Le Bulldozer: Charles de Gaulle

Le Bulldozer: Charles de Gaulle
Jackie Kennedy: Law, Politics and Govt

Skill: Middle School
Time Required: 1 Week


Introduction:

On a trip to Paris in 1961, President Kennedy introduced himself as “the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris.”  Caroline Kennedy once wrote of Paris as “the city my mother loved and inspired her throughout her life.”  In Paris, Jacqueline Kennedy charmed a man who could be described as one of the most influential resistance leaders in the twentieth century, Charles de Gaulle.  In this lesson, students will explore the life of Charles de Gaulle and compare his life to the lives of other resistance leaders.  

Objectives:

Two primary objectives exist for this lesson.  The first objective is for students to get a glimpse of history through the lens of resistance fighters.  Some of these resistance fighters are thought of today as heroes; some have much more questionable legacies.  The goal is for students to decide.  The second objective is for students to begin the process of evaluating data during a research project.

Materials Required:

Student access to the Internet and/or access to a library or to the books indicated below.

Procedures:

1. Provide students with the chart of resistance leaders below.

2. Explain the role of resistance leaders throughout history, starting with Paul Revere and ending with Osama bin Laden.  It is important to point out that some of these leaders are viewed as heroes today and some are much more questionable, but to do so with as little editorial as possible.

3. Then the teacher should discuss the following words with the class: courageous, influential, hero, popular, and honorable.  How do these words differ?  What similarities do these words have?  How does one decide if a person is courageous, influential, a hero, popular or honorable? 

4. As a class, make a list of adjectives and/or events that further define each word.   For example, to be courageous one must face danger and risk one’s life; to be courageous one must be fearful (facing danger without fear does not require courage).

5. Divide students into groups of five and charge each group with researching each resistance fighter on the list and then making a top ten list of resistance fighters for each word.  For example, number one on the courageous list would be the resistance fighter who the group deems as most courageous, but this same person may not be number one on the honorable list.

6. When each group is done completing their list, explain to students that the decisions they made when compiling their lists is much like the decisions one must make when writing a research paper.  Then have students hand in their lists.

7. If the lists are very similar, have each group present their list to the class for one of the words.  If the lists differ, have the students debate their lists. (In the resources below is a web page with directions on how to organize a class debate).  


Resistance Leader

   Resistance Movement

   Years of Resistance Movement

Garibaldi Giuseppe

   Risorgimento

1750-1870

Giuseppe Mazzini

   Risorgimento

1750-1870

Samuel Adams

   Sons of Liberty

1765-1783

Paul Revere

   Sons of Liberty

1765-1783

Maximillen Robespierre

   Jacobin Club

1787-1804

Jean Paul Marat

   Wrath of the People

1787-1804

Harriet Tubman

   Underground Railroad

1790-1861

Fredrick Douglas   

   Underground Railroad

1790-1861

Monsiignor Josef Tiso

   Slovak People's Party

1935-1947

Colonel-General Enver Hoxha

   National Liberation Army

1942-1985

Eduard Benes


   Central Committee  


1940-1945

Hans and Sophie Scholl

   White Rose

1942-1943

Charles De Gaulle

   Free French Forces

1940-1945

General Tadeusz Komorowski

   Polish Home Army

1939-1945

Yasser Arafat

   Al-Fatah/ PLO

1958-2004

Aslan Maskhadov

   Chechnya Rebels

1994-2005

Shamil Basayev

   Chechnya Rebels

1994-2005

Osama bin Laden

   Al Qaeda

1979-present

Extending the Lesson:

To extend the lesson have each student chose one resistance leader who best exemplifies all of the words: courageous, influential, a hero, popular or honorable

Then have students write a report on this resistance leader and/or provide a poster presentation about this individual.

Sources & Resources:

Books:  

Garibaldi Giuseppe and Giuseppe Mazzini: Mangione, Jerre. La Storia: Five Centuries of Italian American Experience. New York: HarpersCollins Publishers, 1992.  

Samuel Adams: Fradin, Dennis Brindell. Samuel Adams: The Father of American Independence. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1998.  

Paul Revere: McCarthy, Rose. Paul Revere: Freedom Rider. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2004.  

Harriet Tubman: Blue, Rose J. and Naden, Corinne J.  Harriet Tubman: Riding the Freedom Train. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 2003.  

Frederick Douglas:  Douglas, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas. Barnes and Nobel, Inc. Books, 2002.  

Monsignor Josef Tiso: Weinberg, Gerhard, L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.  

Colonel-General Enver Hoxha: Giaffo, Lou. Albania: Eye of the Balkan. Vortex: Xlibris Corporation, 2000.  

Eduard Benes:  Zeman, Zbynek and Klimek, Antonin. The Life of Edward Benes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.  

Hans and Sophie Scholl: Axelrod,Toby. Hans and Sophie Scholl: German Resisters of the White Rose.  New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2001.  

Charles de Gaulle: Mahoney, Daniel J. De Gaulle: Statesmanship, Grandeur, and Modern Democracy.  New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2000.  

General Tadeusz Komorowski: Piotrowski, Tadeusz.  Poland’s Holocaust. London: Globetrotter Books, 1998.  

Yasser Arafat: Headlam, George. Yasser Arafat. Minneapolis: Learner Publications Company, 2004.  

Aslan Maskhadov:  Politkovskaya, Anna.  A Small Corner of Hell: Dispatches from Chechnya. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2003.  

Shamil Basayev: Griffin, Nicholas.  Caucasus: Mountain Men and Holy Wars.  New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2001.  

Osama bin Laden: Landau, Elaine.  Osama Bin Laden: A War Against the West.  Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, Inc., 2002.

Websites:  

How to do a class debate:

http://www.chass.ncsu.edu/livinginourworld/PDF/Resource%20center%20documents/Guide%20to%20Student%20%20Debates.pdf

Resistance Movements:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resistance_movement#Post-World_War_II

http://italy1.com/history/ 

http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/ 

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/railroad/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slovak_People's_Party

http://www.warsawuprising.com/

http://biega.com/museumAK/hak-e.html   

Garibaldi Giuseppe:

http://www.sc.edu/library/spcoll/hist/garib/garib.html

http://www.cats.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/dh/gari.htm

http://www.italian-american.com/garib-it.htm

Giuseppe Mazzini:

http://www.answers.com/topic/italian-unification

http://www.cats.ohiou.edu/~Chastain/ip/mazzini.htm

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1852mazzini.html

Samuel Adams:

http://www.whitehouse.gov/kids/dreamteam/samueladams.html

http://www.americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/ADAMS2.HTM

http://www.belcherfoundation.org/samuel_adams.htm

Paul Revere:

http://www.paulreverehouse.org/bio/

http://www.cvesd.k12.ca.us/finney/paulvm/_welcomepv.html

http://www.ctssar.org/patriots/paul_revere.htm

Jean Paul Marat:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean-Paul_Marat#Marat_enters_politics

http://seni.club.fr/index.html

http://marxists.anu.edu.au/history/france/revolution/marat/index.htm 

Maximillen Robespierre:

http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/robespierre.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximilien_Robespierre

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/robespierre-terror.html 

Harriet Tubman:

http://www.freedomcenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=home.viewPage&page_id=DFBAC042-97A7-4EE7-AADE41064387B4FE

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p1535.html

http://www.harriettubman.com/

Frederick Douglas:

http://www.history.rochester.edu/class/douglass/home.html

http://www.nps.gov/frdo/fdlife.htm

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/doughtml/doughome.html  

Monsignor Josef Tiso:

http://www.slovakia.org/history-ww2.htm

http://www.ce-review.org/00/11/kopanic11.html

http://www.stevequayle.com/Giants/pics/giant.Nazi.html   

Colonel-General Enver Hoxha:

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/albania_resistance.htm

http://dictatorofthemonth.com/Hoxha/Aug2001HoxhaEN.htm

http://listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind9509d&L=albanian&F=&S=&P=1799

Eduard Benes:

http://www.firstworldwar.com/bio/benes.htm

http://countrystudies.us/czech-republic/27.htm

http://www.radio.cz/en/article/37456

Hans and Sophie Scholl:

http://www.jlrweb.com/whiterose/hans.html

http://www.filmeducation.org/sophiescholl/whiterose/biogs/hans.html

http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/photos/wrose/wrose.htm

http://www.iearn.org/hgp/aeti/aeti-1997/white-rose.html

http://www.dhm.de/lemo/html/biografien/SchollSophie/

Charles de Gaulle:

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/charles_de_gaulle.htm

http://econ161.berkeley.edu/TCEH/charlesdegaulle.html

http://www.euronet.nl/users/wilfried/ww2/degaulle.htm  

General Tadeusz Komorowski:

http://www.polishresistance-ak.org/4%20Article.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Micha%C5%82_Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski

http://www.answers.com/main/ntquery;jsessionid=2oh75jj603e0d?method=4&dsid=2222&dekey=Michal+Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski&gwp=8&curtab=2222_1&sbid=lc02a&linktext=Micha%C5%82%20Karaszewicz-Tokarzewski

Yasser Arafat:

http://nobelprize.org/peace/laureates/1994/arafat-bio.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yasser_Arafat

http://www.mideastweb.org/bio-arafat.htm 

Aslan Maskhadov:

 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/459302.stm

 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aslan_Maskhadov

 http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/09/08/maskhadov.profile/

Shamil Basayev:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shamil_Basayev

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/460594.stm 

http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/europe/09/08/russia.basayev/

Osama bin Laden:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osama_bin_Laden

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/binladen/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/155236.stm

Credits:

This lesson was written by Debra L. Clark, Kent State University.