Beginning Year:       Ending Year:      
1730
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The city of Baltimore is founded in the colony of Maryland.
Arts and Letters
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) pokes fun at witchcraft in a newspaper article entitled, “A Witch Trial at Mount Holly.”
Economics
William Parks of Maryland establishes a printing press in Virginia.
Economics
U.S. Population: The population in the colonies is estimated at 655,000.
Daily Life
A Freemason Lodge is established in Philadelphia.
Daily Life
Fashion: Hoop skirts that extend sideways instead of in a circle become popular in England.
Daily Life
Fashion: Both men and women begin wearing white stockings, made of silk or cotton.
Religion
John Wesley (1703-1791) and Charles Wesley (1707-1788) found the Methodist sect in Oxford, England.
Religion
Judaism: The first Jewish Congregation in the colonies forms a congregation.
Religion
First Great Awakening: The Log College, established in New Jersey by Presbyterians engaged in the evangelical movement known as the First Great Awakening, provides stimulus to the movement.
1731
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Work is begun on building No. 10 Downing Street as the residence of British prime ministers.
Science
Mark Catesby (1683-1749), English naturalist, publishes "The National History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands," with 100 engravings of American birds.
Inventions
English mathematician John Hadley (1682-1744) invents a quadrant for use at sea.
Education
Libraries: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) founds a circulating library in Philadelphia, the Library Company of Philadelphia.
Education
Welsh educator Bridget Vaughan (1698-1779) founds several schools in Wales.
Education
Education of Women: Laura Bassi (1711-1778) receives a doctorate in Italy and teaches anatomy and experimental physics.
Arts and Letters
Drama: George Lillo's (1693-1749) "The London Merchant" is the first serious play with a lower-class hero.
Washington, Martha
Martha Dandridge (1731-1802), is born on June 2 at Chestnut Grove plantation on the Panumkey River in New Kent County,near Williamsburg, VA.
Daily Life
Dr. John Arbuthnot advocates dieting.
Daily Life
Work is begun on building Independence Hall in Philadelphia.
Popular Culture
Public concerts are held in Boston and Charleston, S.C.
Religion
Anti-Semitism: All Hebrew books in the Papal State are confiscated.
Reform
Labor Movement: English factory workers are forbidden to emigrate to America.
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1732
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
James Oglethorpe (1696-1785) receives a charter to found a colony in Georgia.
Government
Presidents: George Washington (1732-1799), first President of the United States, is born on February 22 in Virginia.
Education
Higher Education: A department of mathematics and natural philosophy (science) is established at Harvard by Issac Greenwood (1702-1745).
Education
Libraries: Louis Timothee is hired by Ben Franklin’s Library Company of Philadelphia as the first professional librarian in the United States.
Education
Education of Women: Mme. de Lambert (1647-1733) recommends a university education for women.
Arts and Letters
Music: Covent Garden Opera House is opened in London.
Economics
Transportation: The first stagecoach line, between Burlington and Amboy, NJ, is established.
Sports
The game of ninepins (bowling) is played for the first time in New York City.
Popular Culture
A theatrical company from London performs for the first time in New York City.
Popular Culture
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) begins publishing "Poor Richard’s Almanack" (for the year 1733.
Religion
Anti-Semitism: Anti-Jewish laws in Rome are renewed by Pope Clement XII.
Religion
The first mass in the only Catholic church in the colonies is celebrated in Philadelphia.
1733
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Latin is abolished in the English courts.
Government
England passes the Molasses Act, which places heavy taxes on molasses, rum and sugar imported to the colonies.
Government
James Oglethorpe (1696-1785) founds the last of the 13 colonies, named Georgia in honor of King George II; he also founds the city of Savannah.
Medicine
Epidemic: The first serious outbreak of influenza sweeps through New York City and Philadelphia; about three-fourths of the population is affected.
Inventions
John Kay (1704-c.1764) patents a flying shuttle loom.
Inventions
Chester Moor Hall (1703-1771) invents the achromatic lens refracting telescope.
Education
Charter schools for Protestants only are founded in Ireland.
Arts and Letters
Essay: Alexander Pope (1688-1744) writes his "Essay on Man," including the words, “Hope springs eternal in the human breast.”
Ideas
Francois Marie Arouet de Voltaire’s (1694-1778) "Letters Concerning the English Nation" is written, helping to define the liberal spirit of the Enlightenment.
Daily Life
The Society of Freemasons establishes its first American lodge in Boston.
Daily Life
The first polar bear is exhibited in America, in Boston.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The New York "Weekly Journal" is published by John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), opposing policies of the colonial government.
Religion
The Corporation for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England is founded.
Religion
First Great Awakening: Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) preaches on “The Great Awakening” in New England—a religious revival that emphasizes man’s sinful nature.
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1734
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
The role of pollen and various plant organs in the sexual reproduction of corn is described by James Logan (1654-1751), secretary to William Penn (1644-1718).
Arts and Letters
Charles de Secondat, Baron of Montesquieu (1689-1755) publishes "Considerations on the Causes of the Greatness of the Romans and Their Decline."
Ideas
Voltaire’s (1694-1778) "Lettres philosophiques" attack established religion and argue for religious tolerance; a warrant is issued for his arrest.
Daily Life
Newspapers: In November, New York newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger (1697-1746) is arrested and accused of seditious libel by the Governor.
Sports
Horse Racing: The first horse race in America is held in Charleston Neck, SC.
Religion
George Sale (1697-1736) translates the Koran into English.
Religion
8,000 Protestants from Saltzburg settle in Georgia.
1735
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Presidents: John Adams (1735-1826), 2nd President of the U.S., is born on October 30, in Massachusetts.
Science
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish botanist, devises a classification method for plants and animals.
Inventions
George Hadley (1685-1768), English meteorologist, invents the Hadley Cell, a model of the Earth’s wind circulation.
Arts and Letters
Opera: The first opera performed in the colonies, “Flora,” opens in Charleston, South Carolina.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The “Evening Post” begins publishing in Boston.
Daily Life
Women’s status in the colonies changes due to increasing wealth. Newspapers tell of runaway wives and elopements.
Daily Life
Newspapers: John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), printer and publisher of the "New York Weekly Journal," is acquitted of seditious libel in a landmark trial for freedom of the press.
Religion
John Wesley (1702-1791) writes his “Journals.”
Religion
The first Moravian (United Brethern) community is established at Savannah, Ga.
Reform
Temperance Movement: The sale of spirits (liquor) is prohibited in Georgia (until 1742).
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1736
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
English statutes against witchcraft are repealed.
Science
Anders Celsius (1701-1744) shows that the Earth’s poles are somewhat flat.
Medicine
The first accurate and detailed description of scarlet fever is given.
Medicine
Claudius Aymand (1660-1740) performs the first successful operation for appendicitis.
Arts and Letters
Charles Theodore Pachelbel (1690-1750) gives organ concerts in New York City, brings the Bach tradition to the New World.
Economics
French engraver and type founder Pierre-Simon Fournier (1712-1768) sets up a foundry in Paris.
Economics
Transportation: Regular stagecoach line service begins between Boston and Newport, RI.
Religion
Pope Clement XII (1652-1740) condemns Freemasonry.
Religion
The first Protestant missions are established at the Cape Colony in South Africa.
Social Issues
Poverty: Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (1660-1744) builds the Marlborough Almshouses.
1737
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
William Byrd (1674-1744) founds the city of Richmond, VA.
Inventions
John Harrison (1693-1776) invents the first stable nautical chronometer, thereby allowing for precise longitude determination while at sea.
Arts and Letters
Lexicographer Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) arrives in London.
Economics
American Money: Copper money is first coined in Connecticut; the coins are stamped “I am good copper,” and “Value me as you will.”
Religion
John Wesley’s (1702-1791) "Psalms and Hymns" is published in Charleston.
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1738
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
Maria Agnesi (1718-1799), publishes essays on science and philosophy.
Science
Joseph Breintnall, a member of Franklin's Library Company, describes the aurora borealis.
Science
Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) examines fluid flow in "Hydrodynamica."
Medicine
John Lining (1708-1760) records daily weather observations and theorizes that weather affects—and may cause—certain diseases.
Medicine
Epidemic: A smallpox epdemic begins in South Carolina.
Inventions
The bottle opener is invented.
Arts and Letters
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) writes the "B minor Mass."
Ideas
Voltaire (1694-1778) brings the ideas of Isaac Newton (1642-1727) to France.
Economics
The first successful glass factory is founded in Salem county, New Jersey.
Economics
U.S. Population: Population in the colonies is estimated at 800,000.
Daily Life
The first cuckoo clocks appear in the Black Forest.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Elizabeth Timothy (?-1757) begins publishing the weekly newspaper, the "South Carolina Gazette."
Daily Life
Umbrellas come into use, despite much religious opposition, especially among Quakers.
Daily Life
Dancing: Strict codes of behavior in New England begin to relax somewhat; the teaching of French dancing is allowed.
Religion
The Great Awakening: John Wesley (1702-1791) and George Whitefield (1713-1779) immigrate to Georgia as leaders of the “Great Awakening.”
Religion
Selina Hastings, (1707-1791), founds many chapels and begins a training college for Methodist ministers at Trefecca House.
Religion
In French Canada, Marguerite D’Youville (1701-1771) founds the Soeurs Grises (Gray Nuns), an order of uncloistered nurses who visited and cared for the sick in their homes; she also founded La Creche d’Youville, a home for abandoned children.
1739
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
War of Jenkins' Ear: England declares war on Spain; border skirmishes erupt between colonists in South Carolina and Georgia and the Spanish in Florida.
Medicine
A Foundling Hospital is established in London.
Medicine
Epidemic: A measles epidemic breakes out in Boston.
Ideas
David Hume (1711-1776) writes “A Treatise on Human Nature.”
Economics
Josiah Wedgewood (1730-1795) begins working in the family business in England.
Discovery
Jean-Baptiste Lozier Bouvet (1705-1786) discovers Bouvet Island, near Antarctica.
Daily Life
The first camellias arrive in Europe from Far East.
Popular Culture
American music is influenced by the appearance of the American edition of Watts’ "Hymns and Spiritual Songs."
Religion
The Moravian Church is founded in America by Bishop A. G. Spengenberg (1704-1792).
Religion
Moravians introduce Saint Nicholas as a central feature of Christmas celebrations.
Social Issues
Slavery: Violent uprisings by black slaves occur on three separate occasions in South Carolina.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: "Women Not Inferior to Men" is published anonymously in England, probably written by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762).
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1740
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Frederick the Great (1712-1786) introduces freedom of the press and freedom of worship in Prussia.
Science
John Winthrop (1714-1779) observes and describes a transit of Mercury and a lunar eclipse.
Science
Anders Celsius (1701-1744) builds the Uppsala observatory in Sweden.
Technology
Jacques de Vaucanson (1709-1782) demonstrates his clockwork powered carriage.
Technology
English inventor Benjamin Huntsman (1704-1776) improves “crucible” process for smelting steel.
Education
African American Education: Hugh Bryan, wealthy Presbyterian, opens a school for African Americans in Charleston, SC.
Arts and Letters
Georg Frederic Handel’s (1685-1759) "Water Music" is published.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) publishes "Pamela," considered the first English novel.
Discovery
George Anson (1697-1762) sets out on a voyage around the world.
Daily Life
Disasters: A great fire destroys half of Charleston, SC.
Religion
The Great Awakening: Large numbers of women join churches during the Great Awakening of the 1740s. Some have called this the “feminization of the church.”
Religion
The Great Awakening: Open-air preaching, the charismatic phenomena, and the involvement of the poor all gain more public attention for this movement. Support comes from most American Protestant denominations, but not from Anglicans.
Social Issues
Slavery: Fifty black slaves are hanged in Charleston, SC, after plans for a revolt are found.
Social Issues
Slavery: Slaves are prohibited from using drums because they are a means of communication.
1741
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
Astronomer Elizabeth Pinckney (1722-1793) sights a comet whose appearance was predicted by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727).
Arts and Letters
George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) writes "The Messiah" in 18 days.
Arts and Letters
Drama: English actor David Garrick (1717-1779) makes his first appearance as Richard III in London.
Ideas
Essay: David Hume (1711-1776) publishes his "Essays: Moral and Political."
Discovery
On the last of a series of expeditions, Danish Captain Vitus Bering (1681-1741) discovers Alaska.
Daily Life
Magazines: One of the first magazines in the colonies, Benjamin Franklin’s "The General Magazine and Historical Chronicle for All the British Plantations in America," goes on sale; it lasts for six months.
Religion
The Great Awakening: Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) delivers the sermon “Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God” at Enfield, MA.
Social Issues
Slavery: A second slave uprising takes place in New York; 26 slaves are killed and 71 deported.
Reform
Labor Movement: The first labor strike occurs in New York City when bakers protest the regulation of the price of bread.
Reform
Temperance Movement: Drunkenness is so prevalent that each colony has laws to control drinking. Boston posts the names of drunkards.
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1742
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
John Winthrop (1714-1779) begins 21 years of recording weather observations three times a day.
Science
Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli (1667-1748) publishes work on integral calculus.
Inventions
Swiss astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744) invents the centigrade thermometer.
Education
Education of Women: Moravians (Church of the United Bretheran) found a school in Germantown, Pa. (later Bethlehem); this will grow into the Moravian Seminary for Young Females (from 1805, the Young Ladies Seminary), one of the earliest American girls’ boarding schools.
Arts and Letters
Georg Frederic Handel’s (1685-1759) "The Messiah" is performed in Bethlehem, PA.
Arts and Letters
Architecture: Artist John Smibert (1688-1751) draws plans for Boston’s Faneuil Hall.
Economics
The fishing industry grows in New England; there are nearly 1,000 fishing boats.
Daily Life
An edition of "The Complete Housewife," an English cookbook by Eliza Smith, appears in Williamsburg. VA.
Religion
John Wesley (1703-1791) publishes his first collection of hymns, encouraging congregational singing.
1743
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Presidents: Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), 3rd U.S. President, is born in Virginia.
Government
Democracy: The first American town meeting is held in Boston’s Faneuil Hall.
Science
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) establishes the American Philosophical Society in Philadelphia to promote colonial science.
Economics
The first settlement is made in South Dakota.
Economics
Handkerchiefs are first manufactured in Paisley, Scotland.
Economics
French trappers reach Santa Fe and begin limited trade with the Spanish.
Discovery
French explorers reach the Rocky Mountains.
Sports
Boxing: The earliest recorded rules for boxing (or prize fighting) are formulated.
Religion
“The Christian History,” the first religious journal in the colonies, is published in Boston.
Social Issues
Immigration: A “pesthouse” is established in Philadelphia to quarantine immigrants.
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1744
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Native Americans: The Iroquois Confederation cedes the Ohio Valley territory north of the Ohio River to England.
Inventions
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) invents the Pennsylvania Fireplace (or Franklin Stove) which provides much more heat on much less fuel than regular fireplaces.
Arts and Letters
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) edits Cato’s "Cato Major" in Philadelphia.
Arts and Letters
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) completes Part 2 of "The Well-Tempered Clavier."
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Smith (1744-1818) is born on November 11, in Weymouth, MA.
Economics
Elizabeth (Eliza) Pinckney (1722-1793) develops indigo as a commercial crop in the Carolinas.
Economics
Rubber is first used in Europe about this time.
Discovery
George Anson (1697-1762) returns from trip around the world.
Sports
Cricket: The first recorded cricket match is held in England.
Popular Culture
“God Save the Queen” is published in Thesaurus Musicus.
1745
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
Women''s Firsts: Higher Education: Laura Bassi (1711-1778) lectures on physics at the University of Bologna, becoming the first woman physics professor at any university.
Medicine
Thomas Cadwalader (1708-1779) publishes America’s first medical pamphlet describing the treatment of lead poisoning caused by drinking rum distilled in lead pipes.
Inventions
Ewald Georg von Kleist (1700-1748), invents the capacitor.
Education
Higher Education: Yale College, Connecticut, receives a new royal charter.
Ideas
The writings of Charles de Secondat (1689-1755), Baron of Montesquieu appear in American periodicals, influencing the formation of the Constitution.
Daily Life
“The Campbells Are Coming,” Scottish national song, is published.
Daily Life
Dancing: The quadrille becomes a fashionable dance in France.
Daily Life
The first meeting of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows takes place in England.
Popular Culture
Men and women make Whist a popular card game.
Religion
Judaism: Jews are expelled from Prague.
Religion
The first carillon in America is installed in the belfry of Christ Church, Boston.
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1746
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
Charles Edward Stuart (1720-1788), the “Young Pretender” of Scotland, wins a victory at Falkirk, but is defeated finally at Colloden; with the help of Flora MacDonald he escapes to France.
Science
Benjamin Franklin (1705-1790) explains weather patterns, pressure systems, and water spouts. He begins his experiments with electricity.
Education
Higher Education: The College of New Jersey is founded; it becomes Princeton University in 1896.
Arts and Letters
Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) contracts for "A Dictionary of the English Language."
Ideas
Denis Diderot (1713-1784) publishes "Pensées philosophiques."
Daily Life
Wearing of the tartan is prohibited in Great Britain until 1782.
Popular Culture
Lucy Terry's (c. 1730-1821) "Bars Fight" is published; it is the earliest existing poem by an African-American.
Religion
First Great Awakening: The establishment of the College of New Jersey (later, Princeton University) owes something to graduates of the Log College, founded in 1726 to train evangelical ministers during the First Great Awakening.
1747
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
The first legal society, the New York Bar Association, is founded in New York City.
Science
German chemist A. S. Marggraf (1709-1782) discovers sugar in beetroot.
Science
Mark Catesby (1683-1749) publishes "On Migration," writing about migrating birds; he is later called the “Father of American Ornithography.”
Medicine
James Lind (1716 – 1794) discovers that citrus fruits prevent scurvy.
Medicine
Epidemic: A measles epidemic sweeps through Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina.
Arts and Letters
Poetry: English poet Thomas Gray (1716-1771) publishes "Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College," containing the lines, “Where ignorance is bliss,/’Tis folly to be wise.”
Arts and Letters
Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) publishes “A Plan of a Dictionary of the English Language.”
Arts and Letters
William Stith (1689-1755) publishes "The History of the First Discovery and Settlement of Virginia," one of the most accurate accounts of a colonial settlement, covering the years to 1624.
Economics
The Ohio Company is formed to extend colonial settlements of Virginia westward; rivalry for the West, especially for the upper Ohio Valley, increases between France and Great Britain.
Popular Culture
The Drury Lane Theatre begins to flourish under David Garrick (1717-1779).
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1748
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Halifax, Nova Scotia, is founded by the British.
Science
John Mitchell (1690-1768) is the first to accurately describe the lifestyle and pouch of the opossum.
Science
Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) relates the functions of unknown quantities in equations.
Science
Maria Agnesi (1718-1799) discusses analysis in "Instituzioni Analitiche ad Uso della Gioventu Italiana."
Medicine
English physician John Fothergill (1712-1780) describes diphtheria.
Education
Libraries: A circulating library opens in Charleston, SC.
Ideas
Charles de Secondat, Baron of Montesquieu (1689-1755), publishes his "Spirit of Laws."
Ideas
David Hume (1711-1776) publishes "An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding."
Jefferson, Martha
Martha Wayles (1748-1782), is born on October 30 in Charles City County, Virginia.
Economics
Platinum arrives in Europe from South America.
Economics
The Dutch begin to trade on Africa’s east coast.
Discovery
Excavation begins at Pompeii.
Sports
Cricket: Court of King’s Bench rules that “cricket is a legal sport.”
1749
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Georgia becomes a Crown Colony.
Inventions
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) invents the lightning rod, installing one on his Philadelphia house.
Education
Special Education: Giacobbo Rodriguez Pereira (1715-1780) invents sign language for deaf-mutes.
Education
Children''s Books: Sarah Fielding (1710-1768), sister of Henry Fielding (1707-1754), publishes "The Governess," the first English novel written expressly for children.
Education
Higher Education: The Philadelphia Academy is founded; it becomes the University of Pennsylvania in 1791.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Henry Fielding (1707-1754) writes "A History of Tom Jones, a Foundling."
Ideas
Education of Women: Dorothea Erxleben (1715-1762) publishes "Rational Thoughts on Education of the Fair Sex," advocating university study for women.
Economics
The Ohio Company makes its first settlement around the forks of the Ohio River.
Social Issues
Slavery: Black slavery is legalized in Georgia.
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1750
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The British Parliament passes The Iron Act, limiting the growth of the iron industry in the American Colonies
Science
Higher Education: Maria Agnesi (1718-1799) is named honorary professor of mathematics at the University of Bologna
Science
Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762), French astronomer, plots 10,000 Southern Hemisphere stars.
Science
Thomas Wright (1711-1786) discusses galaxies and the shape of the Milky Way in "An Original Theory or New Hypothesis of the Universe."
Education
Education of Women: The word "bluestocking," is used as a put-down for learned women
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Thomas Gray (1716-1771) writes "Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard."
Arts and Letters
Neoclassicism as a reaction against baroque and rococo styles spreads over Europe.
Ideas
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) attacks science and art as tools of the rich in "Discours sur les sciences et les arts."
Ideas
David Hume (1711-1776) publishes "Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals."
Washington, Martha
Martha Dandridge (1731-1802) marries Daniel Parke Custis (1711-1757).
Economics
The first American coal mine opens on the James River in Virginia.
Economics
Movable type for printing music comes into use.
Economics
The population of Europe is approximately 140 million.
Economics
U. S. Population: Over a million people live in colonial America.
Daily Life
Transportation: The river flatboat and the Conestoga wagon first appear in Pennsylvania.
Sports
Cricket: The Humbledon Cricket Club is founded in England.
Sports
Horse Racing: The English Jockey Club is founded in London to promote the sport of horse racing.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: The first playhouse opens in New York City.
Religion
The Great Awakening: The first Great Awakening ends when Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) is forced to resign from his church in Northampton, MA because of his emphasis on the sinful nature of man.
Reform
American Protest Music: “Yankee Doodle” is written during the American Revolution by Dr. Richard Schuckburg.
1751
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Britain passes the British Calendar Act, which places England and its colonies on the Gregorian Calendar beginning in 1752.
Government
Presidents: James Madison (1751-1836), fourth President of the U.S., is born in Port Conway, Virginia.
Science
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1791) publishes "Experiments and Observations on Electricity," using the terms positive and negative for the first time.
Education
Higher Education: Calculus is introduced into the Harvard curriculum by John Winthrop, Jr.
Education
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) helps found the first “English Academy” in Philadelphia.
Washington, Martha
Daniel Parke Custis, Jr. (1751-1754), first son of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, is born.
Economics
The Ohio Company actively colonizes in the Ohio Valley.
Economics
The first sugar cane grown in America is introduced in Louisiana by Catholic missionaries; it is used to make a kind of rum.
Daily Life
The 4th edition of Hannah Glasse’s (1708-1770) cookbook is printed.
Daily Life
Dancing: The minuet becomes Europe’s fashionable dance.
Sports
Cricket: The first cricket match is held in New York City.
Popular Culture
Tobias Smollett (1721-1771) writes "The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle."
Reform
Mental Health Movement: The first mental asylums appear in London.
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1752
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Great Britain adopts the Gregorian calendar on Sept. 14 (Sept. 3-13 is omitted).
War
French and Indian: The French begin building forts across Pennsylvania and into Ohio to stop British invasion of their territory.
Science
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) performs his famous kite experiment, proving that lightning is electricity.
Science
René Antoine Réaumur (1683-1757) identifies gastric juices and their role in digestion.
Medicine
Thomas Bond (1712-1784) establishes the first general hospital in the colonies in Philadelphia, treating all except those with incurable or infectious diseases.
Ideas
David Hume (1711-1776) writes "Political Discourses."
Economics
An early fire insurance company is founded in Pennsylvania by Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790).
Religion
Missionaries first arrive at the Cape Colony, South Africa.
1753
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) and William Hunter are appointed as postmasters general for the American Colonies.
War
French and Indian: French troops from Canada seize the Ohio Valley in action leading up to the French and Indian War.
Science
Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) publishes "Species Plantarum," establishing the names of plant species.
Medicine
John Lining (1708-1760) publishes a detailed description of yellow fever.
Education
Museums: The British Museum in London is granted a royal foundation charter, and begins its collection with 50,000 volumes, thousands of manuscripts, coins, and other artifacts left to England by London physician Sir Hans Slone.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Charlotte Lennox’s (1720-1804) "Shakespear Illustrated," a pioneering study of Shakespeare’s sources, is published.
Washington, Martha
Frances Parke Custis (1753-1757), first daughter of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, is born.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: First steam engine arrives in the colonies from England.
Daily Life
The Liberty Bell is recast after it arrived from Europe with a crack in it; it cracked again after this casting.
Sports
Horse Racing: The Jockey Club establishes a permanent track for horse racing at Newmarket, in London.
Religion
Judaism: English Act of Parliament permits naturalization of Jews.
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1754
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
French and Indian: The French and Indian War begins as Britain declares war on France in the American colonies.
Science
Scottish chemist Joseph Black (1728-1799) discovers carbonic acid gas.
Medicine
Women's Firsts: Dorothea Erxleben (1715-1762) graduates from the University of Halle, the first woman to obtain a medical degree from a German university.
Medicine
James Lind (1716-1794) publishes a paper that proves that citrus juice can be an effective way to combat scurvy.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Benjamin Bannecker (1731-1806) makes the first clock built entirely in America.
Education
Higher Education: King’s College in New York City is founded; it becomes Columbia University in 1784.
Arts and Letters
Architecture: The Winter Palace in St. Petersburg is completed by Italian architect Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700-1771).
Washington, Martha
Daniel Parke Custis, Jr. (1751-1754), son of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, dies.
Washington, Martha
John "Jacky" Parke Custis (1754-1781), second son of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, is born.
Sports
Golf: St. Andrew’s Royal and Ancient Golf Club is founded in Scotland.
1755
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
French and Indian: British General Edward Braddock (c.1695-1755) takes command of all English forces in America during the French and Indian War. He is mortally wounded in an ambush near Fort Duquesne in western Pennsylvania.
War
French and Indian: Twenty-three year-old George Washington (1732-1799) assumes command of the retreating army of British and colonial troops
Technology
The first steam engine in America is installed to pump water from a mine.
Education
Higher Education: The first Russian institution of higher education, Moscow State University, is founded
Arts and Letters
Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) begins his work on "The Dictionary of the English Language."
Ideas
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778), publishes his "Discourse upon the Origin and Foundation of Inequality Among Mankind" (Second Discourse).
Daily Life
Maps of Virginia and the Middle British Colonies are printed.
Daily Life
Sir Harry Frankland (1716-1768) marries his mistress, Agnes Surriage (1726-1783), according to legend, after she saves him from being buried alive following an earthquake.
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1756
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
120 British soldiers are imprisoned and die in India (“Black Hole of Calcutta”).
War
French and Indian: The French and Indian War is formally declared; the French under General Louis Montcalm (1712-1759) capture and destroy British colonial Fort Oswego in New York and drive Britain from the Great Lakes in North America.
Ideas
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) writes "Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful."
Washington, Martha
Martha "Patsy" Parke Custis (1756-1773), second daughter of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, is born.
Economics
Transportation: A stagecoach line is established between Philadelphia and New York City
Economics
The first chocolate factory is opened in Germany.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "New Hampshire Gazette," one of the longest running newspapers in America, is established.
Daily Life
Louis François du Plessis, the Duc de Richelieu (1696-1788) invents mayonnaise.
Daily Life
Fashion: Cotton velvets are first made in England.
1757
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
William Pitt (1708-1778) becomes England's Secretary of State.
Government
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) is sent to London as a representative of the Pennsylvania legislature to negotiate for the heirs of William Penn.
War
French and Indian: William Pitt (1708-1778) escalates the War in the colonies by establishing a policy of unlimited warfare.
Ideas
David Hume (1711-1776) publishes "The Natural History of Religion."
Washington, Martha
Frances Parke Custis (1753-1757), first daughter of Martha and Daniel Parke Custis, dies.
Washington, Martha
Daniel Parke Custis (1711-1757) dies, leaving Martha a 26-year-old widow with two young children.
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799) acquires Mount Vernon.
Daily Life
The first street lights—whale-oil lamps designed by Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)—are used on a few streets in Philadelphia.
Popular Culture
The first public concert is held in Philadelphia.
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1758
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Presidents: James Monroe (1758-1831) 5th President of the U.S., is born on April 28, in Westmoreland County, Virginia.
War
French and Indian: English forces at Lake George, New York, lose nearly two thousand men during a frontal attach against well-entrenched French forces at Fort Ticonderoga; French losses are 377.
War
French and Indian: George Washington (1732-1799) and General John Forbes (1710-1759) take Fort Duquesne, later renamed Pittsburgh.
Inventions
A hose-knitting machine is invented.
Inventions
John Dolland (1706-1761) reinvents the achromatic lens.
Education
African American Education: A school for Negroes is established in Philadelphia by the Anglican missionary group.
Arts and Letters
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) writes his first symphony.
Washington, Martha
Martha Dandridge Custis (1731-1802) becomes engaged to George Washington (1732-1799).
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: An Act of Parliament establishes the Middleton Railway in Leeds.
Daily Life
Native Americans: Molly (Mary) Brant (c.1736-1796), a Mohawk woman, becomes the partner of Sir William Johnson. She is largely responsible for the alliance between the Iroquois and the British.
Daily Life
Native Americans: A raiding party consisting of French and Shawnee warriors takes Mary Jemison (1743-1833) captive. She adopts Native American customs, which she retains all her adult life.
Popular Culture
The first English manual on playing the guitar is published.
Social Issues
Native Americans: The first North American Indian reservation is established on 3,000 acres in New Jersey.
1759
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
French and Indian: The French surrender to the British at Quebec.
Medicine
Epidemic: A measles epidemic breaks out all over North America, wherever white people live.
Education
Museums: The British Museum is opened at Montegu House.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Voltaire (1694-1778) writes "Candide."
Washington, Martha
Martha Dandridge Custis (1731-1802) marries George Washington (1732-1799). The family moves first to Williamsburg, and then to Mount Vernon.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Smith (1744-1818) is received into her father’s Congregational Church in Weymouth on June 24. Later that summer, she meets John Adams (1735-1826) in her father’s parsonage.
Economics
Irish brewer Arthur Guinness (1725-1803) establishes a brewery in Dublin that will become the world’s largest
Economics
Colonial shipbuilders are producing nearly 400 vessels each year.
Economics
Thomas Penn (1702-1775) and Richard Penn establish the first recorded life insurance company, the Presbyterian Ministers fund, in Philadelphia.
Religion
Judaism: Architecture: Peter Harrison (1716-1775) designs the first U.S. synagugue, the Touro synagogue in Newport, RI.
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1760
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
George III (1738-1820) becomes King of Great Britain, Ireland, and the 1.6 million colonists living in America.
War
French and Indian: British General Lord Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797) captures Montreal and ends French resistance in Canada; France cedes Quebec to England.
Medicine
New York requires that all physicians and surgeons pass a test and be licensed to practice medicine.
Inventions
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) invents the first bifocal lenses for eye glasses.
Education
Special Education: The first British school for the deaf is opened by Thomas Braidwood (1715-1806), in Edinburgh.
Education
African American Education: The Bray School for African-American children is established in Williamsburg.
Education
Higher Education: College of William and Mary students petition for better food; they ask for salt and fresh meat for dinner, and desserts 3 times a week.
Arts and Letters
The Royal Society of the Arts is founded in London.
Jefferson, Martha
Thomas Jefferson (1723-1826) enters the College of William and Mary in Virginia.
Economics
Josiah Wedgewood (1730-1795) founds a pottery works at Etruria, Staffordshire, England.
Economics
U.S. Population: The population in the American colonies is estimated at 1.6 million.
Economics
Watermarks are used in woven paper.
Daily Life
Fashion: The first silk hats appear in Florence Italy.
Sports
The first roller skates are introduced in London by musical instrument maker Joseph Merlin (1735-1803).
Popular Culture
The rules of Whist (later to be bridge) are laid down by Edmund Hoyle (1672-1769).
1761
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
James Otis (1725-1783) opposes British writs of assistance, claiming they violate the natural rights of the British colonials.
War
French and Indian: General Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797) forbids presents of food and arms to Indians in the French and Indian War.
War
French and Indian: The Iroquois present a war belt to the Detroit Indians, but it is rejected.
Science
Russian scientist and poet Mikhail V. Lomonosov (1711-1765) discovers the atmosphere of Venus.
Science
Josef Kobreuter, German botanist, recognizes the role of the wind and insects in the pollination of plants.
Science
Chemist Joseph Black (1728-1799) discovers that ice absorbs heat without changing temperature when melting.
Medicine
Epidemic: An epidemic of influenza breaks out in North America and the West Indies.
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799) begins experimenting with crop rotation, soil fertilization, and livestock management and breeding at Mount Vernon.
Daily Life
The earliest recorded American folk ballad, “Springfield Mountain” is sung in New England.
Social Issues
Slavery: Women''''s Firsts: Slavery: The first black American poet, Phillis Wheatley (c. 1753-1784) is bought as a young child off a Boston slave ship.
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1762
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Catherine the Great (1729-1796) begins her 34-year reign as Empress of Russia.
Inventions
John Harrison (1693-1776), English inventor, builds a marine chronometer.
Education
Libraries: Higher Education: The library of the Sorbonne is opened in Paris.
Education
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) publishes "The Emile," his major treatise on education.
Ideas
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) publishes "The Social Contract."
Economics
Cast iron is converted into malleable iron for the first time in Scotland.
Economics
Ethan Allen (1738-1789) establishes an ironworks and blast furnace in Connecticut which will make many of the cannons used in the Revolutionary War.
Daily Life
Holidays: The first St. Patrick’s Day parade is held in New York City.
Religion
The Moravians publish a collection of hymns in the language of the Delaware Indians.
1763
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The British Proclamation of 1763 forbids the American colonists to settle the land beyond the Appalachian Mountains, and requires those already settled in those regions to return east in an attempt to ease tensions with Native Americans.
War
French and Indian: General Thomas Gage (1721-1787) succeeds Lord Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797) as head of British forces in America.
War
French and Indian: The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War; France cedes Canada and all its North American territories east of the Mississippi to Great Britain.
Science
Nicole-Reine Lepaute’s (1723-1768) maps and tables showing the precise times and extent of an annular eclipse of the sun across Europe is published by the Academy of Sciences for astronomers and navigators.
Medicine
America’s first medical society is formed in New London, Connecticut.
Medicine
Epidemic: A smallpox epidemic breaks out in Massachusetts.
Medicine
Claudius Aymand (1660-1740) performs the first successful appendectomy.
Technology
The technology of printing is established in all 13 colonies.
Education
Frederick the Great (1712-1786) establishes village schools in Prussia.
Ideas
Voltaire (1694-1778) writes his "Treatise on Tolerance."
Adams, Abigail
A smallpox epidemic interferes with the wedding plans of John Adams and Abigail Smith; John has himself inoculated—a risky procedure—but has only mild effects from the inoculation.
Economics
The first Chambers of Commerce are established in New York and New Jersey.
Discovery
Charles Mason (1730-1787) and Jeremiah Dixon(1733-1779) begin surveying the Mason-Dixon line.
Social Issues
Slavery: The beginning of the free Negro tradition is seen in New England; there are 5214 Negroes in Massachusetts (out of a total population of 235,810).
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1764
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
At a town meeting in Boston, James Otis (1725-1783) raises the issue of taxation without representation and urges a united response to the recent acts imposed by England.
Government
Great Britain passes the Sugar Act to raise money to pay for the French and Indian War by taxing the colonies on lumber, food, molasses, and rum.
Medicine
Epidemic: A smallpox epidemic sparks the opening of two inoculation hospitals in the Boston area.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) invents the condenser, the first step toward the steam engine.
Inventions
The spinning jenny is invented in England.
Technology
Pierre-Simon Fournier (1712-1768), French engraver and typographer, publishes a work on typefaces and printing.
Education
Higher Education: Brown University is founded in Providence, RI.
Ideas
American James Otis (1725-1783) publishes "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved."
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Smith (1744-1818) marries John Adams (1735-1826) on October 25, at her father’s parsonage in Weymouth, Massachusetts; she is nineteen and he is twenty-nine.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison’s (1768-1849) father, John Payne, and her mother, Mary Coles Payne, apply to and are accepted into the Society of Friends (Quakers).
Economics
Boston merchants begin a boycott of British luxury goods.
Economics
The first permanent settlement (as a fur-trading post) is established by the French in St. Louis.
Daily Life
The practice of numbering houses is begun in London.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "Connecticut Courant," perhaps the American newspaper in longest continuing publication, is established in Hartford, CT.
Religion
Dancing: The first minister of the Dutch Reformed Church preaches in New York City; he tries to have dancing banned in the colony.
1765
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Sir William Blackstone (1723-1780) publishes "Commentaries on the Laws of England."
Politics
Delegates from nine colonies meet to draw up a declaration of rights and liberties.
Politics
Patrick Henry (1736-1799) presents seven Resolutions to the Virginia House of Burgesses, asserting that only the Virginia Assembly can legally tax Virginia residents; he says, “If this be treason, make the most of it.”
Politics
The Sons of Liberty is formed in many colonial towns; using violence and intimidation, its members eventually force all of the British stamp agents to resign and also stop many American merchants from ordering British goods.
Government
Parliament passes the Stamp Act, taxing all colonists on every paper purchase. In addition, the Quartering Act requires colonists to house and feed British troops.
Medicine
Higher Education: John Morgan (1736-1789) establishes the first medical school in America at the College of Philadelphia.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) designs a steam engine that produces power much more efficiently than the Newcomen engine of 1712.
Technology
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) suggests preserving food by means of hermetic sealing.
Education
Higher Education: A College of New Jersey (later, Princeton) student, William Patterson, founds the first college society of arts and letters in America.
Education
Public Education: Latin schools exist in at least 40 of 140 Massachusetts communities with more than 100 families.
Education
Curriculum for well-to-do young Southerners includes Latin, Greek, Hebrew, reading, writing, arithmetic-vulgar, plane geometry, surveying, Italian bookkeeping, and navigation.
Adams, Abigail
A daughter, Abigail – Nabby (1765-1813) – is born to Abigail and John Adams on July 14.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison‘s (1768-1849) parents, John Payne and Mary Coles Payne, move to North Carolina from Virginia.
Economics
Chocolate is first made at Dorchester, Massachusetts.
Economics
Philadelphia, with its agricultural exports, shipbuilding and iron forging, is the leading economic center of the American colonies.
Daily Life
The potato is the most popular foodstuff in Europe.
Daily Life
Newspapers: Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) begins "The Providence Gazette" in Rhode Island.
Sports
Horse Racing: Horse racing becomes popular in Maryland; the course at Annapolis is one of the best in the country.
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1766
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
New York residents continue to refuse to obey the Quartering Act.
Government
Great Britain repeals the Stamp Act but declares its right to tax the colonies.
Government
The New York legislature is suspended by the British crown.
Science
Henry Cavendish (1731-1810) discovers that hydrogen is less dense than air.
Medicine
The 8-volume "Physiological Elements of the Human Body," a milestone in medicine, is published by Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777).
Inventions
Johann Zumpe (1735-1800) builds the first pianoforte in England.
Education
Higher Education: Queen's College, later Rutgers University, is founded in New Jersey as a Dutch Reformed institution.
Arts and Letters
Literature: Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) writes "The Vicar of Wakefield," a novel.
Economics
Transportation: A stagecoach line between New York City and Philadelphia advertises itself as a “flying-machine;” in good weather, trips take two days.
Discovery
Charles Mason (1730-1787) and Jeremiah Dixon (1733-1779) finish surveying the Mason-Dixon Line.
Daily Life
The first paved sidewalk is laid in Westminster, London.
Sports
The first regular fox-hunting group, The Gloucester Fox Hunting Club, is established in New Jersey.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: The first play on an American subject, "Ponteach," or "The Savages of America" is written by Major Robert Rogers (1731-1795).
Popular Culture
American Theatre: An early, permanent playhouse, the Southwark Theatre, is built in Philadelphia.
Religion
Catherine the Great (1729-1796) establishes freedom of worship in Russia.
Religion
The oldest surviving church in Manhattan, St. Paul’s Chapel, is constructed.
1767
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Boston residents agree not to import those items taxed by the Townshend Acts.
Government
With the Townshend Acts, Britain imposes taxes on imports of tea, glass, paper, and dyestuffs.
Government
Presidents: John Quincy Adams (1767-1848), sixth President of the United States, is born on July 11, in Massachusetts.
Government
Presidents: Andrew Jackson (1767-1845), seventh President of the United States, is born in Waxhaw, South Carolina on March 15.
Science
Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) proposes an electrical inverse-square law.
Inventions
The astronomer David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) invents a planetarium.
Education
The first of the weekly numbers of the "Encyclopedia Britannica" is published; 100 are planned.
Education
Higher Education: King’s College in New York City opens the second of America’s medical schools.
Education
Austrian emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) and his mother, Maria Theresa (1717-1780), introduce educational reforms.
Arts and Letters
Essay: Adam Ferguson (1723-1816) publishes "An Essay on the History of Civil Society."
Adams, Abigail
A son, John Quincy (1767-1848), is born to John and Abigail Adams on July 11th.
Jackson, Rachel
Rachel Donelson (1767-1828), is born in Virginia on June 15.
Economics
Women''s Firsts: Anne Catherine Hoof Green (c.1720-1775) takes over her late husband''s printing and newspaper business, becoming the first American woman to run a print shop.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) sails on the first circumnavigation of the world; he returns in June 1771.
Discovery
Starting in North Carolina, Daniel Boone (1734-1820) makes his first exploration west of the Appalachian Mountains, traveling along the present-day Kentucky-West Virginia border.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: The first professional production of a native play, 'The Prince of Parthia,' by Thomas Godfrey (1736-1763) is mounted in Philadelphia.
Religion
The Jesuits are expelled from Spain and France.
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1768
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
Samuel Adams (1722-1803) of Massachusetts writes a Circular Letter opposing taxation without representation.
Politics
Boston citizens refuse to quarter British troops.
Government
The Massachusetts Assembly is dissolved for refusing to assist in the collection of taxes.
Government
Native Americans: treaties are negotiated between Great Britain and the six nations of the Iroquois.
War
Revolutionary War: British troops sail to Boston, and two regiments come ashore to take up quarters in the city.
Medicine
Smallpox inoculations in Norfolk, VA cause riots.
Education
Higher Education: The medical school at Philadelphia College graduates its first physicians.
Arts and Letters
The Royal Academy is founded in London, with painter Joshua Reynolds (1723-1792) as president.
Adams, Abigail
A second daughter, Susanna (1768-1770), is born December 28 to Abigail and John Adams. The Adams family moves to Boston.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne (1768-1849) is born on May 20 in Guilford County, North Carolina.
Monroe, Elizabeth
Elizabeth Kortright (1768-1830) is born on June 30 in New York City.
Economics
Sheet music is published and sold in Boston.
Economics
Anne Catherine Green (c.1720-1775) is formally appointed provincial printer for the province of Maryland.
Discovery
Explorer James Cook (1728-1779) investigates islands in the south Pacific, and observes a transit of Venus in order to determine the size of the solar system.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The "Boston Gazette" publishes “The Liberty Song,” possibly America''s first patriotic song.
Religion
The first Methodist Church is established in New York City.
1769
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Privy Council in London decides to retain the duty on tea in the American colonies.
Government
The Virginia Assembly is dissolved.
Government
San Diego is founded by Franciscan Friar Juniper Serra (1713-1784).
Science
Charles Bonnet (1720-1793) suggests an evolutionary theory.
Science
New mathematical symbols, such as pi are introduced by Leonhard Euler (1707-1783).
Science
David Rittenhouse (1732-1796) plots the orbits of Venus and Mercury.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) patents his steam engine.
Inventions
Frenchman Nicholas Cugnot (1725-1804) builds a steam carriage.
Education
The Academie de Coiffure is established in France by Legros de Rumigny, who teaches hairdressing and wig-making skills.
Education
The first day nursery opens at Steintal, Alsace.
Education
Higher Education: Native American Education: Dartmouth College is established to educate Native Americans.
Jefferson, Martha
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) begins building Monticello in Albemarle County, Virginia.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne’s (1768-1849) father, John Payne, moves his wife and family back to his wife's family plantation at Cole's Hill, Virginia.
Economics
The first American-made printing fonts are produced by silversmith Abel Buell (1742-1822).
Economics
Henry William Stiegel (1729-1785) opens his glass works in Manheim, Pennsylvania.
Discovery
Daniel Boone (1734-1820) explores the Cumberland Gap.
Daily Life
The first lightning rod conductors are installed on high buildings.
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1770
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The British Parliament repeals the Townshend Acts, but retains the duty on tea. The Quartering Act is not renewed.
War
Revolutionary War: The “Boston Massacre” occurs.
Medicine
John Warren and several other Harvard students form a society for the secret dissection of animals; this society later becomes the Massachusetts Medical Society.
Inventions
African American Inventors: Benjamin Bannecker (1731-1806) builds a wooden clock that keeps accurate time for more than 50 years.
Education
Higher Education: The College of Charleston is established in South Carolina as the first municipal college.
Education
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) publishes a mathematics textbook, "Introduction to Algebra."
Arts and Letters
Painting: Thomas Gainsborough (1727-1788) paints “The Blue Boy.”
Ideas
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) writes "Thoughts on the Causes of the Present Discontent."
Adams, Abigail
A second son, Charles (1770-1800), is born to Abigail and John Adams on November 30. John Adams is asked to defend the British soldiers involved in the Boston Massacre; he does, and they are acquitted.
Adams, Abigail
Susanna Adams (1767-1770), second daughter of Abigail and John Adams, dies at 13 months of age on February 4. It is widely reported that she was "sickly" from birth (usually a way of saying either that the cause was an unknown infection or that no one really knew what was wrong).
Economics
U.S. Population: The American colonies’ population is estimated at 2.2 million.
Economics
"The New England Psalm Singer," by William Billings (1746-1800), marks the beginning of publishing of American compositions.
Discovery
James Bruce (1730-1794) discovers the source of the Blue Nile.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) discovers Botany Bay in Australia.
1771
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Science
Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) discovers that plants convert carbon dioxide into oxygen.
Science
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) discovers the electrical nature of the nervous impulse.
Medicine
New York Hospital is founded.
Education
The Encyclopedia Britannica publishes its first edition.
Education
An edict in Spain requires the modernization of textbooks.
Ideas
The first issue of "Transactions," the journal of the American Philosophical Society, is published.
Economics
Sir Richard Arkwright (1732-1792) produces the first spinning mill in England.
Daily Life
Quaker Susanna Wright (1697-1784) acts as a legal counselor, unofficial magistrate, and physician for her neighbors in Pennsylvania.
Religion
The first separate Baptist Association was formed at a meeting in Orange County, Virginia.
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1772
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Law
Slavery: An English court rules that a slave is free on landing in England.
Politics
Samuel Adams (1722-1803) forms the Committees of Correspondence in Massachusetts for action against Great Britain.
Politics
The Boston Assembly demands rights of colonies, threatens secession.
Science
Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) clarifies the basic principles of optics, acoustics, mechanics, and astronomy.
Science
Daniel Rutherford (1749-1819) and Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) discover nitrogen.
Science
Caroline Herschel (1750-1848), with her brother, William Herschel (1738-1822) assists in the first sightings of eight comets and 14 nebulae.
Inventions
John Hobday of Virginia, invents the threshing machine.
Education
The first schoolhouse west of the Allegheny Mountains is built in Schoenbrunn, Ohio, by Moravian missionaries.
Education
Higher Education: Education of Women: Women’s Colleges: Salem Academy is founded in North Carolina and is chartered as a college in 1866.
Arts and Letters
Painting: Charles Wilson Peale (1741-1827) completes a life-sized portrait of George Washington.
Jefferson, Martha
Martha "Patsy" Washington Jefferson Randolph (1772-1836), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born September 27.
Adams, Abigail
A third son, Thomas Boylston (1772-1832), is born to Abigail and John Adams on September 15.
Jefferson, Martha
Martha Wayles Skelton (1748-1782) marries Thomas Jefferson on New Year's Day, when she is 23.
Discovery
James Bruce (1730-1794) traces the Blue Nile to its confluence with the White Nile.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) leaves England on his second voyage; this time he approaches the Antarctic Circle.
Sports
The first military ski competitions are held in Norway.
Religion
The Inquisition is abolished in France.
1773
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The Virginia House of Burgesses appoints a Provincial Committee of Correspondence.
Politics
The Boston Tea Party takes place, dumping 340 chests of tea into Boston harbor in a protest against the duty on tea.
Government
Presidents: William Henry Harrison (1773-1841), 9th Presdident of the United States, is born on February 9 in Berkeley, Virginia.
Medicine
Mental Health Movement: An early mental hospital, the Public Hospital for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds, opens in Williamsburg, VA.
Education
Museums: The Charleston (VA) Library Society opens the first American museum of natural history.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Oliver Goldsmith (1728-1774) writes the play, "She Stoops to Conquer."
Arts and Letters
Poetry: Women''s Firsts: Women''s Firsts: Black poet Phillis Wheatley (c.1753-1784) publishes "Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral," the first published works by an African American poet.
Arts and Letters
Dance: A dance class begun in Moscow later becomes the Bolshoi Ballet Company.
Washington, Martha
Martha "Patsy" Parke Custis (1754-1773), second daughter of Martha Washington and John Parke Custis, and stepdaughter of George Washington, dies suddenly of epilepsy on June 19.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818) establishes a friendship with Mercy Warren (1728-1814), sister of James Otis (1725-1783).
Economics
Transportation: Oliver Evans (1755-1819) proposes steam-powered “horseless carriage.”
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779), captains the first ship to cross the Antarctic Circle.
Daily Life
Dancing: The waltz becomes fashionable in Vienna.
Daily Life
310 street lamps are installed and kept lighted in Boston from October to May.
Religion
Pope Clement XIV (1705-1774) dissolves the Jesuit Order.
Religion
The first annual conference of American Methodists meets in Philadelphia.
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1774
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Politics
The Virginia House of Burgesses calls a Continental Congress to meet at Philadelphia.
Government
Parliament passes the Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts); the port of Boston is closed.
Government
General Thomas Gage (1721-1787) arrives from England to be Royal Governor of Massachusetts.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington (1732-1799) orders a military campaign against the Iroquois.
Science
Johann G. Gahn (1745-1818) isolates manganese.
Science
Karl W. Scheele (1742-1786) discovers chorine and barium.
Medicine
Austrian physician Franz Mesmer (1734-1815) uses hypnosis for health purposes.
Medicine
Native Americans: Benjamin Rush (1745-1813) describes Indian medical practices.
Inventions
Scotsman James Watt (1736-1819) builds first "modern" stationary steam engine
Education
Swiss educator Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) founds a school for orphaned and neglected children in Zurich (Switzerland).
Education
Education of Women: Leonhard Usteri founds the first school for girls in Zurich, Switzerland.
Ideas
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) writes his first important work, "A Summary View of the Rights of British America."
Washington, Martha
Jacky Custis (1755-1781) leaves King's College to marry Eleanor Calvert of Maryland and settle at Abingdon, his estate up the river from Mount Vernon.
Adams, Abigail
John Adams (1735-1826) goes to the first Continental Congress.
Jefferson, Martha
Jane Randolph Jefferson (1774-1775), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on April 3.
Economics
English silversmith Hester Bateman (c. 1709-1794) registers her hallmark in London’s guildhall.
Daily Life
Magazines: The Royal American Magazine is the first to use illustrations regularly, some engravings contributed by Paul Revere (1735-1818).
Sports
Cricket: The rules for cricket are first drawn up.
Religion
The Quebec Act, to secure Canada’s loyalty to Great Britain, establishes Roman Catholicism in Canada.
Religion
Anne Lee (1736-1784) of Massachusetts settles in New York to begin a spiritualist revival (the Shakers).
1775
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Native Americans: The Continental Congress establishes a Committee on Indian Affairs, appointing commissioners to create peace treaties with the Indians.
War
Revolutionary War: England hires 29,000 German mercenaries for war in North America.
War
Revolutionary War: Fort Ticonderoga is captured from the British.
War
Revolutionary War: The American Revolution begins on April 19, with the battles at Lexington and Concord; the Battle of Bunker Hill follows shortly.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington becomes Commander-in-Chief, a navy is authorized.
Science
Joseph Priestley (1733-1804) discovers hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.
Medicine
Digitalis is used for the first time as a diuretic in dropsy (water retention in the body).
Medicine
Epidemics: A world-wide epidemic of influenza occurs.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) perfects his invention of the steam engine.
Inventions
David Bushnell (1742-1824) invents a one-man, hand-operated submarine, the “American Turtle.”
Ideas
Edmund Burke (1729-1797) writes his “Speech on Conciliation with America.”
Ideas
Patrick Henry (1736-1799) gives his famous “Give me liberty or give me death” speech.
Washington, Martha
George Washington (1732-1799) attends the Second Continental Congress, where he accepts command of the Continental Army. In December, Martha (1731-1802) joins him at his headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Jefferson, Martha
Jane Randolph Jefferson (1774-1775), second daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies at seventeen months in September.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Payne (1768-1849) attends school with her brothers at the Cedar Creek Friends meetinghouse in Virginia.
Adams, Louisa
Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775-1852) is born in London on February 12. She is the first First Lady to be born outside of the United States.
Harrison, Anna
Anna Tuthill Symmes (1775-1864) is born in Flatbrook, New Jersey on July 25.
Economics
American Money: American colonists issue paper currency for the Continental Congress to finance the Revolutionary War.
Economics
The colonies supply nearly 15% of the world’s iron.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) returns from his second voyage.
Daily Life
The song “Yankee Doodle” becomes popular as a rallying song to taunt the British.
Daily Life
Women’s Firsts: Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) became the first woman postmaster in the country (in Baltimore).
Sports
Native Americans: Indians in Florida are described as playing lacrosse, using a deerskin ball and deerskin nets on sticks.
Popular Culture
Sarah Siddons (1755-1831) appears for the first time at the Drury Lane Theatre in London.
Popular Culture
American Theatre: Colonial government regulations curb sport and entertainment during the Revolution; theatres close.
Social Issues
Slavery: Thomas Paine (1737-1806) writes "African Slavery in America."
Reform
Abolition Movement: The first abolition society in the U.S. is organized in Philadelphia by Anthony Benezet (1713-1784); Benjamin Franklin becomes its president in 1787.
Reform
Women''s Rights Movement: American political philosopher Thomas Paine (1737-1806) proposes women’s rights in an article in the Pennsylvania Magazine.
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1776
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Declaration of Independence, drafted by The Continental Congress, is signed on July 4.
Government
The Second Continental Congress names the new nation the United States of America.
War
Revolutionary War: The British army occupies New York City.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington (1732-1799) crosses the Delaware River, defeating the Hessian troops at Trenton, NJ.
Education
Higher Education: Phi Beta Kappa is founded at the College of William and Mary.
Arts and Letters
Edward Gibbon (1737-1794) writes "The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire."
Ideas
Adam Smith (1723-1790) writes "An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations."
Ideas
Thomas Paine’s (1737-1806) "Common Sense" is published.
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818) writes a letter to John in which she tells him to “remember the ladies” when writing the Declaration of Independence.
Economics
Transportation: Railroad History: English tram road is laid down with cast iron angle bars on timber ties.
Discovery
James Cook’s (1728-1779) third voyage to the Pacific begins.
Discovery
Franciscan friars Dominguez and Escalante (1769–1779) explore route from New Mexico to California.
Daily Life
Disasters: Fire destroys most of the old parts of New York City.
Religion
San Francisco is established by Spanish missionaries.
Social Issues
Native Americans: Cherokee leader Nancy (or Nanye’hi) Ward (c. 1738-1824) heads the Woman’s Council and sits as a member of the Council of Chiefs.
Reform
Women's Suffrage Movement: New Jersey grants women the right to vote (revoked in 1807).
1777
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Continental Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union.
Government
American Flag: On June 14, 1777, the Continental Congress passes the first Flag Act which states: "That the flag of the United States be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation."
War
Revolutionary War: The Marquis de Lafayette’s (1757-1834) French volunteers arrive in America.
War
Revolutionary War: British General John Burgoyne (1722-1792) is defeated and surrenders to the Americans at Saratoga, NY.
Science
Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier (1743-1794) proves that air consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen, and coins the term oxygen.
Medicine
George Washington (1732-1799) orders his soldiers to be inoculated against smallpox.
Arts and Letters
Drama: Playwright Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816) writes the comedy "The School for Scandal."
Jefferson, Martha
The only Jefferson son was born May 28 and died a short while later on June 14. Over the course of time, this child's name has been lost.
Economics
Women''s Firsts: Baltimore postmaster Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) is the first person to print the Declaration of Independence.
Daily Life
Women’s Firsts: Mary Katherine Goddard (1738-1816) became the first printer to offer copies of the Declaration of Independence that included the signers' names.
Religion
The New Testament of the Bible is published in English for the first time in America.
Religion
The chapel of the San Juan Capistrano mission, the oldest building still in existence in California, is built.
Social Issues
Slavery: Vermont abolishes slavery, becoming the first colony to do so.
Social Issues
Civil Rights Movement: New York enfranchises all free propertied men regardless of color or prior servitude.
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1778
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Congress ratifies a treaty with France and rejects a British peace offer.
Government
Slavery: An Act of Congress prohibits the import of slaves into the U.S.
War
Revolutionary War: British Tories and Indians massacre inhabitants of Wyoming Valley, PA and Cherry Valley, NY.
War
Revolutionary War: Mary McCauley (1754-1832) (Molly Pitcher), carries water to American soldiers during the Battle of Monmouth; she then mans her husband’s cannon when he is killed.
Medicine
William Brown (1748-1792), Virginia physician, publishes "Pharmacopoeia," a guide to medicines and drugs.
Inventions
Joseph Bramah (1748-1814) from Yorkshire constructs an improved water closet (toilet).
Education
Phillips Andover Academy is founded in Massachusetts, with a broader curriculum than the Latin Grammar School.
Adams, Abigail
A sixth child is stillborn to Abigail (1744-1818) and John Adams (1735-1826).
Jefferson, Martha
Mary "Polly" "Maria" Jefferson (1778-1804), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on August 1.
Economics
American Money: The dollar sign ($) is created by Oliver Pollack.
Discovery
James Cook (1728-1779) discovers Hawaii (then called the Sandwich Islands).
Social Issues
Native Americans: Frances Slocum (1773-1847) is captured by Delaware Indians; she is discovered in 1835 but refuses to return to her family, preferring to die where “the Great Spirit will find me.”
Social Issues
Slavery: Rhode Island forbids the removal of slaves from the state.
Social Issues
Slavery: Virginia prohibits the importation of slaves.
1779
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
Revolutionary War: John Paul Jones (1747-1792) makes his famous statement, “I have not yet begun to fight!” aboard the American warship Bonhomme Richard.
War
Revolutionary War: The British surrender to Americans at Vincennes.
Medicine
Lazzaro Spallanzani (1729-1799) studies the role of semen in fertilization.
Education
Higher Education: Under Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), William and Mary College creates schools of medicine, law and modern languages, and pioneers in a system allowing students to choose courses.
Education
Public Education: Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) proposes a two-track educational system, with different tracks in his words for "the laboring and the learned." Scholarship would allow a very few of the laboring class to advance, Jefferson says, by "raking a few geniuses from the rubbish."
Daily Life
The first “velocipedes” (bicycles) appear in Paris.
Daily Life
Political cartooning blossoms in England with satires of King George III (1738-1820) drawn by James Gillray (1756-1815).
Sports
Horse Racing: Quarter-mile horse races become popular around Charlottesville, VA.
Sports
Horse Racing: The Derby is established at Epsom racetrack in England.
Religion
John Murray (1741-1815) establishes the First Universalist congregation at Gloucester, Massachusetts.
Religion
The Great Awakening: Olney Hymns are published; it includes the original form of “Amazing Grace,” written by John Newton (1725-1807), a converted slave trader.
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1780
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The capital of Virginia is moved to Richmond.
Science
The American Academy of Sciences is founded in Boston.
Medicine
The Philadelphia Humane Society is established to teach first aid (reviving drowning victims). Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) proposes mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Inventions
The circular saw is invented by Gervinus.
Inventions
Scheller invents the first fountain pen.
Technology
Battery Technology: The modern battery development dates as far back as the late 18th century. The cause was championed by the work carried out by Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) from 1780 to 1786.
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth I (1780-1781), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on November 3.
Economics
Population: U.S. population is estimated at 2.7 million.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first Sunday newspapers appear in London.
Daily Life
Dancing: The bolero, a lively Spanish dance, is introduced by Sebastian Cerezo.
Sports
Cricket: The first six-seamed cricket ball is manufactured in England.
Social Issues
Slavery: Delaware makes it illegal to enslave imported Africans.
Social Issues
Slavery: Pennsylvania begins gradual emancipation of slaves.
Social Issues
Slavery: Women''s Firsts: Elizabeth Freeman (1742-1829), great-grandmother of W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963) and the first slave to be emancipated in the American colonies is given her freedom in Massachusetts.
1781
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Thomas Barclay (1728-1793) is appointed as the first diplomat of the Continental Government, representing the new nation in France.
War
Revolutionary War: The American Revolution ends when British General Charles Cornwallis (1738-1805) surrenders to General George Washington (1732-1799) at Yorktown, Virginia.
Science
Astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822) discovers the planet Uranus.
Education
Johann Pestalozzi (1747-1827) writes his educational aims in the novel, "Leonard and Gertrude."
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth I (1780-1781), fourth daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies 5 months after birth on April 15, perhaps as a result of exposure to wintry cold as she fled with her family from the British.
Washington, Martha
John "Jacky" Parke Custis (1754-1781), second son of Martha Washington and stepson of George Washington, dies of dysentery while serving under Washington during the Revolutionary War. The Washingtons take his two younger children, George Washington Parke Custis and Eleanor (Nelly) Custis, to raise.
Economics
Blue laws get their name in New Haven, CT, when a town ordinance printed on blue paper prohibits work on Sunday.
Economics
Construction begins on the Siberian highway.
Economics
The Bank of North America is chartered.
Economics
American Money: Also to support the Revolutionary War, the continental Congress charters the Bank of North America in Philadelphia as the nation's first "real" bank.
Religion
Franciscan monks settle at Los Angeles.
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1782
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
The Great Seal of the United States is adopted.
Government
Presidents: Martin Van Buren (1782-1862), 8th President of the United States, is born on December 5 in Kinderhook, New York.
War
Preliminary peace negotiations between England and the United States occur in Paris.
War
Congress passes a national conscription act to require “each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the republic” to serve in the U.S. militia.
Medicine
Higher Education: Harvard Medical school opens.
Inventions
James Watt (1736-1819) invents a double-acting rotary steam engine.
Technology
Hot Air Balloons: The Montgolfier brothers, Joseph (1740-1810) and Jacques (1745-1799), build an hot air balloon.
Education
Catholic Education: The first Catholic parochial school is founded by St. Mary’s Catholic Church in Philadelphia.
Arts and Letters
The Royal Irish Academy is founded in Dublin.
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth II (1782-1784), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, is born on May 8.
Jefferson, Martha
Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson (1748-1782), wife of Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), dies on September 6 at Monticello. She is the first First Lady to die before her husband was elected to office.
Economics
The Bank of North America is established in Philadelphia.
Reform
Temperance Movement: A Town Meeting in Worcester, Massachusetts opposes a state liquor tax because it is felt that liquor is necessary for the morale of farm workers.
1783
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
War
Revolutionary War: Great Britain recognizes the independence of the U.S. and the war is officially over with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
War
Revolutionary War: George Washington (1732-1799) resigns as Commander-in-Chief and the Continental Army is disbanded.
Science
Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) suggests that water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen.
Inventions
John Broadwood (1732-1812) patents his piano pedals.
Inventions
D. Domenico Salsano invents the seismograph for measuring the strength of earthquakes.
Education
Higher Education: Enrollment at Yale College is 270.
Education
Education of Women: Choderlos de Laclos (1741-1803) publishes "De l’éducation des femmes" (On the Education of Women).
Education
Noah Webster (1758-1843) publishes "The American Spelling Book," called the “Blue-Backed Speller,” which helps standardize spelling of American English.
Arts and Letters
The first works of Ludwig van Beethoven’s (1770-1827) are published.
Washington, Martha
As the Revolutionary War ends, Martha (1731-1892) and George Washington (1732-1799) return to Mount Vernon.
Madison, Dolley
Dolley Madison’s (1764-1849) father, John Payne, influenced by his Quaker tenets and desiring a better education for his children, frees his slaves, sells his plantation, and moves his family to Philadelphia.
Van Buren, Hannah
Hannah Hoes (1783-1819) is born on March 8th in Kinderhook, New York. She is the first First Lady to be born an American citizen. All First Ladies before her were British subjects.
Economics
Population: Population of the U.S. is estimated at 2.4 million.
Daily Life
Newspapers: At the war's end, there are forty-three newspapers in print. The press plays a vital role in the affairs of the new nation; many more newspapers are started, representing all shades of political opinion.
Daily Life
Society of the Cincinnati, an elite American Revolutionary group, is established.
Daily Life
Newspapers: The first daily newspaper in the U.S., "The Pennsylvania Evening Post," begins publication.
Daily Life
Transportation: It takes Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) five days to travel from Philadelphia to Baltimore, about 90 miles.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: The first recorded manned flight in a hot air balloon takes place in Paris; the Montgolfier brothers pilot their paper and silk balloon for 22 minutes.
Social Issues
Slavery: Virginia emancipates those slaves who served in the colonial forces against Britain, provided that the slave's master gives permission.
Social Issues
Slavery: Affluent free blacks in New Orleans, Louisiana, organize the Perseverance, Benevolence and Mutual Aid Association to support their own interests and assist the poor.
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1784
Law, Politics, Government, and WarScience, Medicine, Inventions, and TechnologyEducation, Arts and Letters, and IdeasLives of the First LadiesEconomics, Discovery, and Daily LifeSports and Popular CultureReligion, Social Issues, and Reform
Government
Slavery: Congress narrowly defeats Thomas Jefferson’s (1743-1826) proposal to ban slavery in new territories after 1800.
Government
Presidents: Zachary Taylor (1784-1950), 12th President of the U.S., is born November 24, near Barboursville, Virginia.
Government
North Carolina cedes its western lands to the U.S. The state of Franklin (present-day east Tennessee) exists until 1888, when settlers accept renewed jurisdiction of North Carolina.
War
Revolutionary War: The U.S. ratifies the treaty with England ending the Revolutionary War.
Medicine
Johann von Goethe (1749-1837) discovers the human intermaxillary bone.
Inventions
Swiss inventor Aimé Argand (1755-1803) designs an oil burner.
Inventions
Joseph Bramah (1748-1814), English engineer, invents a pick-proof lock.
Education
Special Education: The first school for the blind is established in Paris.
Education
Higher Education: King’s College in New York City becomes Columbia University.
Ideas
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) publishes "Notes on Virginia."
Adams, Abigail
Abigail Adams (1744-1818) joins husband, John (1735-1826), in Paris, where he is an ambassador.
Jefferson, Martha
Lucy Elizabeth II (1782-1784), daughter of Thomas and Martha Jefferson, dies October 13 from the "complicated evils of teething, worms and hooping cough."
Economics
The "Empress of China" sails from Salem, Massachusetts to Canton, China, establishing a route for the New England-China trade.
Daily Life
The first political cartoons by Thomas Rowlandson (1756-1827) are published.
Daily Life
Magazines: "Gentlemen and Ladies’ Town and Country Magazine" begins publication as does "The American Mercury."
Sports
Deer hunting at night in the Carolinas is made a misdemeanor because of the accidental slaughter of many cows and horses.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: Vincent Lunardi (1759-1806) first ascends in a hot air balloon in England.
Popular Culture
Hot Air Balloons: Elisabeth Thible becomes the first woman to go aloft as a passenger in a hot air balloon over Lyons, France.
Religion
The first American bishop for the colonies is appointed.
Religion
The Great Awakening: John Wesley (1702-1791) publishes his Deed of Declaration, and Weslayan Methodism is chartered.
Religion
Women''s Firsts: Hannah Adams (1755-1832), the first American woman to support herself as a writer, publishes "An Alphabetical Compendium of the Various Sects."