (1810-1866), son of Martin and Hannah Van Buren dies October 13 of kidney failure while at sea.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) returns to Chillicothe in March; the older boys study German.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy and Rutherford Hayes’s fifth son, George Crook (1864-1866), dies of scarlet fever on May 24 at the age of 20 months.
Economics
American Money: National Bank Notes, backed by U.S. government securities, becomes predominant.
Economics
The first refrigerated railroad car is built in Detroit.
Economics
Laying of the second Atlantic cable is completed.
Daily Life
The first Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) opens in Boston.
Sports
Women in Sports: Baseball: Vassar College fields the first two women''s amateur baseball teams.
Religion
An early congregation of Reform Jews builds the Plum Street Temple in Cincinnati, Ohio.
Social Issues
Jim Crow Laws: The former Confederate States enact "Black code" (later known as Jim Crow) laws to counteract the thirteenth amendment.
Reform
Labor Movement: The National Labor Union is founded in Baltimore, the first such industrial trade-union confederation and a landmark in the U.S. labor movement.
Reform
Animal Rights Movement: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is founded in New York City.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Martha Coffin Pelham Wright, Lucretia Mott, and Ernestine Rose found the American Equal Rights Association, seeking both black and women’s suffrage.
1867
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Dominion of Canada is established by The British North America Act.
Government
Education: The federal Office of Education is established to provide information on the condition of education in the United States.
Government
New State: Nebraska becomes the 37th state of the Union.
Government
Alaska is purchased from Russia for the sum of $7.2 million, approximately two cents an acre.
Medicine
Lister (1827-1912) publishes "Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery," based partly on Pasteur's work.
Inventions
Christopher Sholes (1819-1890) invents the first practical and modern typewriter.
Inventions
The first motorcycle is invented.
Inventions
Barbed wire is first patented by Lucien B. Smith of Ohio.
Inventions
Joseph Monier (1823-1906) of Paris first patents reinforced concrete.
Inventions
Elizabeth Hawks receives a patent for a stove with a separate “air chamber” for baking.
Education
Higher Education: The first U.S. dental school is established at Harvard.
Education
Higher Education: Howard University, the first predominantly Negro college to offer comprehensive university facilities, is chartered.
Education
Special Education: The Clark Institute for Deaf Mutes is chartered; it is the first U.S. school to teach the deaf using German principles of articulation and lip-reading.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) writes "Peer Gynt."
Arts and Letters
Opera: Charles Gounod’s (1818-1893) opera, "Romeo et Juliette," is performed in Paris.
Arts and Letters
Walt Whitman (1819-1992) circulates this fourth edition as four separately paginated books stitched together between two covers: a vastly re-edited version of the 1860 "Leaves of Grass," a reissue of "Drum-Taps," a reissue of the "Sequel to Drum-Taps," and a striking coda called "Songs Before Parting."
Ideas
"Das Kapital" is published by Karl Marx (1818-1883).
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy and Rutherford Hayes’s first and only daughter, Fannie (1867-1950), is born in Cincinnati on September 2.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) resigns his seat in Congress, runs for Governor of Ohio, and wins by less than 3,000 votes.
Harrison, Caroline
Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) runs for Governor of Indiana; is defeated by the Democrats.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The first elevated railroad is built in New York City.
Economics
The first paperback books are published in Leipzig, Germany.
Discovery
Diamond fields are discovered in South Africa.
Discovery
Gold is discovered in Wyoming.
Daily Life
Magazines: Mary Louise Booth (1831-1889) becomes editor of the new "Harper’s Bazaar" magazine.
Sports
Horse Racing: The Belmont Stakes horserace is run for the first time in New York.
Sports
Women in Sports: Golf: St. Andrew''s in Scotland is the first ladies golf club.
Popular Culture
“The Blue Danube Waltz” is written by Johann Strauss II (1825-1899).
Popular Culture
The first of the popular “rags to riches” stories, "Ragged Dick," or "Street Life in New York" is published by Horatio Alger.
Religion
Children’s Books: Religious books for children are often more attractively produced, and also much gentler, even sentimental, in religious messages like "The Pretty Village."
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Treaty of Medicine Lodge between the U.S. and the Cheyenne and Arapaho forces the two tribes to move to a reservation in Indian Territory, on land that was ceded by Indian tribes to the U.S. after the end of the Civil War.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Reservations in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) are set up by Congress for the Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles).
Reform
Civil Rights Movement: Congress gives blacks the right to vote in Washington, D.C.
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1868
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Native Americans: A clause in the 14th Amendment “excluding Indians not taxed” prevents Native-American men from receiving the right to vote.
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting states from infringing on the rights of American citizens is ratified by two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Politics
Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) is elected as the 18th President of the United States, and the first from Ohio; Schuyler Colfax (1823-1885) is elected as the nation's 17th Vice President.
Politics
Impeachment: Current President Andrew Johnson (1808-1875) is impeached by the House of Representatives, but escapes conviction by one vote.
Government
Civil Rights Movement: Congress makes black suffrage mandatory for a Confederate state to be readmitted to the Union.
Science
A Cro-Magnon skeleton (the first homo sapiens) is found in France.
Inventions
The air brake is invented by George Westinghouse (1846-1914).
Inventions
An electric voting machine is patented by Thomas Edison (1847-1931).
Inventions
George Westinghouse (1846-1914) invents the compressed air locomotive brake, which enables trains to be stopped with fail-safe accuracy.
Inventions
Railroad History: Major Eli Janney (1831 – 1912), a confederate veteran of the civil war, invents the knuckle coupler. This semi-automatic device locks upon the cars closing together without the rail worker getting between the cars.
Technology
Airplanes: Jean-Marie Le Bris (1817-1872) tests an improved version of his glider, making several unmanned glides before it crashes.
Technology
Airplanes: John Stringfellow, England, proposes a man-carrying triplane, similar to Henson’s aerial steam carriage. It captures the public’s imagination, although the model does not perform well when tested.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Louisa May Alcott (1832-1888) writes "Little Women."
Arts and Letters
Brahams’ (1833-1897) “Lullaby” is published.
Lane, Harriet
James Buchanan (1791-1868), 15th President of the U.S. and the only bachelor to be elected President, dies June 1 at Wheatland (near Lancaster, Pennsylvania).
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882) travels to Europe with her son, Tad.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) is inaugurated as Governor of Ohio in January. His salary is $4,000.
Economics
The Armour meat-packing factory is opened in Chicago.
Daily Life
The world's first traffic lights, built near London's Parliament Square, begin operation.
Sports
The first recorded bicycle race is held in Paris.
Sports
Golf: Golf''s first recorded hole-in-one is scored in Scotland.
Sports
The game of badminton is invented in England.
Sports
The sport of skating is regulated at a meeting of an American skating congress in Pittsburgh.
Sports
The first indoor track and field meet is held in New York City.
Religion
Brigham Young (1801-1877) marries his 27th and final wife.
Religion
“O Little Town of Bethlehem” is written by Episcopal clergyman Phillips Brooks (1835-1893).
Social Issues
Immigration: Japanese laborers arrive in Hawaii to work in sugar cane fields.
Reform
Labor Movement: The first 8-hour day begins for government workers. Others continue to work long hours.
1869
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Women’s Firsts: Arabella Mansfield (1846-1911) is granted admission to practice law in Iowa, making her the first woman lawyer.
Law
The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution, affirming the right to vote and forbidding states to deny that right based on race, color, or "previous condition of servitude," is passed by Congress.
Law
In "Texas v. White," the U.S. Supreme Court rules that secession is illegal. Following this decision, Congress restores a republican government in Texas.
Politics
Third Parties: The National Prohibition Party is formed in Chicago.
Government
The first Black U.S. diplomat, Ebenezer D. Bassett (1833-1908), becomes minister-resident to Haiti.
Government
Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) is inaugurated as the 18th President of the United States, and Schuyler Colfax (1823-1885) is inaugurated as the nation's 17th Vice President.
Government
Stamps: First U.S. pictorial stamps appear; this is the first time that U.S. stamps show something other than a dead person.
Inventions
Railroad History: George Westinghouse (1846-1914), an inventive Civil War veteran, develops the straight air brake.
Inventions
Ives W. McGaffey of Chicago patents an early suction type vacuum cleaner.
Inventions
Celluloid is invented by J.W. Hyatt.
Inventions
Chewing gum is patented by William F. Semple.
Inventions
Margarine is patented in France.
Education
Education of Women: Three women are admitted to the Chicago Medical College.
Education
Children’s Books: A beautiful Victorian illustrated "Cinderella" is published, along with a new versification of the story by Robert Willis, as "The Children''s Christmas Annual for 1869."
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: There are 21 theatres in New York and 6 in Boston.
Ideas
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) writes "On the Subjugation of Women."
Grant, Julia
Julia Dent Grant (1826-1902) is the first President's wife to have the Inaugural Ball in the Treasury. She also had the first closets built in the White House, and was the first First Lady to close the White House grounds to the public.
Johnson, Eliza
Robert Johnson (1834-1869), son of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, dies April 22 by taking his own life.
Pierce, Jane
Franklin Pierce (1804-1869), the 14th president of the United States, dies October 8 in Concord, New Hampshire.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) runs for a second term as Governor of Ohio and is once again elected. Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) continues her role as First Lady of Ohio.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: The first trans-continental railroad is finished when the Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads are joined on May 10.
Economics
The Suez Canal is opened, after more than 10 years of construction.
Economics
Gypsy moths are brought to Massachusetts to start a silk industry. They escape, however, and cause all kinds of problems around the country.
Economics
Transportation: The clipper ship, "Cutty Sark," is launched.
Sports
Soccer: Intercollegiate football (soccer) is begun by Rutgers and Princeton.
Sports
The first professional baseball team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings, is founded.
Sports
Women in Sports: Frenchwomen enter cycling races at Bordeaux, France.
Popular Culture
Mark Twain (1835-1910) publishes his book "Innocents Abroad."
Religion
The first Vatican Council meets in Rome.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Transcontinental Railroad cuts across Native American lands.
Reform
Women’s Firsts: Arabella Mansfield (1846-1911) is granted admission to practice law in Iowa, making her the first woman lawyer.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Susan B. Anthony founds the American Women’s Suffrage Association. The newspaper she founds has the slogan “Men, their rights and nothing more; women, their rights and nothing less.”
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: The Wyoming Territory becomes the first state to grant women suffrage.
Reform
Temperance Movement: The National Temperance Convention meets in Chicago to form the Prohibition Party.
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1870
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution affirming the right to vote and forbidding states to deny that right based on race, color, or "previous condition of servitude," is ratifiedby two-thirds of the states and added to the Constitution.
Politics
Hiram Revels (1827-1901) (Mississippi) becomes the first Black elected to U.S. Senate.
Politics
Jefferson Long (1836-1901) (Georgia) becomes the first Black elected to U.S. House of Representatives.
Government
The U.S. Congress readmits Texas to the Union.
Government
The U.S. Justice Department is created.
Government
Congress authorizes the registration of trademarks.
Medicine
Louis Pasteur (1822- 1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) establish the germ theory of disease.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) invents the stock ticker.
Inventions
Mary Carpenter patents a sewing machine with a self-threading, self-setting needle.
Technology
Construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins.
Technology
Airplanes: Alphonse Penaud (1850-1880), France, uses twisted rubber bands to power a miniature helicopter. It’s copied by dozens of toymakers in Europe in America.
Education
Education of Women: The first sorority: Kappa Alpha Theta, is established at De Pauw University.
Education
Education of Women: Ada H. Kepley (1847-1925) becomes the first woman to graduate from law school (at Union College of Law, Chicago).
Arts and Letters
Museums: The Metropolitan Museum of Art is founded in New York City.
Lincoln, Mary
Congress appropriates a pension for Mary Todd (1818-1882) Lincoln of $3,000, later raised to $5,000.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) and Rutherford (1822-1893) successfully campaign for official Ohio state support for the establishment of a home for children orphaned by the Civil War.
Economics
Standard Oil Co. of Ohio is incorporated, with John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) as president and majority stockholder.
Economics
Census: The U.S. population is 39.8 million, including, for the first time, African Americans listed by name.
Economics
The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Co. (the A&P) is founded.
Discovery
Heinrich Schliemann (1822-1890) begins excavations on the site of Homer's Troy.
Daily Life
A donkey first appears in a cartoon to symbolize the U.S. Democratic Party.
Daily Life
The Marcel wave becomes a popular women’s hairstyle.
Popular Culture
Jules Verne (1828-1905) writes "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea."
Religion
The first Vatican Council declares the dogma of papal infallibility.
Reform
Abolition Movement: The American Anti-Slavery Society is dissolved.
Reform
Black Suffrage Movement: The 15th Amendment of the Constitution provides African-American males with the right to vote.
1871
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The first Civil Service Commission is appointed by President Grant.
Science
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) writes "The Descent of Man," in which he asserts that all mammals descend from a single ancestor.
Medicine
The bacillus that causes leprosy is discovered.
Inventions
The first cable car is invented.
Technology
Airplanes: Alphonse Penaud (1850-1880) builds a planophore, a 20-inch long monoplane with a pusher propeller powered by a rubber band. It flies 131 feet in 11 seconds — the first flight of an inherently stable aircraft.
Technology
Airplanes: Francis Herbert Wenham and John Browning, England, invent the wind tunnel. They use it to prove that cambered wings produce more lift than other shapes.
Education
Children’s Books: Mother Goose is reprinted, with verses set to music.
Education
Parochial Education: The Archdiocese of New York receives $700,000 in public funds for schooling.
Education
Public Education: Michigan, New Hampshire, and Washington enact compulsory school attendance laws.
Arts and Letters
Opera: "Aida," by Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901), is performed in Cairo, where the opera is set; it is written in honor of the opening of the Suez Canal.
Arts and Letters
Literature: George Eliot (1819-1880) writes "Middlemarch."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Henry James’ (1843-1916) first novel, "Watch And Ward", is written as he travela through Venice and Paris.
Ideas
Marx’s (1818-1883) "Communist Manifesto" appears for the first time in English.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882) returns to the United States. Her son Thomas (1853-1871) dies of tuberculosis at age 18.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes’s sixth son, Scott Russell (1871-1923), is born in Columbus, Ohio on February 8. His sister Fanny calls him “little boy sister.”
Mckinley, Ida
Katherine "Katie" McKinley (1871-1875), the first child of William and Ida McKinley, is born December 25.
Arthur, Ellen
Ellen Herndon "Nell" Arthur (Pinkerton) (1871-1915), daughter of Chester Alan and Ellen Arthur, is born November 21.
Tyler, Julia
Julia Tyler Spencer (1849-1871), daughter of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, dies May 8 from childbirth complications.
Economics
The S.S. Oceanic, the first of the White Star Line luxury liners, is launched.
Daily Life
Disasters: The Chicago Fire burns down about three and one half miles of the city.
Sports
The National Rifle Association is founded by Union Army officers
Sports
Women in Sports: Miss Carrie A. Moore demonstrates a variety of roller skating movements at the Occidental Rink in San Francisco. Later in the same day, she exhibits her skill on a velocipede.
Popular Culture
“The Greatest Show on Earth”—P.T. Barnum’s (1810-1891) circus—opens in Brooklyn, NY.
Popular Culture
Lewis Carroll (1832-1898) writes "Through the Looking Glass."
Popular Culture
The poem, “The Owl and the Pussycat” is written by Edward Lear (1812-1888).
Religion
The hymn “Onward Christian Soldiers” is composed.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Indian Appropriation Act is passed by Congress, making Native Americans wards of the federal government.
Reform
Labor Movement: Labor unions are legalized in Britain.
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1872
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
President Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) is elected for a second term, and Henry Wilson (1812-1875) is elected as the nation's 18th Vice President.
Politics
Third Parties; Women's Firsts: The Equal Rights Party nominates Victoria Woodhull (1838-1927) as the first woman candidate for President and African American leader Frederick Douglass (1817-1895) as her running mate.
Government
Presidents: Calvin Coolidge (1872-1933), 30th President of the United States, is born in Plymouth, Vermont.
Government
Congress abolishes the income tax it had imposed during the Civil War.
Science
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) shows that fermentation is caused by microorganisms.
Science
Bacteriology is established as a science.
Science
"Popular Science Monthly" begins to be published.
Inventions
The doughnut cutter is patented by John F. Blondel of Maine.
Inventions
A crude forerunner of the movie projector—the “zoopraxiscope”—is invented.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Elijah McCoy (1843-1929) invents an oiling devise that allows machines to be oiled while in motion.
Education
Public Education: Connecticut enacts compulsory school attendance laws.
Education
Parochial Education: About 30,000 children attend Lutheran parochial schools.
Education
Public Education: The Tileston Normal School is opened in Wilmington, NC as one of the first free schools in the area open to poor students.
Education
Children’s Books: Christina Rossetti (1830-1894) writes a books of shorter verses for young children entitled "Sing-Song."
Arts and Letters
Painting: James Whistler (1834-1903) paints a portrait of his mother.
Ideas
The Granger Movement is formed, a forerunner of the populist movement of the 1890s.
Wilson, Edith
Edith Bolling Galt Wilson (1872-1961), second wife of Woodrow Wilson is born in Wytheville, Virginia on October 15.
Economics
Montgomery Ward opens in Chicago.
Economics
Railroad History: George Westinghouse (1846-1914) patents the first automatic air brake. This is basically the same system as is used by today's railroads.
Daily Life
Yellowstone, the world's first National Park, is opened.
Daily Life
Disasters: The American ship "Mary Celeste" is found abandoned in the Atlantic en route to Genoa.
Daily Life
The Brooklyn Bridge is opened.
Sports
Soccer: The first English Football Association (F.A.) Cup final is played at the Kennington Oval in London.
Sports
Soccer: The first international soccer game is held when England plays Scotland.
Sports
The first U.S. ski club is founded in New Hampshire.
Religion
The International Bible Students Association, which evolved into the Jehovah’s Witness religious sect, is founded.
Social Issues
Birth Control: The “Comstock Law” forbids the transport of contraceptives in the United States.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) and other feminists are arrested for trying to vote in the presidential election.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: Congress guarantees equal pay for equal work in federal jobs.
1873
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The American Granger movement, which organizes U.S. farmers in the midwest to counter monopolistic transportation practices by the railroads, reaches its peak membership.
Government
The North West Mounted Police are formed in Canada, later to become the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Government
President Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) is inaugurated for a second term, and Henry Wilson (1812-1875) is inaugurated as the nation's 18th Vice President.
Science
The American Metrological Society, the first organization to improve the system of weights and measures, is formed.
Science
Astronomer Maria Mitchell (1818-1889) founds the Association for the Advancement of Women.
Medicine
Dr. Mary Jane Safford (1834-1891) joins the faculty of the newly opened Boston University School of Medicine as a professor of women’s diseases.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Lewis Latimer (1848-1928) invents a water closet (toilet system) for railroad cars.
Technology
The first color photographs are developed.
Education
Author Sarah Chauncey Woolsey, a.k.a. Susan Coolidge (1835-1905), revolutionizes school story books by blending imaginary and real-life episodes.
Education
Public Education: William T. Harris (1835-1909), Superintendent of the St. Louis school system, incorporates kindergarten into the schools
Education
The discipline of sociology is established with Herbert Spencer’s (1820-1903) "The Study of Sociology."
Education
Women’s Firsts: Ellen Swallow Richards (1842–1911), the first woman to be admitted to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, earns her B.S. degree. She becomes the first female professional chemist in the U.S.
Education
Libraries: Chicago Public Library opens.
Education
Women’s Colleges: The College of Notre Dame of Maryland is founded.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Mark Twain (1835-1910) and Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900) write "The Gilded Age;" the phrase becomes a descriptor for the era.
Ideas
“Set theory” in mathematics is established.
Hayes, Lucy
His second term as Governor over, Lucy (1831-1889) and Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1881) move to Spiegel Grove, an estate in N.W. Ohio.
Hayes, Lucy
Manning Force Hayes (1873-1874), seventh son of Lucy and Rutherford B. Hayes, is born on August 1.
Mckinley, Ida
Ida McKinley (1873), daughter of William and Ida McKinley, is born April 1 and dies 4 months later in August. After the birth of her namesake, First Lady Ida McKinley is stricken with a litany of lifelong illnesses that included epileptic seizures and phlebitis.
Economics
Jay Cooke & Co.'s Wall Street banking house fails, and the American economy collapses into a sharp depression.
Economics
American Money: The U.S. goes on the gold standard, eliminating all silver currency.
Economics
E. Remington & Sons, gunmakers, begin to manufacture typewriters.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The New York "Daily Graphic" becomes the first illustrated daily newspaper.
Daily Life
San Francisco’s first cable streetcar goes into operation.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Jesse James and his gang rob their first passenger train.
Sports
Football: The first American Football rules are formulated at a meeting in New York attended by delegates from Columbia, Princeton, Rutgers and Yale.
Sports
The modern game of lawn tennis is invented in England.
Sports
Women in Sports: 10 young women compete in a mile-long swimming contest in the Harlem River. Miss Deliliah Goboess wins the prize, a silk dress worth $175.
Popular Culture
Jules Verne publishes "Around the World in Eighty Days."
Religion
The Reform Union of Hebrew Congregations is organized in Cincinnati.
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1874
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President U.S. Grant (1822-1885) nominates Morrison R. Waite (1816-1888) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He is confirmed two days later and serves for fourteen years.
Government
Presidents: Herbert Hoover (1875-1964), 31st President of the United States, is born in West Branch, Iowa.
War
Federal troops stationed in New Orleans during Reconstruction quell a revolt led by the White League against Louisiana's black state government.
Medicine
The streptococci and staphylococci bacilli are discovered.
Medicine
The field of osteopathy is founded in Kansas; Dr. Andrew Still becomes its first practitioner.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Lewis H. Latimer (1848-1928) co-invents an improved water closet, or bathroom, for trains.
Technology
The process of pressure cooking is introduced as a method of canning foods.
Technology
Airplanes: Felix Du Temple builds a man-carrying steam-powered monoplane. With a young French sailor at the controls, it makes a ski-jump take-off and a brief hop but cannot sustain flight.
Education
The Chautauqua movement begins in an effort to bring greater educational opportunity to America's isolated farmers and small towns through traveling lectures and correspondence-school courses.
Arts and Letters
Painting: A group of French Impressionists, including Claude Monet, Paul Cezanne, Edgar Degas, Edouard Manet, Camille Pissaro, and August Renoir, hold their first show. Rejected by a formal gallery, the exhibit was held by the artists themselves.
Fillmore, Abigail
Millard Fillmore (1800-1874), 13th president of the United States, dies on March 8 in Buffalo, NY. He is only the second vice president to succeed on the death of the incumbent president.
Hayes, Lucy
Manning Force Hayes, seventh son of Lucy and Rutherford B. Hayes, dies at the age of 13 months, probably of dysentery, in Fremont, Ohio on August 28.
Grant, Julia
White House Weddings: Nellie Grant (1856-1922), daughter of Julia (1826-1902) and Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885) marries Algernon Sartoris, a British diplomat, in the White House.
Tyler, Letitia
Tazewell Tyler (1830-1874), the youngest of John and Letitia Tyler's children, dies January 8 as a result of alcoholism.
Hoover, Lou
Lou Henry (1874-1944), wife of Herbert Hoover, is born in Waterloo, Iowa, on March 29.
Cleveland, Frances
Oscar Folsom Cleveland (1874-?), son of Grover Cleveland and a widow, Maria Croftis Halpin, is born. Unsubstantiated reports suggest that Oscar died in his late 20's of alcoholism.
Economics
The first electric streetcar begins operation in New York City.
Economics
Stockholders of the Union Pacific railroad form a phony development bank, the Credit Mobilier. Several members of President Ulysses S. Grant’s (1822-1885) administration, including his vice president, are implicated in the scandal, though no one is ultimately indicted.
Daily Life
The first American zoo is established in Philadelphia.
Daily Life
Republican Party is first symbolized by an elephant. – drawn by Thomas Nast (1840-1902), in "Harper’s Weekly."
Sports
Women in Sports: Tennis is introduced to the U.S. by Mary Outerbridge, who saw it played in Bermuda.
Popular Culture
The original Siamese Twins, Chang and Eng (1811-1874), die. Born in Thailand of Chinese parents and joined at the chest, they were sold and exhibited in Europe and America.
Popular Culture
New York's Madison Square Garden opens under the name Barnum’s Hippodrome.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: The Rhode Island legislature passes a women’s suffrage amendment to its constitution.
Reform
Temperance Movement: The Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is founded in Cleveland, Ohio.
Reform
Labor Movement: Police on horses break up a demonstration of the unemployed in New York's Tompkins Square Park, injuring hundreds who came to protest the intense poverty resulting from the depression of the 1870s.
1875
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Women's Suffrage Movement: In "Miner v. Hoppersatt," the Supreme Court rules that women are “persons” under the 14th Amendment, but are not entitled to vote.
Politics
Ex-political boss and New York politician William Marcy “Boss” Tweed (1823-1878) escapes from jail, flees to Cuba. He is apprehended, returned to New York, and dies in prison three years later.
Government
Rebellion in Cuba leads to deterioration of U.S.-Spanish relations.
Government
Civil Rights Movement: Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, guaranteeing blacks equal rights in public places and banning their exclusion from jury duty.
Government
British prime minister Disraeli (1804-1881) maneuvers to bring the Suez Canal, which was completed in 1869, under British control.
Medicine
The London Medical School for Women is founded.
Medicine
The bacillus that causes lumbar pneumonia—pneumococcus— is discovered.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) invents a duplicating process that uses a wax stencil, an early version of the mimeograph machine.
Inventions
An electric dental drill is patented.
Technology
The world’s first radio is operated by American Elihu Thomson (1853-1937).
Education
Women's Colleges: Wellesley College for women, founded by Henry and Pauline Durant, opens in Wellesley, Massachusetts, outside of Boston.
Arts and Letters
Opera: The first performance of French composer Georges Bizet's (1838-1875) opera "Carmen" takes place at the Opera Comique, Paris.
Arts and Letters
The first Gilbert and Sullivan operetta, "Trial by Jury," is written.
Mckinley, Ida
Katherine "Katie" McKinley (1871-1875), the first child of William and Ida McKinley, dies June 25 from typhoid fever.
Taylor, Margaret
Anne Margaret Mackell Taylor Wood (1811-1875), daughter of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, dies December 2.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd Lincoln’s (1818-1882) son Robert (1843-1926) has her declared insane; she manages to get herself released from the mental hospital, and goes to live with her sister in Springfield, Illinois.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) runs for his third term as Governor of Ohio, and wins.
Johnson, Eliza
Andrew Johnson (1808-1875), 17th President of the U.S., dies July 31 in Carter's Station, Tennessee.
Economics
Luxury hotels are opened in Saratoga Springs, New York, and San Francisco, marking the development of a luxury-seeking elite in the United States.
Economics
The first factory using the Bessemer steel-making process is built by Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919).
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "Times" of London becomes the first newspaper to print a daily weather chart.
Sports
Horse Racing: The first Kentucky Derby is held at Churchill Downs, Kentucky, won by Aristides.
Sports
Capt. Matthew Webb (1848-1883) becomes the first person to swim across the English Channel.
Sports
The first roller skating rink is opened in London.
Sports
Women in Sports: Baseball: The "Blondes" and "Brunettes" play their first match In Springfield, IL on Sept. 11. Newspapers heralded the event as the "first game of baseball ever played in public for gate money between feminine ball-tossers."
Religion
Mary Baker Eddy’s (1821-1910) "Science and Health" is first published.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Comanche chief Quanah Parker (1850-1911) ends his resistance to white settlement of Texas, enabling American expansion to proceed rapidly.
Social Issues
Jim Crow Laws: Segregation: Tennessee passes a "Jim Crow" law segregating blacks and whites on railroads (which are private, and so not covered by the Civil Rights Act).
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1876
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) is elected the 19th President of the U.S., and William A. Wheeler (1819-1887) is elected as the nation's 19th Vice President. The election is so close that it is not finally concluded until 1877.
Government
New State: Colorado becomes the 38th state of the United States
War
Indian Wars: At the Battle of the Little Big Horn (Custer’s Last Stand), Sioux Indians led by Chief Crazy Horse routed the U.S. 7th Cavalry led by Col. Custer (1839-1876).
War
Indian Wars: In one of the final periods of intense Native American resistance to American expansion, Apache leader Geronimo (1829-1909) begins a 10-year reign of war and terror against white settlers in the American Southwest.
Science
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) establishes Menlo Park as America’s first research laboratory.
Medicine
The bacillus that causes anthrax is discovered by Robert Koch (1843-1910).
Inventions
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) patents the first telephone.
Inventions
The first carpet sweeper is patented by inventor Melville Bissell (1843-1889), of Grand Rapids, Michigan.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) patents the mimeograph machine.
Education
Higher Education: Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore opens.
Education
The Kindergarten exhibit at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia enhances kindergarten’s popularity.
Education
Libraries: The American Library Association is founded.
Arts and Letters
Opera: The first complete performance of Richard Wagner’s (1813-1883) operatic Ring cycle opens in Germany.
Johnson, Eliza
Eliza McCardle Johnson (1810-1876) dies of tuberculosis in December at her daughter's, Martha Patterson, house.
Van Buren, Hannah
Smith Thommpson Van Buren (1817-1876), son of Martin and Hannah Van Buren dies.
Lincoln, Mary
A second jury finds Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882) sane. Later she travels again to Europe and spends most of her time in France.
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) runs for President of the U.S. His election is in dispute until January of 1877 because of contested election results in several states.
Economics
Railroad History: All Southern Pacific and Central Pacific passenger cars converted to air brakes.
Daily Life
The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks is organized.
Sports
Baseball: The Chicago Cubs hold their first National League game, beating Louisville 4-0.
Sports
Baseball: The U.S. National Baseball League is established
Sports
The first tennis tournament in the U.S. is held.
Sports
Polo is introduced to the U.S. from England.
Sports
Women in Sports: Ten percent of the members of the newly created Appalachin Mountain Club are women.
Popular Culture
Mark Twain (1835-1910) publishes his book “The Adventures of Tom Sawyer”.
Social Issues
Immigration: California Senate committee investigates the “social, moral, and political effect of Chinese immigration.”
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: A Declaration of the Rights of Women is distributed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Matilda Gage.
Reform
Prohibition: An early Prohibition Amendment to the Constitution is proposed in the House of Representatives.
1877
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
British imperialism is nearing its zenith as Britain annexes the South African Republic, and Queen Victoria (1819-1901) is proclaimed empress of India.
Government
Women's Suffrage Movement: The House of Representatives defeats a bill to amend the Constitution to allow women to vote where they are taxed.
Government
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) is inaugurated as the 19th President of the U.S., and William A. Wheeler (1819-1887) is inaugurated as the nation's 19th Vice President.
War
Indian Wars: The Nez Perce tribes in the northwestern United States battle with American troops after years of passive noncompliance with treaties. The tribes ultimately surrender; their leader, Chief Joseph (1840-1904), gives a surrender speech considered one of the finest statements on Native American displacement.
Science
U.S. astronomer Asaph Hall (1829-1907) discovers Deimos, ("panic" in Greek) a satellite of Mars, at the Naval Observatory in Washington.
Medicine
The process for staining bacteria so as to see them under a microscope is invented by Robert Koch (1843-1910).
Inventions
Copper wire is invented.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) invents the phonograph and makes the first sound recording.
Education
Libraries: Women's Firsts: Minerva Saunders is the first librarian to end age restrictions on borrowing books and to create a seperate childern's section.
Education
The YWCA in New York City establishes the first known typing course for women.
Education
Women's Firsts: Education of Women: Helen McGill(White) becomes the first woman in the U.S. to earn a Ph.D. degree; it is from Boston University, and her field is Greek drama.
Education
Children’s Books: Anna Sewell (1820-1878) is known only for one book, the perennial favorite "Black Beauty, the Autobiography of a Horse."
Education
Public Education: Reconstruction ends in 1877 when federal troops, which had occupied the South since the end of the Civil War are withdrawn. Whites regain political control of the South and lay the foundations of legal segregation.
Arts and Letters
Drama: American Theatre: Henrik Ibsen writes "Pillars of Society," an early example of the Realism in theatre that begins to compete with melodrama. With the advent of early realism, the role of the regisseur, or strong director, begins to develop.
Arts and Letters
Dance: Tchaikovsky's (1840-1893) ballet "Swan Lake" is first performed at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.
Arts and Letters
Painting: The third Impressionist exhibition is held in Paris.
Tyler, Letitia
Robert Tyler (1816-1877), the first son of John and Letitia Christian Tyler, dies December 3.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) and Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893) celebrate their 25th anniversary in the White House.
Hayes, Lucy
A newspaper first refers to the wife of the President as the "First Lady." Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) is also the first Presidential wife to take the Oath of Office in the White House.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) oversees the first Easter egg-rolling contest at the White House.
Economics
American Money: The Department of the Treasury's bureau of Engraving and Printing starts printing all U.S. currency, although other steps are done outside.
Economics
A drink called root beer is first made and distributed by Charles Elmer Hires (1851-1937).
Economics
Railroad History: Four feuding American railroads cease their price wars and join together to cut wages, prompting the great railroad strike of 1877. Federal troops end the strike, but only after killing some workers and injuring many.
Discovery
British explorer Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904) reaches the mouth of the Congo River.
Daily Life
The first public telephones are installed in the U.S.
Daily Life
The first Westminster Dog Show is held.
Sports
Cricket: The first cricket match between Australia and England is played in Melbourne, the home side winning by 45 runs.
Sports
The first Wimbledon tennis championships are held.
Sports
Women in Sports: The first women's field hockey club is started in Surrey, England.
Social Issues
Immigration: United States Congress investigates the criminal influence of Chinese immigrants.
Social Issues
Immigration: A mob in San Francisco sets fire to two dozen Chinese laundries in the city, sparking months of anti-Chinese violence.
Social Issues
Racism: Reconstruction in the South ends, and with it any effort of the Federal government to enforce the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments in the South for nearly 100 years.
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1878
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Third Parties: The Greenback-Labor Party is formed by labor organizations and advocates cheap money.
Politics
For the first time in twenty years, Democrats win control of both houses of Congress.
War
Indian Wars: Lincoln County War erupts in southeast New Mexico.
Medicine
Epidemics: The last great epidemic of yellow fever kills more than 13,000 in the lower Mississippi valley.
Inventions
The microphone is invented by David Hughes (1831-1900).
Inventions
The phonograph, invented by Thomas Edison (1847-1931), is patented.
Inventions
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan (1828-1914) is the first person to invent a practical and longer-lasting electic lightbulb.
Technology
Airplanes: Bishop Milton Wright (1828-1917), then living in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, brings home a rubber band-powered Penaud-type helicopter for his sons. They build several successful copies. Orville tells his schoolteacher that he and his brother Wilbur plan to build a large enough machine to carry the both of them. But when they try to build a larger model, it doesn’t fly.
Technology
The first private connection by telephone in Great Britain was made on the Isle of Wight when Queen Victoria (1819-1901) spoke to Thomas Biddulph.
Education
Women's Colleges: Physicist Sarah Frances Whiting (1846-1927) opens the second undergraduate physics laboratory in the U.S. at Wellesley College.
Education
Public Education: Kindergarten is incorporated into the San Francisco public school system.
Arts and Letters
Dance: "Swan Lake" is first performed at the Bolshoi Theater in Moscow.
Arts and Letters
Gilbert and Sullivan write "H.M.S. Pinafore."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Thomas Hardy (1840-1928) writes "Return of the Native."
Arts and Letters
Drama: Actress Ellen Terry (1848-1928) becomes a part of the Irving Company at London's Lyceum Theatre.
Ideas
Charles Pierce (1839-1914) publishes "How to Make Our Ideas Clear," developing the philosophy of Pragmatism.
Harrison, Anna
John Scott Harrison (1804-1878), son of William Henry and Anna Harrison, dies May
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) becomes widely known for her concern for and help to those in need in Washington, especially Civil War veterans and their families.
Economics
American Money: The Department of the Treasury is authorized to issue Silver Certificates in exchange for silver dollars.
Economics
Women's Firsts: Emma Nutt becomes the first woman telephone operator when she goes to worl for Edwin Holmes and his Telephone Dispatch Company in Boston, Massachusetts.
Economics
The name "Vaseline," a brand of petroleum jelly, is trademarked by Robert A. Chesebrough (1856-?).
Economics
The first commercial telephone switchboard goes into operation in New Haven, Connecticut.
Economics
The first bicycles are manufactured in the U.S.
Discovery
The largest yellow diamond ever discovered is found in the Kimberly Mine of South Africa. It is purchased by New York's Tiffany & Co. and becomes known as the Tiffany Diamond.
Daily Life
The first telephone book is issued in New Haven, CT.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first full-page newspaper advertisements appear.
Sports
Women in Sports: Woman pedestrian Ada Anderson walks 3,000 quarter-miles in 3,000 quarter hours over the course of a month in New York' Mozart Hall, kicking off a series of "lady walker" matches.
Sports
The National Archery Association is organized.
Popular Culture
A London tunesmith introduces the word jingoism into the British parlance in the lyric: "We don't want to fight, but by jingo if we do/We've got the men, we've got the ships, we've got the money too." The word would characterize an era of British imperialism.
Popular Culture
Showboats, which had shut down during the Civil War, are revived as entertainment centers on the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.
Religion
Pittsburgh minister Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916), who will go on to found the Watchtower Society associated with the Jehovah''s Witnesses, preaches that the second coming happened invisibly in 1874 and that the world will end in 1914.
Religion
Anna Howard Shaw (1847-1919) graduates as the only woman in her class in Boston University's divinity school; when she applies for ordination, her application is denied and her license to preach repealed
Social Issues
Abortion: Anthony Comstock, head of the New York Society for the Suppression fo Vice, entraps New York abortion provider and brothel owner Madame Restell into giving him abortifacients and contraceptives by telling her his wife is pregnant and they cannot afford another child. He then exposes her, slapping her with a lawsuit. Fearing conviction, she commits suicide.
Social Issues
Racism: The relocation of former slaves to Kansas, called the "Exoduster Movement," begins. Within the year, 30,000 blacks migrate to Kansas.
Reform
Labor Movement: Labor struggle intensifies in the United States when the Atchison, Topkea, and Santa Fe railraod cuts engineers' pay 10 percent. Striking workers shut the railroad down for five days. The militia is called in, and after a militiaman kills a bystander, labor leaders are arrested.
1879
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Women’s Firsts: Belva Ann Lockwood (1830-1917) becomes the first woman admitted to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Politics
Irish nationalist Michael Davitt (1846-1906) founds the Irish Land League to resist absentee landlords and fight for a more equitable distribution of land in Ireland and independence from Britain.
Politics
Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck (1862-1890) engineers an Austro-German alliance in which either side will offer the other aid in the event of an attack from Russia. It's one of a series of alliances that prefigure the battle lines of World War I.
Government
Immigration: A bill to restrict Chinese immigration is vetoed by President Hayes (1822-1893).
Government
President Hayes (1822-1893) tries to reform the Civil Service, and to settle the question of Indian lands; large numbers of native Americans visit with him in Washington to argue their need for justice.
Government
National Capital: Electric lighting is installed in the Capitol building.
War
The Zulu War: The Zulu War begins between the British of the Cape Colony and the natives of Zululand.
Science
Russian pathologist demonstrates by using dogs that the stomach will produce gastric juices even if there is no food, suggeting that reflexes are learned and conditioned, not natural, and that people can be taught to respond to anything.
Science
The discovery of saccharin is reported.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Mary Mahoney(1845-1926) becomes the first black professional nurse in the U.S.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) invents a workable electric light at his laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.
Technology
An internal combustion engine is used to power a "horseless carriage" by George Selden (1846-1922).
Technology
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) gives the first public demonstration of an eletric incandescent lamp in Menlo Park, New Jeresy.
Education
Women's Colleges: The first class at what was to become Radcliffe College, then called "The Society for the Collegiate Instruction of Women," begins.
Education
American educator Anna Hallowell(1831-1905) establishes free kindergartens in poor neighborhoods in Philadelphia.
Education
Native Americans: Indian Education: The Carlisle Indian School is founded in Pennsylvania, in an aggressive U.S. government campaign to "civilize" Indian children.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Among Henry James' (1843-1916) masterpieces is "Daisy Miller," in which the young and innocent American, Daisy, finds her values in conflict with European sophistication.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Fyodor Dostoevsky (1821-1881) writes "The Brothers Karamzov."
Arts and Letters
Opera: "Evgeny Onegin," or "Eugene Onegin," best known opera by Russian composer Tchaikovsky (1840-1893), receives its first performance at the Maily Theater in Moscow.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Henrik Ibsen's (1828-1906) modern classic about the erosion of traditional domestic roles, "A Doll's House," is performed for the first time in Copenhagen.
Arts and Letters
"The Pirates of Penzance"(or "The Slave of Duty"), an operetta by Gilbert and Sullivan, has its first performance in New York City.
Ideas
American economist Henry George (1839-1897) writes "Progress and Poverty," in which he observes increasing economic inequality in the United States.
Taylor, Margaret
Richard Taylor (1826-1879), son of Zachary and Margaret Taylor, dies April 12.
Johnson, Eliza
Andrew Johnson Jr. (1852-1879), son of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, dies March 12.
Coolidge, Grace
Grace Anna Goodhue Coolidge (1879-1957), wife of Calvin Coolidge, is born in Burlignton, Vermont on January 3.
Economics
The first five-and-dime store is founded by Frank Woolworth (1852-1919) in Utica, New York; it later moves to Lancaster, Pennsylvania in the same year.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Henry Grady (1850-1889) takes over the "Atlanta Constitution," in the pages of which he begins to exhort the South to attract northern capital and transform itself into a modern industrial region--to little avail.
Daily Life
Electric arc lamps are installed on the streets of Cleveland, Ohio, by Charles Brush (1849-1929).
Sports
The first major skiing contest occurs in Norway.
Popular Culture
Annie Oakley (1860-1926) defeats Frank Butler in a shooting match; they later marry and tour the country in Wild West shows.
Religion
St. Patrick's Cathedral opens in New York after twenty-six years of work.
Religion
Women’s Firsts: Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910) establishes the Church of Christ, Scientist, becoming the first woman to found a major religion, Christian Science.
Social Issues
Immigration: California adopts a new constitution which, in part, prohibits the employment of Chinese workers.
Social Issues
Racism: With federal Reconstruction over and national troops out of the South, political repression of southern blacks starts to intensify.
Reform
Temperance Movement: Frances Willard (1839-1898) becomes president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union, campaigning also for women's rights with the motto, "Do Everything."
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1880
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Supreme Court rules that the exclusion of Blacks from jury duty is unconstitutional.
Politics
James A. Garfield (1831-1881) beats President Ulysses Grant (1822-1885) in a hotly contested election and becomes the 20th President of the U.S.; Chester A. Arthur (1829-1886) is elected as the 20th Vice President.
Medicine
The parasite that causes malaria is discovered.
Medicine
Rubber gloves are introduced in hospital operating rooms after nurse Caroline Hampton developed a skin allergy to the antiseptic solutions used; when postoperative infections dropped dramatically, such gloves became part of the surgical team’s standard uniform.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) is granted a patent for his incandescent light.
Inventions
The British Perforated Paper Company invents a form of toilet paper.
Inventions
Englishman, John Milne (1850-1913) invents the modern seismograph.
Technology
Airplanes: Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896), Germany, begins to test cambered wing surfaces and measures their lifting capability.
Technology
The first large furnace for making steel is developed by Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919).
Technology
The first wireless telephone message is sent by Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) through a “photophone,” a devise that transmits sound on a beam of light.
Education
Public Education: Kindergarten is incorporated into the Chicago public school system.
Education
Libraries: The initial funding of buildings for public libraries is begun by Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919).
Arts and Letters
Literature: Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881) publishes "The Brothers Karamazov," a year before he dies.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Lew Wallace (1827-1905) writes "Ben Hur."
Arts and Letters
Sculpture: Rodin’s (1840-1917) sculpture, “The Thinker,” is exhibited in model form.
Arts and Letters
Gilbert and Sullivan produce "The Pirates of Penzance" in London. It runs for over 300 performances.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) accepts the national presidency of the Woman’s Home Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, a group that helps poor women and children.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) and Rutherford (1822-1893) spend 72 days touring the west, the first such trip by a sitting President.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882) returns to the United States in 1880 and again goes to the Edwards' home in Springfield to live. She is slowly going blind.
Harrison, Caroline
Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) is elected to the U.S. Senate from Indiana. He and Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) move to Washington, DC.
Harding, Florence
Eugene Marshall "Pete" DeWolfe (1880-1915), son of Warren and Florence Harding, is born September 22.
Garfield, Lucretia
Lucretia Rudolph Garfield (1832-1918) is the first President's wife to be kissed by her husband at his inauguration.
Arthur, Ellen
Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (1837-1880), wife of Chester A. Arthur (1830-1886), dies of pneumonia on January 10, ten months before her husband is elected as Vice President of the United States.
Economics
Newspapers: Newspaper growth continues unabated in the postwar years. An astounding 11,314 different papers are recorded in the census.
Economics
The De Beers Mining Corp. is founded by Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) and Albert Beit (1853-1906) , both 27 years old. Rhodes will eventually acquire a near-total monopoly on the South African diamond industry.
Economics
The population of Los Angeles, California, doubles between 1870 and 1880, a sign of the urbanization of the American west.
Economics
Census: The U.S. population is 50.1 million people, including about 2.8 million immigrants.
Daily Life
The first canned fruits and vegetables appear in stores.
Daily Life
The first telephone box for public use goes into service.
Daily Life
Electricity first lights the street lights in New York City.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first photographs are seen in newspapers that are printed using halftones.
Popular Culture
J.C. Harris publishes his “Uncle Remus” stories.
Popular Culture
The game of bingo is developed from an Italian lotto game.
Religion
Women Firsts: Anna Howard Shaw (1847-1919) is the first woman ordained by the Methodist Church.
Religion
Frances Cabrini (later Mother Cabrini) (1850-1917) founds the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart in Italy.
Social Issues
Poverty: The American Salvation Army is established in Philadelphia.
Social Issues
Immigration: Italy’s troubled economy, crop failures, and political climate begin the start of mass immigration with nearly four million Italian immigrants arriving in the United States.
Reform
Labor Movement: The word boycott comes into use when Irish tenant farmers refuse to harvest crops on an estate managed by British army captain Charles Cunningham Boycott (1832-1897).
1881
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The United States Supreme Court rules that the Civil War income tax law of 1861 is constitutional.
Politics
Irish nationalist leader Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891) is imprisoned for agitating for home rule. From prison, he continues to direct tenant farmers to withhold rent as a means of gaining self-government.
Government
James A. Garfield (1831-1881) is inaugurated as the 20th President of the U.S.; Chester A. Arthur (1829-1886) is inaugurated as the 20th Vice President.
Government
Vice President Chester A. Arthur (1830-1886) becomes the 21st President of the United States upon the assassination of James A. Garfield (1831-1881). No new Vice President is selected.
Government
The assassination of Czar Alexander II in 1881 prompts civil unrest and economic instability throughout Russia.
Medicine
Vaccines: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) develops an anthrax vaccine, and vaccinates a herd of sheep against the disease.
Medicine
"Angel of the battlefield" Clara Barton (1821-1912) founds the American Association of the Red Cross.
Medicine
The idea that mosquitoes are the carriers of yellow fever is proposed.
Inventions
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) invents the first crude metal detector.
Technology
Battery Technology: Leclanche's (1839-1882) battery is quite heavy and prone to breakage; the idea of encapsulating both the negative electrode and porous pot into a zinc cup is patented by J.A. Thiebaut in 1881.
Technology
Airplanes: Louis Moulliard, France, writes another milestone in aeronautics, Empire of the Air, in which he proposes fixed-wing gliders with cambered wings, like birds.
Technology
The first color photographs are produced by Frederick E. Ives.
Education
Higher Education: Booker T. Washington (1856-1915) organizes the Normal and Industrail Institute for Negroes, which later becomes Tuskeegee Institute.
Education
Children’s Books: The very first appearance, under a pen-name, of Robert Louis Stevenson’ s(1850-1894) first and best-known children's adventure story, "Treasure Island," os published in the penny weekly, "Young Folks, A Boys' and Girls' Paper of Instructive and Entertaining Literature."
Education
Rachel Bodley, dean of the Women’s Medical College of Pennsylvania conducts a statistical survey about the careers of her school’s graduates, published as the pamphlet The College Story, one of the earliest studies of women in the professions.
Education
Women’s Colleges: Spelman College is founded in Georgia as the first black women's college.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Henry James (1843-1916) writes "The Portrait of a Lady," in which, again, a young American woman becomes a victim of her provincialism during her travels in Europe.
Arts and Letters
D’Oyly Carte (1844-1901) builds the electrified Savoy Theatre in London.
Arts and Letters
The Boston Symphony Orchestra is founded.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) and Rutherford (1822-1893) leave the White House at the end of his term and move to their home at Spiegel Grove in Ohio.
Harrison, Caroline
Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) begins his term in the U.S. Senate. Caroline Harrison suffers a bad fall “and her health was delicate after that.”
Garfield, Lucretia
James Abram Garfield (1831-1881), 20th President of the U.S., is assassinated on July 2 and dies from the assault on September 19 in Elberon, New Jersey.
Daily Life
The first electric tram goes into public service in Germany, near Berlin.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Brothers Wyatt (1848-1929) and Virgil Earp (1843-1905) lead the shootout of Western movie fame against Ike Clanton''s gang at the O.K. Corral in Arizona territory.
Sports
The first U.S. Lawn Tennis Championship is held.
Popular Culture
The first vaudeville theatre to feature family entertainment is opened in New York City.
Popular Culture
Twenty-one-year old William Bonney, a.k.a. Billy the Kid (1859-61 exact year unknown-1881), escapes imprisonment but is hunted down and shot. Though he had killed 21 people, he becomes a legend, and pop retellings of his life story are hawked only weeks after his death.
Popular Culture
Mark Twain (1835-1910) publishes "The Prince and the Pauper."
Religion
The Vatican archives are opened to scholars.
Social Issues
Native Americans: "A Century of Injustice" is published by Helen Hunt Jackson, about mistreatment of Indians.
Social Issues
Segregation: Tennessee legislature passes a law mandating that black passengers be segregated on railroads. "Jim Crow" legislation is soon imitated throughout the South.
Reform
Labor Movement: The American Federation of Labor is formed.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Susan B. Anthony finances and publishes The History of Women’s Suffrage, which eventually totals six volumes
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1882
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Women's Rights Movement: Two U.S. judges decide that women may sue their husbands for assault and battery.
Government
Immigration: The Chinese Exclusion Act, which bars Chinese laborers from coming to the United States, goes into effect.
Government
Presidents: Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945), the 32nd President of the United States, is born in Hyde Park, New York.
Government
The 3-mile limit for territorial waters is agreed upon at the Hague Convention.
Medicine
Robert Koch (1843-1910) discovers the tuberculosis bacillus and establishes that the disease is communicable.
Medicine
Hypnosis is used to treat hysteria, signaling the beginning of psychoanalysis.
Medicine
Surgical sutures made from catgut thread are replaced with silk ones.
Medicine
Vaccines: Louis Pasteur (1822- 1895) develops a rabies vaccine.
Inventions
The electric fan and the electric flat iron are invented.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Lewis H. Latimer (1848-1928) patents the carbon filament for electric light bulbs.
Technology
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) designs the first hydroelectric plant in Appleton, WI.
Technology
The first motion picture is made, using a “rifle-camera” that shoots 12 images in one second.
Education
Children''s Books: Children''s classic "Pinocchio" is written by Italian author Carlo Collodi (1826-1890).
Education
Education of Women: The American Association of University Women is founded by Alice Elvira Freeman Palmer (1855-1902).
Arts and Letters
Opera: Wagner's (1813-1883) opera "Parsifal" is first performed, at Bayreuth, western Germany.
Arts and Letters
Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) writes the "1812 Overture."
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: David Belasco (1853-1931) apprenticed in San Francisco, moves to Madison Square Theatre in New York as stage manager and becomes an independent producer in 1895.
Cleveland, Frances
Grover Cleveland (1837-1906) is elected Mayor of Buffalo and then Governor of New York, as a Democrat. He wins reputation for uncovering political corruption.
Lincoln, Mary
Mary Todd Lincoln (1818-1882) dies of “paralysis” at her sister Elizabeth’s house on July 15 in Springfield, Illinois.
Economics
American rail magnate William Vanderbilt (1856-1938) eliminates mail trains from Chicago, because they are not profitable.
Economics
John D. Rockefeller's (1839-1937) Standard Oil Trust brings 95 percent of the American petroleum industry under the control of a nine-man board.
Economics
Commercially supplied electrical power is inaugurated in New York City.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: After more than 15 years of robbing banks, outlaw Jesse James (1847- 1882) is shot in the back at St Joseph, Missouri, by Robert Ford, one of his own gang.
Daily Life
Ellen Swallow Richards (1842-1911) writes "The Chemistry of Cooking and Cleaning."
Daily Life
Holidays: The first Labor Day celebration is held in New York City.
Sports
Baseball: The American Baseball Association is founded.
Sports
Boxing: John L. Sullivan (1858-1918) wins the heavyweight boxing championship.
Sports
The National Croquet Association is founded.
Sports
Women in Sports: At the YWCA in Boston, the first athletic games for women are held.
Popular Culture
Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) writes "Treasure Island."
Popular Culture
Jumbo the elephant appears in P.T. Barnum's (1810-1891) Barnum and Bailey Circus; he is advertised as the "largest elephant in or out of captivity."
Popular Culture
Clan warfare between the Hatfields and McCoys breaks out in southern Appalachia. The bloodbath, which has its roots in lingering Civil War tensions, lasts for six years until Kentucky authorities seize some of the members of the Hatfield family.
Religion
The Knights of Columbus, a fraternal organization of Catholic men, is founded in Connecticut.
Social Issues
Immigration: Russia’s May Laws severely restrict the ability of Jewish citizens to live and work in Russia. The country’s instability prompts more than three million Russians to immigrate to the United States over three decades.
Social Issues
Immigration: The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 suspends immigration of Chinese laborers under penalty of imprisonment and deportation.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: Two U.S. judges decide that women may sue their husbands for assault and battery.
1883
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Civil Rights Movement: The Supreme Court declares the Civil Rights Act of 1875 unconstitutional (except for jury duty), ruling that the government can protect political, not social, rights.
Government
The United States adopts standard time.
Government
The U.S. Civil Service Commission is established by the Pendleton Act.
War
Congress orders the building of ships that begin the modern U.S. Navy.
Science
The fact that an electrical current can be sent through space—the basis of electronics—is discovered by Thomas Edison (1847-1931).
Medicine
The bacillus that causes diphtheria is discovered.
Inventions
English engineer Hiram Maxim (1840-1916) invents the fully automatic machine gun.
Inventions
Young German-American entrepreneur Julius Schmidt invents a modern version of the condom.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Jan Ernst Matzeliger (1852-1889) patents a machine that can make up to 700 shoes a day.
Technology
The Brooklyn Bridge, the world's first suspension bridge, opens to pedestrian traffic, linking Manhattan to Brooklyn.
Technology
The first “skyscraper” is built in Chicago: it has 10 floors.
Technology
Airplanes: John J. Montgomery (1858-1911) of California builds a monoplane glider and makes the first gliding flight in America.
Technology
Airplanes: Charles Parsons, England, inventor of the turbine motor, tests a small 1/4 horsepower steam turbine engine in a model airplane, propelling it for approximately 300 feet. Although Parsons experiments had little effect on the development of aviation, some consider this to be the first jet aircraft.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Poet Emma Lazarus (1849-1887) publishes the sonnet “The New Colossus,” which will be inscribed on the Statue of Liberty.
Ideas
Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche's (1844-1900) "Thus Spake Zarathustra" appears in print.
Hayes, Lucy
The Hayes family is happy in retirement at Spiegel Grove. Lucy Hayes (1831-1889) spends a lot of time in the garden, and supervising the farm. She also continues to correspond with national figures and to give parties.
Johnson, Eliza
Mary Johnson Stover Brown (1832-1883), daughter of Andrew and Eliza Johnson, dies April 19.
Tyler, Julia
John Alexander "Alex" Tyler (1848-1883), son of John Tyler and his second wife Julia, dies September 1.
Economics
Railroad History: The Northern Pacific and Southern Pacific are completed.
Economics
Railroad History: The Northern Pacific Railroad across the United States is completed.
Economics
A deep drought begins on the western plains of the United States. The suffering of farmers produces radical political activity, such as the Farmer''s Alliance, one of the first demonstrations of Populism as a movement in the 19th century.
Daily Life
Magazines: "The Ladies’ Home Journal" is founded.
Daily Life
Magazines: "Life Magazine" is established.
Sports
Matthew Webb (1848-1883), first man to swim the English Channel (in 1875) drowns while attempting to swim the rapids above Niagara Falls.
Sports
The first annual New York Horse Show is held in New York City.
Sports
Women in Sports: Mrs. M. C. Howell wins her first archery title. She will win the national championship for women 17 times between 1883 and 1907.
Popular Culture
The first vaudeville theater, the Gaiety Museum, opens in Boston.
Popular Culture
William F. Cody (1846-1917) organizes his first “Wild West Show.”
Popular Culture
Mark Twain (1835-1910) publishes "Life on the Mississippi."
Popular Culture
Howard Pyle (1853-1911) writes (and illustrates) "The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood."
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1884
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Democrat Grover Cleveland (1837-1906) defeats the Republican "plumed knight" James Blaine (1830-1893), becoming the first Democratic president of the United Staes since before the Civil War, and the 22nd President of the U.S. Thomas A. Hendricks (1819-1885) becomes the nation's 21st Vice President.
Politics
Third Parties: Belva Ann Lockwood (1830-1917) runs for president as the candidate for the Equal Rights Party; she loses.
Politics
Third Parties: The Anti-Monopoly Party and the Greenback-Labor Party join to form People's Party, supporting many liberal measures including a graduated income tax.
Government
The Bureau of Labor and the Department of the Interior are created by Congress.
Government
National Capitol: The capstone is placed on the Washington Monument.
Government
Presidents: Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) , 33rd president of the United States (1945- 53), is born in Lamar, Missouri.
Medicine
The bacillus that causes tetanus is discovered.
Inventions
Ottmar Mergenthaler (1854-1899) invents the Linotype machine, the first mechanized printing typesetter, which will speed up the presses for newspapers.
Inventions
The first practical turbine engine is invented.
Inventions
The first accurate adding machine is invented.
Inventions
The first coin-operated weighing machine is patented by Percy Everitt.
Technology
The first practical fountain pen is manufactured by Lewis E. Waterman (1837-1901).
Technology
Airplanes: Alexander F. Mozhaiski, Russia, builds a steam-powered monoplane and tests it at Krasnoye Selo, near St. Petersburg. It takes off on a jump ramp and flies for approximately 100 feet before crashing. This is the second power-assisted take-off in history.
Technology
Airplanes: Horatio F. Phillips, England, experiments with cambered wings in a wind tunnel and lays down the scientific foundation for modern airfoil design. He is the first to discover that when the wind blows across a curved surface, it creates a low pressure area on top of the surface and high pressure beneath it. This, in turn, generates lift.
Education
Native Americans: Indian Education: Educational policy regarding Native Americans is articulated at the Lake Mohonk Conference.
Education
Women's Colleges: The first state-supported college for women, Mississippi State College for women is chartered.
Education
The first volume of the Oxford English Dictionary is published.
Education
The National Education Association forms a kindergarten department.
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1884-1962), wife of Franklin D. Roosevelt, is born in New York City on October 11.
Roosevelt, Edith
Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth (1884-1980), only child of first marriage of Theodore Roosevelt and Alice Hathaway Lee Roosevelt, is born February 12.
Daily Life
The Statue of Liberty is presented to America by the people of France.
Daily Life
The first roller coaster opens at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York City.
Sports
Baseball: Baseball gets new rules and goes on to become an extremely popular sport in America. Its growth is also linked to the development of cities and urban culture.
Sports
Baseball: The first U.S. baseball championship is won by Providence (RI) of the National League, beating the New York Metropolitans, 3-0.
Sports
Women in Sports: Women's singles tennis competition is added to Wimbledon. Maud Watson wins in both 1884 and '85.
Popular Culture
American author Mark Twain (1835-1910) publishes "Huckleberry Finn."
Religion
Charles Taze Russell (1852-1916) founds the Watchtower Bible and Tract Society (which led to the Jehovah''''s Witnesses in the United States).
Social Issues
Native Americans: The novel "Ramona" is written by Helen Hunt Jackson (1830-1885) dramatizing the oppression of Indians in the American west.
1885
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Immigration: The Contract Labor Act prohibits the importing of laborors who then work for the cost of transit; skilled, domestic, and professional workers are exempted.
Government
National Capitol: The Washington Monument is dedicated.
Government
Grover Cleveland (1837-1906) is inaugurated as the 22nd President of the United Staes and Thomas A. Hendricks (1819-1885) in inaugurated as the nation's 21st Vice President.
Government
President Cleveland (1837-1906) proposes the suspension of the minting of silver dollars, fearing that silver is undermining the nation’s gold reserves.
War
Indian Wars: Apache Indians leave their reservation in Arizona and continue their war against Whites under Geronimo.
Science
In memory of ornithologist James Audubon (1785-1851), the National Audubon Society is founded in the United States to study bird species.
Science
Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911) establishes the uniqueness of fingerprints.
Medicine
The first appendectomy in the United States is performed in Davenport Iowa, by Dr. William Grant.
Medicine
Vaccines: Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) administers the first anti-rabies vaccine to a nine-year-old schoolboy.
Inventions
The first motorcycle is patented, built by Gottlief Daimler in Germany.
Inventions
Karl Benz (1824-1929) builds the world's first gasoline-powered vehicle. It has a traveling speed of nine miles per hour.
Inventions
The first modern bicycle is built. Bikes are a craze in America and Europe until the end of the century.
Inventions
The dictaphone, the electric transformer, the electric drill, and the thermos bottle are invented.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Women’s Firsts: Sarah E. Goode becomes the first African-American woman to receive a patent, for a bed that folds up into a cabinet.
Education
Children’s Books: Frances Hodgson Burnett (1849-1924), writes "Little Lord Fauntleroy."
Education
Children's Books: Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) publishes "A Child’s Garden of Verses."
Education
The Bryn Mawr School for Girls in Baltimore, later joined by Bryn Mawr College for Women near Philadelphia, is founded.
Arts and Letters
"The Mikado," the comic operetta by William S. Gilbert (1836-1911) and Sir Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), premieres at the Savoy Theatre, London.
Arts and Letters
American Theatre: Theatrical lighting with electricity is made available to theatrical productions.
Truman, Bess
Elizabeth Virginia Wallace Truman (1885-1982), wife of Harry S. Truman, is born in Independence, Missouri, on February 13.
Grant, Julia
Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), 18th President of the United States, dies July 23 in Mount McGregor, New York.
Economics
The first commercially operated electrical streetcar begins operation in Baltimore.
Economics
Railroad History: The Santa Fe Railroad is completed.
Daily Life
Special delivery mail service begins in the United States.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman (1867-1922), writing as Nelly Bly, becomes a reporter for the Pittsburgh Dispatch, reporting on poor working conditions in factories, problems of working girls, slums, divorce, and political corruption.
Daily Life
History of Toys: Crayola Crayons: Edwin Binney (1866-1934) and cousin, C. Harold Smith, begin the partnership of Binney & Smith in Peekskill, N.Y. Early products include red oxide pigments for painting red barns and carbon black for car tires.
Sports
Golf: Golf is introduced to the U.S. from Scotland by John M. Fox of Philadelphia.
Sports
A weight-lifting strongman is reported to have lifted 3,239 pounds with a harness.
Popular Culture
H. Rider Haggard (1856-1925) writes the adventure novel, "King Solomon’s Mines."
Popular Culture
"A Thousand and One Nights" is translated by Richard Burton (1821-1890); it includes the stories of “Sindbad the Sailor,” “Aladdin and the Magic Lamp,” and Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves.”
Religion
The U.S. Salvation Army is officially organized.
Religion
The Mormons divide into polygamous and monogamous factions.
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1886
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Supreme Court rules that “persons” under the Fourteenth Amendment refers not only to individuals but also to corporations.
Government
The U.S. Forestry Service is established as part of the Dept. of Agriculture.
Government
A new Presidential Succession Act is passed providing the presidential succession to go to the Vice President, and then to Cabinet officers in the order that their departments were created.
War
Indian Wars: The last large-scale Indian war in the United States ends when American troops capture Apache chief Geronimo (1829-1909) after four years of warfare on the Mexican border.
Science
Fluorine is first produced by French chemist Henri Moissan (1852-1907).
Inventions
German motor pioneer Karl Benz (1844-1929) is granted a patent for the first successful gasoline-powered car.
Inventions
Josephine Cochrane (1839-1913) invents the dishwasher.
Inventions
Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900) builds the world's first four-wheeled motor vehicle.
Inventions
John Pemberton (1814-1881) invents Coca Cola.
Technology
Hydroelectric plants are begun at Niagara Falls.
Technology
Wax disks are developed to use with the phonograph.
Technology
Sewing machines are made with electric motors.
Education
Libraries: The main library and the first four branches of the Enoch Pratt Free Library open in Baltimore, providing service to users of all races.
Education
Children’s Books: Randolph Caldecott (1846-1886), provides the illustrations for Hallam Tennyson's (1852-1928) curious hexameter version of "Jack and the Bean-stalk."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) writes "Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde."
Ideas
Karl Marx’ (1818-1883) "Das Capital" is published in English.
Wilson, Ellen
Margaret Woodrow Wilson (1886-1944), daughter of Woodrow and Ellen Wilson, is born April 30.
Washington, Martha
Martha Washington (1731-1802) becomes the first woman to be portrayed on U.S. paper money.
Adams, Louisa
Charles Frances Adams (1807-1886), son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams, dies of a stroke on November 21 at the age of 79.
Arthur, Ellen
Chester A. Arthur (1830-1886), 21st President of the U.S., dies November 18 in New York, New York.
Cleveland, Frances
White House Wedding: Frances Folsom (1864-1947) marries U.S. President Grover Cleveland (1837-1906) in the White House.
Economics
Johannesburg is founded in South Africa. The gold-mining town will eventually mine the vast majority of the world's gold.
Economics
Catering to farmers far from large stores, Richard Sears (1863-1914) establishes a successful mail-order house in Minneapolis, first selling watches. He hires A.C. Roebuck (1864-1948) as a watch repairmen the next year in Chicago.
Economics
The first Coca-Cola is sold in Atlanta, advertised as a hangover remedy containing coca leaves and African kola nut extract.
Economics
Aluminum is first produced independently in the U.S. and in France.
Daily Life
The first Tournament of Roses is held in Pasadena, California.
Daily Life
The Statue of Liberty is dedicated in New York Harbor.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: The first BB gun is created. Made for children, it scares many parents because it is actually a working gun that can cause injury. The BB gun is a descendant of the cap gun, which was invented soon after the Civil War, when some shotgun manufacturers converted their factories to make toys. Penny pistols and other authentic looking toy guns also began to appear in the 1880s.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: A bill granting women suffrage is passed by the Vermont legislature
Reform
Settlement House Movement: The first settlement house is established in New York City.
Reform
Labor Movement: Chicago police officers shoot four strikers at a May 1st rally for the eight-hour day. The Knights of Labor holds a rally in Haymarket Square to protest the shootings; a bomb goes off, killing a policeman, and the police open fire on the crowd, killing many workers.
Reform
Labor Movement: Samuel Gompers (1850-1924), a cigar maker, founds the American Federation of Labor.
1887
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Women's Firsts: Susanna Medora Salter (1820-1906) is elected the first U.S. woman mayor, in Argonia, Kansas.
Government
Congress creates Yellowstone National Park to be a refuge for buffalo and big game.
Government
Queen Victoria (1819-1901) celebrates her Golden Jubilee, marking 50 years on the British throne.
Government
Native Americans: The Dawes Act, which provides for the allotment of reservation land for individual Native American families, is passed by Congress.
Government
Congress passes the Interstate Commerce Act, enabling the federal government to regulate railroad rates for the first time.
War
Congress renews the U.S.-Hawaii Treaty, giving the U.S. exclusive rights to build a naval base at Pearl Harbor.
Medicine
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Jules-Francois Jourbert (1834-1910) of France first demonstrate the antibiotic effect.
Inventions
Celluloid film is invented.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) invents the record player.
Technology
Paris and Brussels become the first two capital cities to be linked by telephone.
Education
Special Education: Twenty-year-old teacher Anne Sullivan (1866-1936) begins to teach blind-and-deaf child Helen Keller (1880-1968) at the request of Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922). Helen soon learns to communicate.
Education
Higher Education: Women's Colleges: The Smith College Observatory is founded.
Education
The Hatch Act appropriates federal money to study agriculture in any state with a Land Grant College.
Education
Higher Education: Libraries: Melville Dewey (1851-1931) establishes a State Library School in Albany, NY.
Arts and Letters
Opera: Verdi's (1813-1901) opera "Othello" is first performed in Milan, Italy.
Ideas
Polish philologist Lazurus Ludwig Zemenhof (1859-1917) invents Esperanto, hoping that an international language will forestall war and bring about better communication between the peoples of the world.
Wilson, Ellen
Jessie Woodrow Wilson Sayre (1887-1933), daughter of Woodrow and Ellen Wilson, is born August 28.
Roosevelt, Edith
Theodore "Ted" Roosevelt (Jr.) (1887-1944), son of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt, is born September 13.
Economics
The Pennsylvania Railroad runs an electrically lighted train between New York and Chicago.
Economics
The first successful electric trolley line is built in Richmond, VA.
Daily Life
Mail is delivered free in all cities with a population of at least 10,000.
Daily Life
Disasters: Terrible blizzards devastate America''s nothern plains. Families are found frozen to death in tar-paper shacks.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: The speaking doll, which had first been invented by Johann Maelzel in 1820, is improved when Thomas Edison combines his phonograph technology with a doll, allowing it to speak.
Sports
Softball: Softball is invented by George Hancock, a reporter for the Chicago Board of Trade.
Sports
Women in Sports: Ellen Hansell is crowned the first Women's Singles tennis champion at the US Open.
Sports
The first national women's tennis tournament is held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club.
Popular Culture
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) publishes his first Sherlock Holmes mystery, "A Study in Scarlet."
Social Issues
Native Americans: The Dawes Act divides tribal land into individual allotted tracts, destroying tribal relations in an attempt to promote assimilation into white culture.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Utah repeals women's suffrage.
Reform
Nellie Bly (1867-1922) is hired by the New York World; her reporting lays the groundwork for the reform-minded muckracking journalists who come after her.
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1888
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Chief Justices: President Grover Cleveland (1837-1908) nominates Melville Weston Fuller (1833-1910) Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He is confirmed by the Senate and serves for twenty-one years.
Politics
Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) is elected as the 23rd President of the U.S., and Levi P. Morton (1824-1920) is elected as the nation's 22nd Vice President.
Politics
Political anthems: A Belgian woodcarver publishes the song "L'Internationale," with lyrics written during the Paris Commune uprising: "Arise, ye prisoners of starvation/ Arise, ye wretched of the earth...." The song is adopted by the Communist Party.
Politics
Belva Ann Lockwood (1830-1917) once more runs for the president for the Equal Rights Party; once again, she loses.
Government
Congress creates the Department of Labor.
Government
National Capitol: The public is first admitted to the Washington Monument.
Science
Weather fronts are first described; speculation considers thier relationship to storms.
Inventions
Artifical straws for drinking are patented.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Granville T. Woods (1856-1910) patents a system for overhead communication between trains and railroad stations.
Inventions
John Boyd Dunlop (1840-1921) takes out a patent for his pnuematic bicycle tire.
Inventions
Croation-American Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) invents an alternating-current electronic motor. He also develops early radio technology, but he gets little financial reward for his achievements.
Inventions
George Eastman (1854-1932) invents the Kodak camera.
Technology
Emile Berliner (1851-1929) gives the first demonstration of flat disc recording and reproduction before the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia.
Technology
Incubators are used for premature infants.
Technology
The first seismograph in the U.S. is installed in California.
Technology
Airplanes: Augustus Herring, New York, builds and tests a glider. It fails to fly.
Education
A women's annex to Columbia University is voted by the trustees.
Education
Native Americans: Indian Education: Red Cloud invites the Jesuits to the reservation to establish a school for Lakota children in order to avoid sending children off the reservation.
Education
The National Geographic Society is established and publishes the first issue of its journal.
Arts and Letters
Sculpture: Auguste Rodin (1840-1917) finshes his sculpture "The Thinker" in an enlarged size.
Arts and Letters
Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) composes "Sheherazade."
Arts and Letters
John Phillips Sousa (1854-1932) writes "Semper Fidelis" for the Marines.
Ideas
American socialist Edward Bellamy (1850-1898) writes "Looking Backward," a utopian science-fiction novel depicting the United States in the year 2000.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: The body of Mary Ann "Polly" Nichols and Annie Chapman, the first two victims of murderer "Jack the Ripper," are found in London. Five more London prostitues are found disemboweled and a rumor circulates that Queen Victoria is responsible for their deaths to distract the public from scandals surrounding her son.
Daily Life
Disasters: The famous "Blizzard of''88" occurs, lasting 36 hours and killing 400 people.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: New York state establishes electrocution for murderers sentenced to die.
Sports
Softball: Softball moves outdoors, played on a diamond smaller than baseball''s, and called Indoor-Outdoor Baseball.
Sports
Women in Sports: Women join bicycling clubs in Chicago and tennis clubs in New York City.
Popular Culture
The world's first beauty contest takes place at Spa in Belgium. The first prize is awarded to Bertha Soucaret. an 18-year-old Creole from Guadeloupe.
Popular Culture
"Casey at the Bat" is recited for the first time in public.
1889
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
New State: Four states are admitted to the Union and include North and South Dakota as the 39th and 40th states, Montana as the 41st state, and Washington as the 42nd state.
Government
Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) is inaugurated as the 23rd President of the U.S., and Levi P. Morton (1824-1920) is inaugurated as the nation's 22nd Vice President.
Government
Native Americans: Indian lands in Oklahoma are made available to white settlers.
Science
The origin of insulin in the pancreas is discovered.
Inventions
An inexpensive method of producing aluminum is patented by Charles Hall of Ohio.
Inventions
Joshua Pusey invents the matchbook.
Inventions
Sir James Dewar (1842-1923) and Sir Frederick Abel co-invent Cordite - a type of smokeless gunpowder.
Technology
The Eiffel Tower is completed in Paris.
Technology
Airplanes: Lawrence Hargrave (1850-1915), Australia, builds the first rotary airplane engine. It runs on compressed air and Hargrave uses it to power his model aircraft.
Technology
The first celluloid movie in the U.S. is made.
Education
Catholic Univeristy opens in Washington D.C.
Education
Clinical training is established as part of medical education at John Hopkins University Medical School.
Education
Barnard College, a women's college affiliated with Columbia University and named after Columbia's president Frederick Barnard (1809-1889) is founded in New York.
Education
Children’s Books: The Scottish-born poet, classicist, folklorist, and critic Andrew Lang (1844-1912) writes "The Blue Fairy Book."
Education
Women's Firsts: Marie Louise Baldwin becomes the first black school principal in Massachusetts; she supervises 12 white teahcers and more than 500 children, 98% of them white.
Arts and Letters
Painting: In a frenzy of activity, Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) finishes several famous paintings, including "The Starry Night," one of his last works.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) writes "The Master of Ballantrae."
Harrison, Caroline
Electric lights are installed at the White House, but President Benjamin Harrison (1831-1901) and his wife, Caroline (1832-1892) refuse to touch the swithces, so the lights must be turned on by an employee at night, then turned off in the morning.
Hayes, Lucy
Lucy Webb Hayes (1831-1889) dies of a major stroke on June 25, while sewing as she watches a tennis match at Spiegel Grove, Ohio.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) tries to get Congress to appropiate funds to enlarge the White House; she fails, but does succeed in getting them to provide money for renovations.
Tyler, Julia
Julia Gardiner Tyler (1820-1889) dies of a stroke in Richmond, Virginia on July 10.
Roosevelt, Edith
Kermit Roosevelt (1889-1943), son of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt, is born October 10.
Taft, Helen
Robert Alphonso Taft (1889-1953), son of William Howard and Helen Taft, is born September 8.
Wilson, Ellen
Eleanor "Nellie" Randolph Wilson McAdoo (1889-1967), daughter of Woodrow and Ellen Wilson, is born October 16.
Fillmore, Abigail
Millard Powers Fillmore (1828-1889), son of Millard and Abigail Fillmore, dies November 15.
Economics
"The man who dies rich dies disgraced." writes steel baron and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919), displaying the contradictory attitudes towards wealth characteristic of the American Gilded Age.
Economics
Isaac Singer (1811-1875) markets an electric sewing machine.
Economics
The first anti-trust laws are passed in Kansas, North Caolina, Tennessee, and Michigan.
Daily Life
The first premixed self-rising pancake mix is marketed in the U.S.
Daily Life
Disasters: The Johnstown flood occurs in Pennsylvania.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "Wall Street Journal" begins publishing.
Daily Life
Magazines: "Cosmopolitan Magazine" is founded.
Sports
Softball: George Hancock publishes the first set of Indoor-Outdoor Baseball (softball) rules.
Sports
Women in Sports: The first women's six-day bicycle race ends at Madison Square Garden in New York City.
Sports
Football: The first All-American Football Team is chosen by coach Walter Camp (1859-1925).
Sports
Boxing: The last bare-knuckled boxing championship occurs in Mississippi.
Popular Culture
Mark Twain (1835-1910) writes "A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court."
Popular Culture
Nelly Bly (1867-1922) circles the globe in 72 days, beating by 8 days the record of the fictional Phileas Fogg in Jules Verne's "Around the World in 80 Days."
Popular Culture
John Phillip Sousa (1854-1932) composes the "Washington Post March."
Social Issues
Native Americans: Land in Oklahoma, formerly in Indian hands, is opened to white settlers; about 50,000 settlers rushed in on the first day.
Reform
Settlement House Movement: Jane Addams (1860-1935) opens Hull House in Chigago. It''s part of the settlement-house mevement to help immigrant populations adjust to American life both materially and culturally.
Reform
Women's Rights Movement: M. Carey (1857-1935) Thomas leads the group of feminists who secure admission of women students to the John Hopkins Medical School as a condition of a large gift to its endowment.
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1890
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act bans every type of restraint of trade in the United States, but the anti-monopoly law initially accomplishes little.
Government
Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks are created by an act of Congress. The national park is one sign of a developing conservation movement in the United States.
Government
Presidents: Dwight David Eisenhower (1890-1969), 34th President of the United States, is born in Denison, Texas.
Government
New State: Idaho is admitted to the Union as the 43rd state and Wyoming is admitted as the 44th state in the Union.
Government
Women's Firsts: Alice Sanger becomes stenographer for President Harrison, the first woman employed in U.S. executive offices.
War
Indian Wars: An army of about 500 United States soldiers massacres 300 Sioux Indian men, women, and children in a South Dakota encampment. The Battle of Wounded Knee is the final violent struggle between Native Americans and whites in the United States.
Medicine
Emil von Behring (1854-1917), in Germany, develops a diphtheria antitoxin.
Medicine
For the first time, rubber gloves are used in surgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore.
Medicine
Dr. Ida Gray (1868-1907) becomes the first black woman dentist in the U.S.
Medicine
The standardization of diphtheria antitoxin establishes the field of immunology.
Inventions
Pans made from aluminum are invented in Ohio.
Technology
Airplanes: Clement Ader (1841-1926), France, builds a steam-powered, propeller-driven bat-wing airplane, the Eole. It rises about 8 inches in the air and flies 165 feet. It is the first manned aircraft to take off from level ground.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Emily Dickinson's (1830-1886) first volume of poetry is published posthumously.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Henrik Ibsen (1828-1906) writes "Hedda Gabler."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) writes "The Picture of Dorian Gray."
Ideas
William James (1842-1910) publishes "The Principles of Psychology."
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) helps raise funds for the Johns Hopkins Medical School, on the condition that they admit women.
Harrison, Caroline
With the help of Caroline Harrison, the Daughters of the American Revolution is founded in Washington, D.C.
Economics
Census: According to the 1890 census, the total population in the United States is nearly 63 million people.
Economics
Anti-trust laws are passed by 11 more states.
Economics
Ladybugs are imported to control insects threatening California's citrus trees.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Convicted murderer William Kemmler (1861-1890) becomes the first person to be executed in the electric chair as he is put to death at Auburn State Prison in New York.
Daily Life
German drug manufacturer Eugene Schieffelin introduces starlings to New York City. Today, starlings are one of the most common urban bird species in the United States.
Daily Life
Fashion: American women begin to wear knickerbockers for bicyclce riding.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Modern newspaper features include bold "banner" headlines, extensive use of illustrations, "funny pages," plus expanded coverage of organized sporting events.
Daily Life
The General Federation of Women's Clubs is founded.
Sports
Women in Sports: Baseball: The Bloomer Girls baseball era lasted from the 1890s until 1934. Hundreds of teams -- All Star Ranger Girls, Philadelphia Bobbies, New York Bloomer Girls, Baltimore Black Sox Colored Girls -- offered employment, travel, and adventure for young women who could hit, field, slide, or catch.
Popular Culture
The first moving picture shows (movies) are shown in New York City.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Sitting Bull (Tatanka Iyotake) (1831-1890), the chief who led the Sioux Indians at the Battle of Little Big Horn against Lt. Col. George Custer (1839-1876), is killed. He dies while resisting arrest by Indian police.
Social Issues
Child Labor: Almost 23,000 children work in the factories of 13 southern states.
Reform
Civil Rights Movement: Mississippi institutes a poll tax, literacy tests, and other measures to prevent blacks from voting. This marks the end of the political freedoms freed slaves had enjoyed during federal Reconstruction.
Reform
Labor Movement: United Mine workers of America is founded.
Reform
Poverty: New York photographer and social critic Jacob Riis (1849-1914) publishes "How the Other Half Lives," documenting the everyday poverty in the slums of New York City; the book is instrumental in forging a coalition of reform in the years of the Progressive Movement.
1891
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The newly established U.S. Circuit Courts of Appeals ease the load of the Supreme Court.
Politics
Exiles from the Ottoman Empire, called Young Turks, meet in Geneva. The Young Turks later become the architects of Turkey's nationalist movement.
Government
Hawaii proclaims as its Queen Liliukalani (1838-1917), renowned for her song "Aloha Oe."
Government
The Forest Reserve Act enables the President to reserve public lands for national parks.
Medicine
The American Psychological Association is founded.
Medicine
Chicago's Provident Hospital becomes the first interracial hospital in the United States.
Inventions
American, W.L. Judson invents the zipper, though it is not widely used until 1919.
Technology
The submarine, "Monarch," lays telephone cable along the English Channel bed to prepare for the first telephone links across the Channel.
Technology
Wireless telegraphy begins.
Technology
Airplanes: Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896) begins to test winged gliders, made from cloth stretched over willow frameworks.
Technology
Airplanes: Samuel Langley, Virginia, begins to experiment with steam-powered model aircraft he calls Aerodromes. The first five are failures.
Education
Higher Education: The University of Chicago is founded. The new Midwestern university, which sets out to lure academic stars away from the Northeast, gets its intial endowment from oil magnate John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937).
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Emily Dickinson's 1830-1886) "Poems: Second" is published in 1891 and runs to five editions by 1893.
Arts and Letters
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) conducts part of the first concert in brand new Carnegie Hall.
Arts and Letters
Literature: English author Thomas Hardy's (1840-1928) classic, "Tess of the d'Urbervilles," is published.
Cleveland, Frances
Ruth Cleveland "Baby Ruth" (1891-1904), daughter of Grover and Frances Cleveland, is born.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) designs the corn-and-flower pattern of the White House china used during her husband's administration.
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) gives the first public address ever made by an incumbant First Lady on October 21.
Polk, Sarah
Sarah Childress Polk (1803-1891) dies at Polk Place in Nashville at the age of eighty-seven.
Taft, Helen
Helen Herron Taft Manning (1891-1987), daughter of William Howard and Helen Taft, is born August 1.
Roosevelt, Edith
Ethel Carow Roosevelt Derby (1891-1977), daughter of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt, is born August 13.
Economics
The United States' first full-service advertising agency opens in New York City.
Sports
The first marathon race is run in Massachusetts; it is 26 miles, 385 yards, the same distance run in 490 B.C. to carry the new of an Anthenian victory over the Persians.
Popular Culture
Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) publishes "The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes."
Popular Culture
Madison Square Garden is designed by Stanford White (1853-1906).
Popular Culture
Henri Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) paints his first music hall posters.
Religion
Ann Spencer becomes an ordained minister of the Unitarian Church, serving in Providence, RI.
Social Issues
Native Americans: More Indian Territory land is opned to the public for settlement.
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1892
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Grover Cleveland (1837-1906) is re-elected as the 24th President of the United States, and Adlai Stevenson (1835-1914) is elected the nation's 23rd Vice President.
Politics
Third Parties: Angry Southern and Western farmers found the Populist Party at a convention in Omaha, Nebraska. Their candidate for President, James Weaver (1833-1912) wins 9 percent of the vote and receives 22 electoral votes.
Government
Immigration: The Chinese Exclusion Act is extended for ten years.
Medicine
American School of Osteopathy opens in Missouri. The practice spreads rapidly and in most states is granted legal recognition identical with that of allopathic medicine.
Inventions
Gottlieb Daimler (1834-1900) invents the carburetor.
Inventions
The Ferris Wheel is invented by George W.G. Ferris (1859-1896) for the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago.
Inventions
The first escalator, The Reno Inclined Elevator, is patented by Jesse W. Reno (b. 1861) of New York.
Technology
The first electric car is driven from Des Moines, Iowa to Chicago, Illinois.
Technology
The first automated telephone swithcboard is introduced
Technology
Airplanes: Wilbur (1867-1912) and Orville Wright (1871-1948) purchase "safety bicycles" and open a sales and repair shop. They give a bicycle to their friend, Paul Laurence Dunbar (1872-1906).
Technology
Artifical textile fibers, later named Rayon, are improved.
Education
Public Education: The National Education Association establishes what becomes known as the Committee of Ten to study the function of the American high school.
Education
The International Kindergarten Union, an organization of kindergarten teachers, is founded in the U.S.
Arts and Letters
Tchaikovsky's (1840-1893) "The Nutcracker" ballet is performed in St. Petersburg.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Edna St. Vincent Millay (1892-1950) publsihes her first collection of poetry.
Ideas
Charolette Perkins Gilman (1860-1935) publishes her short story, "The Yellow Wallpaper."
Harrison, Caroline
Caroline Harrison (1832-1892) dies of tuberculosis in the White House on October 25, at the age of 60.
Economics
Boll weevils invade from Mexico and infest most of the South's cotton crop.
Economics
The Ohio Supreme Court outlaws John D. Rockefeller's (1839-1937) Standard Oil Trust under the Sherman Anti-Trust Act. But Rockafeller simply re-incorporates in New Jersey, where corporations are allowed to hold other companies, and keeps his company under the new name Standard Oil of New Jersey.
Daily Life
Melba toast is named for opera singer Nellie Melba (1861-1931).
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: Lizzie Borden (1860-1927) is acquitted in the ax murder of her parents; it is one of America''s first sensational trials.
Daily Life
Fire seriously damages New York's original Metropolitan Opera House, located at Broadway and 39th Street.
Daily Life
Crime and Punishment: The Dalton Gang, notorious for its train robberies, is practically wiped out while attempting to rob a pair of banks in Coffeyville, Kansas.
Sports
Women in Sports: The journal Physical Education (a publication of the YMCA) devote an issue to women, saying that women need physical strength and endurance and dismis the popular idea that women are too weak to exercise.
Sports
Boxing: "Gentleman Jim" Corbett (1866-1933) wins the heavyweight boxing title by defeating John L. Sullivan (1858-1918); the fight is the first under the new Marquis of Queensbury rules.
Popular Culture
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) publishes "Barrack-Room Ballads," that include "Gunga Din" and "The Road to Mandalay."
Social Issues
Immigration: Ellis Island replaces Castle Garden as the receiving place immigrants to the United States.
Reform
Temperance Movement: Carrie Nation (1846-1911) begins her violent fight for temperance legislation, often taking an ax to saloons.
Reform
Labor Movement: Steelwokers at one of Andrew Carnegie's (1835-1919) mills in Homestead, Pennsylvania, go on strike because manager, Henry Clay Frick (1849-1919), refuses to grant them a union contract. The workers lose after five months in one of the owrst defeats the American Labor movement has ever suffered.
Reform
Environmental Movement: The Sierra Club organizes to protect America's enviroment.
1893
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Immigration: The Chinese Exclusion Act is declared constitutional by the Supreme Court.
Government
Hawaii is proclaimed a republic; it is annexed by treaty to the U.S. in February; in March, the treaty is withdrawn.
Government
France acquires a protectorate over Laos and governs it as part of Indochina.
Government
The rank of Ambassador is created by Congress under the Diplomatic Appropriations Act.
Government
A second Irish Home Rule bill is passed by the British House of Commons but rejected in the House of Lords.
Government
Congress defeats an attempt to switch the U.S. to the metric system.
Government
Stamps: The first U.S. commemorative stamps are issued. They depict scenes of Columbus' voyage to America.
Government
Grover Cleveland (1837-1906) is inaugurated as the 24th President of the United States, and Adlai Stevenson (1835-1914) is inaugurated the nation's 23rd Vice President.
Science
The length of the meter is standardized using a measurement based on the wavelength of red cadmium light.
Science
A forerunner to the theory of relativity is set forth by physicists George Fitzgerald, Jr. (1851-1901) and Hendrik Lorenz (1853-1928), stating that objects get smaller as they approach the speed of light.
Science
The "Journal of Geology" is founded by Thomas C. Chamberlin (1843-1928).
Inventions
Henry Ford (1863-1947) builds his first successful gasoline engine.
Inventions
Chemist Leo H. Baekeland (1863-1944) develops "Velox," the first photographic paper sensitive enough to be printed by artificial light.
Inventions
Karl Benz (1844-1929) builds a four-wheel car.
Technology
Chlorine is first used to treat sewage in Brewster, New York.
Technology
Airplanes: Hiram Maxim (1840- 1916) predicts that even "under the most unfavorable circumstances, aerial navigation will be an accomplished fact inside of ten years."
Technology
Airplanes: Lawrence Hargrave (1850-1915), Australia, invents the box kite. Because it is remarkably stable and generates large amounts of lift, it creates a sensation in aeronautical circles. It's general form influences all early airplane designers.
Education
Public Education (1893-1913): Size of school boards in the country's 28 biggest cities is cut in half. Most local district (or "ward") based positions are eliminated, in favor of city-wide elections. This means that local immigrant communities lose control of their local schools. Makeup of school boards changes from small local businessmen and some wage earners to professionals (like doctors and lawyers), big businessmen and other members of the richest classes.
Education
Women's Colleges: Mt. Holyoke Seminary becomes Mt. Holyoke College.
Education
Lillian Wald (1867-1940) organizes Home nursing classes for immigrant families in New York City.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) writes "A Woman of No Importance."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Henry Blake Fuller (1857-1929) publishes "The Cliff-Dwellers," considered to be the first American novel about the city.
Arts and Letters
Opera: Englebert Humperdinck composes the opera "Hansel and Gretal."
Arts and Letters
Italian actress Eleanora Duse (1858-1924) makes her debut in New York City.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Stephen Crane's (1871-1900) first novel, "Maggie: A Girl Of The Streets," (1893) is a milestone in the development of literary naturalism.
Arts and Letters
Willa Catha (1873-1947) becomes a regular contributor to the "Nebraska State Journal"; she begins to review plays and write a Sunday column. She is also managing editor of "The Hesperian" and contributes numerous pieces.
Ideas
Matilda Gage publishes her classic feminist analysis, "Women, Church, and State."
Ideas
"The Psychic Mechanism of Hysterical Phenomena" is published by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and Josef Breuer (1842-1925), laying the foundations of psychoanalysis.
Ideas
Psychologist Milicent Washburn Shinn (1858-1940) publishes "Notes on the Development of a Child."
Hayes, Lucy
Rutherford B. Hayes (1822-1893), 19th President of the U.S., dies January 17 at Spiegel Grove in Fremont, Ohio.
Cleveland, Frances
Esther Cleveland (Bosanquet) (1893-1980), daughter of Grover and Frances Cleveland, is born September 9.
Economics
Railroad History: On May 10th locomotive #999 of the New York Central & Hudson River RR hauled four heavy Wagner cars of the Empire State Express down a 0.28% grade at record-braking speed.
Economics
A financial panic in the U.S. is touched off because gold reserves fall below $90 million.
Economics
L C. Tiffany (1838-1933) develops fervile glass, an elegant type of stained glass with which he makes screens, lampshades, and other items.
Discovery
The World Columbian Exposition opens in Chicago and celebrates the 400th anniversary of the discovery of America.
Sports
Boxing: The longest recorded boxing match occurs in New Orleans between Andy Bowen and Jack Burk; it lasts for 110 rounds, 7 hours, 4 minutes.
Sports
A relay race is first run at the University of Pennsylvania.
Sports
Ice hockey is introduced from Canada at Yale and Johns Hopkins Universities.
Sports
The first cross-country skiing competition for women takes place in Sweden.
Sports
Baseball: The stories differ, but some time during these years baseball meets the hot dog and an American classic is born.
Popular Culture
The words to "America the Beautiful" are written by Katherine Lee Bates (1859-1929).
Popular Culture
Having killed him off in "The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes," Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) is subjected to major public outrage and demands that the detective be brought back to life.
Popular Culture
Calamity Jane (1848-1903) tours Europe and the U.S. in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show.
Popular Culture
Mildred Hill (1859-1916), from Kentucky, publsihes her song, "Good Morning to All"; Robert H. Coleman adds a second verse beginning, "Happy Birthday to You."
Social Issues
Native Americans: Cherokee land between Kansas and Oklahoma is declared open to settlement.
Reform
Settlement House Movement: Lillian Wald (1867-1940) and Mary Brewster found the Henry Street Settlement on the lower east side of New York City, providing, among other things, visiting nursing to poor families.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: Colorado adopts suffrage for women.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: New Zealand adopts suffrage for women.
Reform
The first World Congress of Women is held in Chicago.
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1894
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
French army Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) is arrested for treason; he is convicted "in camera," and deported to Devil's Island, French Guiana. This case, widely known as the "Dreyfus Affair," is, in part, an example of anti-Semitic persecution.
Government
Nicholas II (1868-1918) becomes the last czar of Russia.
Government
Congress passes the first graduated income tax law as part of the Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act, which lowers tariffs.
War
The Sino-Japanese War over control of Korea begins.
Science
Florence Bascom (1862-1945) becomes the first woman elected as a fellow of the Geological Society of America.
Science
Lord Rayleigh (1842-1919) and William Ramsay (1852-1916) discover argon.
Science
The Lowell Observatory is built in Flagstaff, Arizona.
Medicine
Alexander Yersin (1863-1943) and Kitasato Shibasaburo (1853-1931) independently discover the plague bacillus.
Medicine
The Boston Board of Health begins medical examination of school-children.
Medicine
The first effective antitoxin against diphtheria is developed by Anna Wessel Williams (1863-1954).
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) demonstrates the kinetoscope, a device for peep-show viewing using photographs that flip rapidly in sequence.
Inventions
Louis Lumiere (1864-1948) invents the cinematograph.
Inventions
A small hand-powered submarine is launched by inventor Simon Lake (1866-1945).
Inventions
Rudolf Diesel (1858-1913) invents the diesel engine.
Technology
Airplanes: Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896) is regularly making glides of over 1000 feet. He begins to outfit his gliders with a "rebound bow" at the front to absorb the shock of a rough landing. It saves his life on at least one occasion.
Education
Children’s Books: Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) uses his own upbringing in India for his Mowgli stories in "The Jungle Book."
Education
Libraries: North Carolina A&T State University's Bluford Library is founded in Greemsboro.
Education
Women's Colleges: Radcliffe College recieves its formal charter as a women's college associated with Harvard University; Elizabeth Agassiz (1822-1907) becomes its first president.
Education
Women's Colleges: Martha Carey Thomas (1857-1935) becomes president of Bryn Mawr College.
Education
Ellen Gates Scott, co-founder of Hull House, founds the Chicago Public School Art Society in an effort to keep great art before the eyes of slum dwellers.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) writes "Arms and the Man."
Arts and Letters
Jean Silbelius (1865-1957) composes "Finlandia."
Arts and Letters
Debussy (1862-1918) composes "The Afternoon of a Fawn" (L'Apres-midi d'un faune).
Arts and Letters
Literature: "The Prisoner of Zenda" is published by English author Anthony Hope (1863-1933).
Arts and Letters
Literature: The character of the hypnotist Svengali is introduced in the novel, "Trilby," by George du Maurier (1834-1896).
Arts and Letters
Emily Dickinson's (1830-1886) two volumes of letters, heavily edited and selected, are published.
Roosevelt, Edith
Archibald "Archie" Bulloch Roosevelt (1894-1981), son of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt, is born April 9.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Comics first appear in Sunday newspapers.
Sports
Horse Racing: The New York Jockey Club is founded.
Sports
A committee is established to organize the modern Olympic Games.
Sports
Golf: The United States Golf Association is founded.
Sports
Women in Sports: Golf: The first Australian women''s national golf championship is held.
Popular Culture
Mark Twain (1835-1910) publishes "Tom Sawyer Abroad" and "The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson."
Religion
Children’s Books: Talbot Baines Reed (1852-1893) bibliographer whose twenty-plus books include "The Master of the Shell," written for the Religious Tract Society.
Religion
The World's Young Women's Christian Association (WYWCA) is founded in Geneva, Switzerland.
Reform
A band of unemployed men led by Jacob S. Coxey (1854-1951) engages in a march on Washington to petition Congress for public works projects to help the jobless. Coxey is arrested for trespassing and the "army" disbands.
Reform
Labor Movement: In a year of major labor unrest, Eugene V. Debs (1855-1926) leads the American Railway Union in support of Pullman strikers; railroad traffic out of Chicago comes to a halt; federal troops break the strike; Debs is jailed.
1895
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
In "Pollack v. Farmers Loan and Trust Company," the Supreme Court finds the income tax unconstitutional.
Law
Labor Movement: The Supreme Court upholds the use of the injuction as a strike-breaking device.
Government
The British South Africa Company territory south of Zambezi becomes Rhodesia.
War
The Sino-Japanese War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
Science
Wilhelm Rontgen (1845-1923) discovers x-rays.
Science
The Yerkes Observatory is established at Lake Geneva, Wisconsin.
Medicine
A group of black doctors form the National Medical Association, asserting that their interests are not being met by the American Medical Association.
Medicine
Alexander Yersin (1863-1943) develops a serum to fight bubonic plague.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Lillian Murray (1871-1960) becomes Britain's first woman dentist.
Medicine
Elizabeth Blackwell (1821-1910) publishes "Pioneer Work in Opening the Medical Profession to Women."
Inventions
The safety razor is invented by King C. Gillette (1855-1932).
Inventions
Italian physcist Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) invents a wireless telegraph system.
Technology
The Lumiere brothers (Auguste (1862-1954) and Louis (1864-1948) are granted a patent in France for the earliest movie projectors. In March, thry first demonstrate motion pictures using celluloid film in Paris.
Technology
Pneumatic (air-filled) tires are produced by the Hartford Rubber Works in Connecticut.
Technology
Airplanes: Percy Pilcher, Scotland, builds a glider, the Bat. Visits Otto Lilienthal and asks for advice. Makes suggested improvement and flies the Bat. Builds two more gliders, the Beetle and the Gull, making improvements on each one.
Education
Libraries: The Astor and Lenox libraries and the Tilden Trust merge to form the New York Public Library.
Education
Troy Female Seminary becomes the Emma Willard School.
Education
Higher Education: The London School of Economics and Political Science is founded.
Arts and Letters
Painting: The Art Nouveau style of painting is fashionable.
Arts and Letters
Dance: The first complete performance of the ballet, "Swan Lake," by Tchaikosvky (1840-1893) occurs in St. Petersburg.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Stephen Crane (1871-1900) publishes "The Red Badge of Courage."
Arts and Letters
Painting: Impressionist art is introduced to the U.S.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) writes the play "The Importance of Being Earnest."
Ideas
Thomas Masaryk (1850-1937) publishes "The Czech Question."
Ideas
Volume 3 of "Das Kapital" by Karl Marx (1818-1883) is published posthumously.
Cleveland, Frances
Marion Cleveland (Dell Amen) (1895-1977), daughter of Grover and Frances Cleveland, is born July 7.
Economics
Railroad History: The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad begins using electric locomotives.
Economics
The commercial production of pasteurized milk is begun by Lewis B. Halsey (1851-1919).
Economics
Sears Roebuck Company opens a mail-order business.
Economics
Women''s Firsts: Florence Kelley (1859-1932) becomes the first woman to head a state factory-inspection service.
Daily Life
Magazines: "Field and Stream" magazine begins publication.
Daily Life
The first national organization of Black women's clubs, the National Federation of Afro-American Women, is organized by Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin, Mary Church Terrell, Fannie Barrier Williams, and Margaret Washington.
Sports
Women in Sports: Annie Smith Peck is the first woman to reach the peak of the Matterhorn. She climbed in a pair of knickerbockers, causing a sensation with the press. She helps to found the American Alpine Club in 1902.
Sports
The American Bowling Congress is established to govern the game.
Sports
Football: The first professional football game is played in the U.S. at Latrobe, Pennsylvania.
Sports
Golf: The first U.S. Open Golf Championship is held.
Popular Culture
Katharine Lee Bates(1859-1929) publishes "America the Beautiful."
Popular Culture
H.G. Wells (1866-1946) writes "The Time Machine."
Popular Culture
The first public film show occurs in Paris at the Hotel Scribe.
Religion
The National Baptist Convention if the U.S.A. is founded by the merger of Negro Baptist groups.
Religion
Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) publishes "The Woman's Bible."
Reform
Settlement House Movement: Lillian D. Wald(1867-1940) founds a nurses' settlement on Henry Street in New York City.
Reform
Civil Rights Movement: Ida B. Wells (1862-1931) publishes her famous work on lynching, "Red Record," the first comprehensive work on the topic supported by statistical data.
Reform
Settlement House Movement: Jane Addams (1860-1935) publishes "Hull House Maps and Papers," a detailed study of conditions of Chicago immigrants served by the settlement house.
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1896
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Education: In "Plessy v. Ferguson," the Supreme Court rules that "separate but equal" facilities for whites and blacks are constitutional; the ruling marks the beginning of the "Jim Crow" era, legalizing segregation and forming the central legal basis for school segregation in the United States.
Politics
Third Parties: William Jennings Bryan (1860-1925) gives his "Cross of Gold" speech at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago; he is nominated for president by both the free-silver democrats and the Populist Party.
Politics
William McKinley (1843-1901) is elected the 25th President of the United States, and Garrett A. Hobart (1844-1899) is elected the nation's 24th Vice President.
Government
Rural free mail delivery is established.
Government
New State: Utah becomes the 45th state in the Union; it reinstates women's suffrage, which was lost in 1887.
Government
Stamps: Rural free delivery beings bringing mail to homes in the country.
Science
Ohio physicist Wallace Sabine (1868-1919), develops a reverberation equation that becomes the basics of acoustics.
Science
Swedish anatomist, Magnus G. Retzius (1842-1919), publishes "The Human Brain," the most complete work in his topic today.
Science
Helium is discovered by William Ramsey (1852-1916).
Science
Radioactivity is discovered by Frech physicist A. H. Becquerel (1852-1908).
Science
Lord Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937), English chemist, discovers alpha and beta waves.
Inventions
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) invents the flouroscope and the flourescent lamp.
Inventions
American, H. O'Sullivan invents the rubber heel.
Technology
Airplanes: Percy Pilcher builds a much-improved glider, the Hawk, and glides up to 750 feet. He plans a powered version
Technology
H.L. Smith takes the first X-ray photograph, a hand with a bullet in it.
Education
Public Education: Plessy v. Ferguson decision. The U.S. Supreme Court rules that the state of Louisiana has the right to require "separate but equal" railroad cars for Blacks and whites. This decision means that the federal government officially recognizes segregation as legal. One result is that southern states pass laws requiring racial segregation in public schools.
Arts and Letters
Opera: "La Boheme," by Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), is performed in Turin.
Arts and Letters
The last of the Gilbert and Sullivan operettas, "The Grand Duke," is performed in London.
Arts and Letters
John Phillips Sousa (1854-1932) composes "The Stars and Stripes Forever."
Arts and Letters
Drama: Anton Chekhov (1860-1904) write the play "The Seagull."
Arts and Letters
Edward Elgar (1857-1934) composes "Enigma Variations."
Arts and Letters
Literature: Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916) publishes "Quo Vadis."
Arts and Letters
German opera singer Lilli Lehmann (1848-1929) debuts in Prague, Danzig, and Leipzig, and receieves a lifetime appointment at the Royal Opera in Berlin.
Ideas
The Nobel Prizes are established in physics, phisiology and medicine, chemistry, literature, and peace.
Tyler, Letitia
John Tyler, Jr. (1819-1896), son of John and Letitia Tyler, dies January 26.
Economics
The Wright brothers begin to manufacture their own bicycles.
Economics
Successful off-shore oil wells are drilled near Santa Barbara, California.
Economics
A hydroelectric plant opens in Niagara Falls.
Daily Life
The tootsie roll is introduced by Leo Hirschfield.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Harriet Hubbard Ayer(1849-1903) joins the New York World as a beauty columnist, becoming the first coordinator of a "women's page."
Daily Life
Fanny Farmer (1857-1915), principal of the Boston Cooking School, publsihes "The Boston Cooking School Cookbook," which introduces precise measurement and instructions to cooking; revisions of the cookbook, which is renamed "The Fanny Farmer Cookbook," make the cook book a standard throughout the 20th century.
Daily Life
"Book" matches become popular.
Daily Life
The History of Toys: A westernized version of the Indian game Parcheesi is introduced in England under the name Ludo.
Sports
Women in Sports: Susan B. Anthony says that "the bicycle has done more for the emancipation of women than anything else in the world."
Sports
Women in Sports: Basketball: Women play in their first intercollegiate basketball game, between the University of California at Berkeley and Stanford University; no males were allowed at the Berkeley game.
Sports
The first modern Olympic Games open in Athens, Greece.
Sports
The first U.S. hockey league, The Amateur Hockey League, is established in New York City.
Sports
Athlete James B. Connolly (1870-1916) becomes the first Olympic champion in 1500 years at the revival of the Olympic Games in Athens.
Popular Culture
The first close-up, prolonged embrace on the movie screen, The John Rice-May Irwin Kiss, scandalizes audiences across the country.
Popular Culture
Motion pictures are introduced into vaudeville shows.
Popular Culture
Women’s Firsts: Alice Guy Blaché (1873-1968), the first American woman film director, shoots the first of her more than 300 films, a short feature called La Fee aux Choux (The Cabbage Fairy).
Religion
The Mormon Church abandons polygamy, the practice of a man having more than one wife.
Religion
Former baseball player Billy Sunday (1862-1935) begins a career of evangelism, preaching at 300 revivals and to 100 million people before his death in 1935.
Social Issues
Poverty: The Volunteers of America is founded by Salvation army leader Maud Charlesworth Booth (1865-1948).
Reform
Labor Movement: The Union for Industrial Progress is organized by Mary Morton Kehew (1859-1918) and Mary Kenney (O'Sullivan)(1864-1943) to support bookbinders, laundry and tobacco workers, and women clothing workers.
1897
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The Supreme Court supports the Sherman Antitrust Act.
Law
Women's Firsts: Sophonisba Preston Breckeridge (1866-1948) is the first women to be admitted to the Kentucky bar.
Politics
Mathieu Dreyfus (1857-1930) discovers that the document on which his brother, Alfred (1859-1935), was convicted was actually written by Major M. C. Esterhazy.
Government
William A. McKinley (1843-1901) is inaugurated as the 25th President of the United States, and Garrett A. Hobart (1844-1899) is inaugurated as the nation's 24th Vice President.
Government
Immigration: President McKinley (1843-1901) vetoes a bill that would require literacy tests for immigrants.
Government
This year marks Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, marking her 60th year as Queen of Great Britain.
Science
Marie Curie (1867-1934) publsihes her first paper, on the magnetism of tempered steel, the year her daughter, Irene, was born.
Science
Scottish physicist Joseph J. Thompson (1884-1956) discovers the electron.
Science
Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), who later achieved prominance as a children's author, discovers that lichen is not a kind of plant, but a symbiotic relationship between algae and fungi; her discovery would not be accepted for another decade
Medicine
The malaria bacillus is discovered by Ronald Ross (1857-1932).
Medicine
The bacterium that causes dysentery is discovered by Japanese bacteriologist Shiga Kiyoshi (1871-1951).
Medicine
Dutch physician Chistiaan Ejikman (1858-1930) determines that the disease beriberi is caused by dietary deficiency.
Medicine
America's first hospital for crippled children opens in St. Paul, Minnesota.
Inventions
The oscilloscope is invented by Karl F. Braun (1850-1918).
Inventions
African American Inventors: Andrew Beard (c.1849-1910), patents an improvement to railroad car couplers, called the Jenny Coupler, which did the dangerous job of hooking railroad cars together.
Technology
The first full-length x-ray of a human body is produced by William Morton (1819-1868).
Technology
The world's largest telescope (40 inch lens) is installed at Yerkes Observatory.
Technology
A 36-foot long gasoline powered submarine, the Argonaut II, with wheels for rolling along the ocean floor, in launched.
Technology
The first practical subway is completed in Boston.
Education
The National Congress of Mothers, forerunner of the National Parent-Teacher Association, is founded by Pheobe Apperson Hearst (1842-1919) and Alice McLellan Birney (1858-1907).
Education
Education of Women: John Hopkins University's medical school becomes the first major American medical school to admit women, after recieving a large contribution from Mary Elizabeth Garrett (1854-1915) on the condition that it do so.
Arts and Letters
Women’s Firsts: H.H.A. Beach's (1867-1944) "Gaelic Symphony" is the first symphony by a woman performed in the United States, and possibly the world.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) writes "Captain's Courageous."
Arts and Letters
Drama: Edmund Rostand (1868-1918) writes and produces the play "Cyrano de Bergerac" in France.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) writes the play, "Candide."
Ideas
Havelock Ellis (1859-1939) writes "Studies in the Psychology of Sex."
Ideas
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) defines the "Oedipus Complex" and suggests that dreams play an important psychological role.
Cleveland, Frances
Richard Folsom "Dick" Cleveland (1897-1974), son of Grover and Frances Cleveland, is born October 28.
Harrison, Caroline
Elizabeth Harrison Walker (1897-1955), daughter of Benjamin and Caroline Harrison, is born February 21.
Roosevelt, Edith
Quentin Roosevelt (1897-1918), son of Theodore and Edith Roosevelt, is born November 19.
Taft, Helen
Charles Phelps Taft (1897-1983), son of William Howard and Helen Taft, is born September 20.
Economics
American Money: A National Monetary Commission meets at Indianapolis and endorses the existing gold standard.
Economics
Marconi (1874-1937) achieves radio tansmission over long distances and establishes the Wireless Telegraph Company.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first American comic strip, the "Katzenjammer Kids," is begun by Rudolph Dirks (1877-1968).
Daily Life
Sophie Levy Lyons (1848-1924) adandons a successful acreer as a famous international bank robber to become the first society columnist in the U.S.
Daily Life
Novelist Willa Cather (1873-1947) begins her career as a newspaperwoman in Pittsburgh
Sports
Softball: Softball becomes international with the creation of a league in Toronto, and the publication of the Indoor Baseball Guide.
Sports
Women in Sports: The first Women's French Tennis Championship is held.
Sports
Boxing: In the first boxing match to be photographed with a moving picture camera, Corbett (1866-1933) is defeated by Bob Fitzsimmons (1863-1917) in a 14-round bout.
Popular Culture
Bram Stroker, Jr. (1847-1912) publishes "Dracula."
Reform
Abolition Movement: Harriet Tubman (c.1820-1913) wins a $20 per month pension for her Civil War service to the Union.
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